Combined charging tamping of wells

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: tamping includes upper and lower parts, separated by the buffer gap of polystyrene foam. The lower part is the filling of inert bulk materials over the air gap. At the top of tamping on the buffer gap a cone for example of hardening materials is mounted with its end pointed upwards. Next to the top of the well the charging inert material is placed. Between the cone and the walls of the well the large gravel is placed.

EFFECT: improved reliability, lower costs.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of drilling and blasting operations in strong rocks and can be used in a variety of industries, using blasting in hard rock masses.

It is known that the best crushing of rocks by explosion is provided by the use of shortened tamping and the air space above the charge [1]. The design of the tamping, located near the mouth of the well, over the air gap must provide complete opposition to its emissions by the action of the explosion until the destruction of array [2].

The closest essentially solved problem with a device for locking the products of an explosion into the charging cavity well is stemming combined, including monolithic tube of hardening materials, which is made of upper and lower parts separated by a buffer period of foamed polystyrene 2-3 of the hole diameter, and the upper part is a monolithic tube of hardening materials, and the bottom - filling of inert granular materials over the air gap of foamed polystyrene [3]. This design of the tamping provides a delay of detonation products in the charging cavity prior to the displacement of rocks in the destruction of the array near the mouth of the well.

However, as shown by experimental explosions, due to shrinkage of the be is it hardening in wells with smooth walls grip monolithic part of the tamping does not provide a sufficient length of locking products of the explosion.

The technical task to be solved by the invention, is to increase the efficiency of locking the detonation products in the charging cavity until the destruction of the surrounding rocks combined gear stemming from the air gap and reduce costs on the formation of tamping.

This object is achieved in that in the combined charging the stemming wells, including upper and lower parts separated by a buffer period of expanded polystyrene, and the lower part represents the filling of inert granular materials over the air gap according to the invention the upper part of the tamping made in the form of a solid cone length 2-3 borehole diameter, for example, from hardening materials, installed the sharp end up on the buffer gap between the monolithic cone and the borehole wall posted by coarse gravel and then to the top of the well placed backfill with inert material.

1 schematically depicts a combined sediment stemming wells after installation of the solid cone, figure 2 - after filling with gravel and figure 3 in the working position.

The upper part of the combined charge stemming wells are presented in the form of a cone 1, made for example from hardening cementitious materials for the buffer period 2, co, n is the sample, of expanded polystyrene by means of a cord 3 and the ring 4. Between the cone 1 and the borehole wall 5 posted by crushed stone 6, next to the top hole 5 is filled with inert bed material 7. The lower part of the combined charge stemming wells completed in the form of a charging section 8 filled with an inert material 9, such as sand, drill cuttings, etc. and placed over the air gap 10, made for example of expanded polystyrene.

The combined charging the stemming wells perform as follows. First, over the explosive charge 11 perform an air gap 10, for example, of polystyrene, or other known method. Then form a charging section 8, placement of granular inert material 9 at a predetermined height. After that, form a buffer period of 2 EPS, similar to the air gap 10, and the cord 3 ring 4 lower cone 1, for example concrete, tip up. The space between the borehole wall 5 and the cone 1 for the entire height of fill with crushed stone 6, and then to the mouth of the hole 5 is filled with inert bed material 7, such as drill cuttings. The lengths of the wells involved in the cone 1, the buffer interval 2, gear parts and the air gap 10, pick empirically or by analogy.

After detonation of the explosive charge 9 in the charging cavity dramatically increases the pressure about the aktov detonation to values of a few tens of thousands of atmospheres and shock gases in bulk section tamping, somewhat softened by the presence of the air gap, reducing peak pressure of detonation products. Experimentally established [4]that in charging the stemming of granular materials in the first time after the detonation of the charge saboey material is compacted in the form of a tube and tightly rasklinivanie in the borehole or well. After compaction, regardless of material stemming emitted with increasing speed, the charging cavity rethermalized, and part of the detonation products is thrown out, not doing useful work. To eliminate this phenomenon in combination stemming provided by the presence of a buffer of between 2 and cones 1.

Initiating movement of the lower chute portion of the tamping 6 compresses the buffer period 2, losing some of the energy of motion and softening the blow to the cone 1. Cone 1, shift, rasklinivanie coarse gravel 4 in the borehole wall 3, when this begins to form a second tube seal granular material the bottom of the tamping 6, increasing its holding capacity. And the cone 1 together with a covering material 5 creates another holding a stopper in the stemming to prevent the emission of combined backfill tamping until the complete destruction of the rock mass in the area of the wellhead and breakthrough products of detonation of the charge cavity to the atmosphere through tresi the s destroyed in the array. Replacement concrete tube on a combination of a cone with a gravel and backfill material allows you not only to reduce costs, excluding the concrete, but also to increase the reliability of tamping, regardless of the state of the walls of the wells.

Providing long-term isolation of the charging cavity, such stemming contributes to a more complete course of secondary reactions in the detonation products and accordingly raises the energy of the explosion; this is especially important for modern coarse CENTURIES types of granulite and ramonito that have a significant share of the energy released in the process of secondary reactions.

Thus, the claimed combined sediment stemming wells allows you to lock the products of an explosion into the charging cavity to the destruction of the array, the energy efficiency of the explosion on rock fragmentation is significantly increased, which allows to solve the technical problem.

Sources of information

1. The effect of stemming on the degree of fragmentation of rocks by explosion / Gperiodic, Budassi, Nefarians, Wauseon // Sat. Explosive case No. 53/10. M.: Nedra, 1963. - Pp.96-105.

2. Yakovenko A.I. Calculation of borehole charges in quarries // Sat. Explosive case No. 51/8. M.: Nedra, 1963. - S-120.

3. The patent of Russian Federation №2308674, IPC F42D 1/08, 2007 (prototype).

4. Mindeli AO, Demchuk P.A., Alexandrov VE the Stemming of blast holes. - M.: Nedra, 1967, - 152 C.

Combined is consistent sediment stemming wells, including upper and lower parts separated by a buffer period of expanded polystyrene, and the lower part represents the filling of inert granular materials over the air gap at the top of the tamping on the buffer period is set cone, for example, from hardening materials the sharp end of the top and next to top of well placed charging inert material, characterized in that between the cone and the borehole wall, placed a large gravel.



 

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