Filling mixture compound

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: water 28.57-44.44 and ashes TPP 4.32-14.32, slag TPP 22.55-42.58, quick high-calcium lime of the first grade 18.92-29.29 or water 28.57-44.44 ground together to maximum grain size 0.16 mm and ashes TPP 5.99-16.13, slag TPP 28.30-47.04, quick high-calcium lime of the first grade 12.99-23.67 ground together to maximum grain size 0.08 mm.

EFFECT: reducing labour and material expenses, improving ecological situation in the area of abandon mine by means of creation of water-proof and shrink-proof massif.

1 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used to eliminate the vertical opening of mines in existing and liquidated mining enterprises.

At mine closure, there are several hydrogeological and environmental problems: the earth surface subsidence, flooding areas, the possibility of breakthrough of mine waters in the adjacent operating mines, the extraction of harmful gases and release them on the surface and others.

In accordance with the requirements of normative documents of the vertical overburden mine workings (shafts and pits) with poor support should be completely filled with non-shrink waterproof material to ground level to prevent hydraulic connection between aquifers, the output of the mine gases on the earth's surface and the formation of gaps adjacent to the vertical opening mines territories [the instruction on the procedure of conducting of works on liquidation and conservation of dangerous industrial objects associated with subsoil use. - M.: Gosgortechnadzor of the Russian Federation, 1999. - 25 S.].

Used currently as the main way to overcome the vertical opening of the mine workings by filling blown breed, as practical experience shows, does not allow the establishment is W ith a vertical opening mines dimensionally stable and impermeable backfill array and, as a consequence, leads to hydrogeological and environmental problems [Luzes B.C. Hydrogeological problems of liquidation of mines of Kuzbass and their solutions / ECO-Bulletin INEC No. 6 (137), November 2009/January 2010 - Novokuznetsk: LLC "INEC-consulting". - P.44-47].

The most effective way of eliminating the vertical opening of excavation is its tab dimensionally stable and water-curing of the concrete mixture.

The main requirements of such concrete mixtures: the permeability of less than 0.001 m/day and the compression ratio of filling the array in the most loaded the bottom of the barrel 0,00% [Backfilling in mines /Dambrosio and others, Ed. by Dambrosia, Menzyanova. - M.: Nedra, 1989. - 400 C.]. Such requirements for compression and filtration properties correspond vintage concrete based on cement, sand and gravel. However, they are expensive and therefore bookmarks to apply them economically impractical.

In practice for laying the vertical opening of mines used a much cheaper concrete mixture on the basis of waste fuel and energy industry and alternative, for example, lime binder. However, the known compositions such backfill mixes not allow you to create a waterproof and non-shrink backfill mass is you in a vertical opening mines, because they were designed to lay horizontal and inclined mine workings, as well as goaf during the mining of coal seams [Backfilling in mines / Dambrosio and others, Ed. by Dambrosia, Menzyanova. - M.: Nedra, 1989, - 400 C.].

Known stowing mixture (patent RF № 22755051, IPC 21F 15/00, publ. 24.04.2006), including crushed lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material and calcined carbonate rocks, mixing water, phlegmatizer and filler, while it contains annealed at 900-1200°C carbonate rocks with the content of the active oxides of calcium and magnesium CaO+MgO in them not less than 40% and not more than 9.1 percent by weight of the specified backfill mix, crushed to the fineness of grind, characterized by the residue on the sieve No. 008 no more than 15%, as the active aluminosilicate material burnt marl or calcined clay or calcined tailings kimberlite ores or granulated blast furnace slag, the ratio of the components of the filling mixture in the following, wt%:

active aluminosilicate material5,6-33,2
annealed at a temperature of 900-1200°C
carbonate rocks with what uranium active CaO+MgO
at least 40%1,0-16,7
water mixing with phlegmatizer10,6-275
the placeholderrest

The disadvantages of the known mixtures are the complexity and the presence of costly aluminosilicate material, and the use of calcined carbonate rocks with low content of oxides of calcium and magnesium, which leads to a significant reduction of physical and mechanical properties of the backfill material and the change of these properties in a wide range of mixtures with the same bulk composition. This blend was developed for the tab horizontal and inclined mine workings and does not allow you to create a waterproof and non-shrink backfill array in the vertical opening mine workings.

Closest to the claimed invention is a composition of the filling mixture (patent RF №2302531, IPC 21F 15/00, publ. 10.07.2007), including cement, ground granulated slag, technical sulfur, a modified iodine, and ash CHP (combined heat and power), pre-fused with each other and milled in a ball mill in the following ratio, wt.%:

cement4,2-7,0
sulfur19,4-29,26
ash CHPthe 10.1-15,24
ground granulated blast furnace slag26,7-39,6
iodine0,0038-0,0058
waterrest

The disadvantages of this mixture are: its complexity, the use of expensive and scarce cement, the use of iodine; used as a main component of the mixture is an expensive commercial product is sulfur; the presence of an additional process step for fusing the ash CHP with grey. When you use iodine because of the phenomenon of sublimation is its release into the atmosphere and air pollution.

In addition, in the formulation of the mixture is not taken into account the chemical composition of the ash CHP and ground granulated blast furnace slag, which leads to a change in a wide range of physico-mechanical properties of backfill material for mixtures with the same bulk composition. While the strength of the resulting filling of the array is very small and can only be achieved after 180 days. This mixture also developed for the Horiz tab is Talnah and inclined mine workings and does not allow you to create a waterproof and non-shrink backfill array in the vertical opening mines.

So for bookmarks vertical revealing the workings urgent is to develop a cheap filling waterproof and dimensionally stable material based on waste fuel and energy industry and nizmennogo binder.

Ash mixture CHP are difficult recyclable waste. Gidrootvaly ash mixtures CHP occupy very large areas throughout the Russian Federation, on the territory of Kemerovo region they are more than 1200 hectares, and the filled volume exceeds 100 million m3. As ash and slag mixture CHP practically not utilized all these gidrootvalov need to be rehabilitated. Reclamation of large areas requires higher labor and material costs, so it is advisable to use ash mixtures CHP in all industries, including bookmarks vertical opening of the mine workings. Disposal of ash and slag mixtures CHP will positively affect the ecology of many areas.

It is known that in autoclave processing of concrete saleslogistix mixtures significantly improved physico-mechanical properties of concrete. While the cost of autoclaved materials is 15-35 % lower cement concrete usual method of hardening with similar physico-mechanical properties [Bozhenov PI. Technology autoclaved materials. - L.: Stroiizdat, Leningrad. div., 1978. - 368 S.].

Made in SE STU laboratory experimental studies have shown that for bookmarks vertical revealing the workings of concrete based on fly ash mixtures CHP must use ground zoloshlakoudalenie mixture autoclave type hardening, thus obtaining water-resistant and dimensionally stable array is only possible in certain weight proportions of the mixture components and their chemical composition [Isayenko A.V. study of the dependence of compressive properties of autoclaved backfill materials based on fuel and toxins from the parameters of the backfill mix /Avisena, Aveuglante // Vestnik St.Petersburg University. STU. - Kemerovo, Kuzbass state technical University, 2011. No. 1. Pp.37-43].

Technical result achieved the claimed technical solution is to reduce labor and material costs, improvement of the ecological situation in the area of the liquidated mines by forming in liquidated vertical opening mines waterproof and non-shrink backfill array.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the composition of the filling mixture containing ash from thermal power plants, slag and water, according to the invention contains as slag slag CHP and additionally calcium calcium lime first grade, p is ICEM these ashes, slag and lime together ground to a maximum particle sizes of 0.16 mm in the following ratio, wt.%:

ash CHP4,32-14,32
slag CHP22,55-42,58
calcium calcium lime first grade18,92-29,29
waterto 28.57-44,44

Or until the maximum particle size of 0.08 mm in the following ratio, wt.%:

ash CHP5,99-16,13
slag CHP28,30-47,04
calcium calcium lime first grade12,99-23,67
waterto 28.57-44,44

The chemical composition of the ash and slag mixtures TPP some of Kuzbass power plants are presented in table 1.

Table 1
The chemical composition of the ash and slag mixtures CHP Kuzbass
Name is of The chemical composition of the ash and slag mixtures of TPP, %
Tomusinskaja GRESBelovskaya GRESSouth Kuzbass GRESWest Siberian CHPKuznetsk TPPKemerovo)Novokemerovskaya CHPKemerovo CHP
SiO257,4055,9059,3059,9054,5049,1058,4055,80
Al2O322,1020,0022,1023,0024,6018,6020,9018,10
Fe2O3of 5.40the ceiling of 5.607,804,904,6012,808,0015,00
CaO4,304,502,704,404,005,703,303,00
FeO3,403,101,700,700,201,500,891,40
MgO2,602,902,001,902,902,800,401,30
To2About2,602,800,302,300,000,200,000,00
SO31,030,890,440,62to 2.061,05 1,561,05
Amount98,8395,6996,3497,7292,8691,7593,4595,65

From table 1 it follows that the chemical composition of the ash and slag mixtures CHP can vary significantly depending on the location of their receipt. Accordingly, when the formulation of filling mixture cannot be operated absolute weight or volumetric components of the filling mixture, and it is necessary to take into account their chemical composition.

To account for the chemical composition of the filling mixture, you must use the coefficient of basicity Tocorethat characterizes the ability of the filling mixture to contact monosilicate calcium and is calculated by the formula [Bozhenov P.I. Technology autoclaved materials. - L.: Stroiizdat, Leningrad. div., 1978. - 368 S.]

where Kcore- coefficient of basicity of filling mixtures;

(CaO+0,93MgO+0,6R2O) - total (gross) the content of the "conditional" Cao, %;

(0,55l2O3+0,35F2O3+0,7SO3- number of Cao, associate the corresponding oxides and not participating in education Seeley is the ATA, %;

0,93SiO2the amount of Cao to link SiO2in monosilicate calcium, %.

Granulometric composition angry CHP varies widely: the grain size of 1-200 microns. In ashes TPP content fraction more than 85 μm, typically less than 20%. About 50% of the ash particles CHP are usually the size of 30-40 microns. Larger ash TEP are formed with increased content in the mineral oxide fuel-flowing Cao and Fe2O3.

To obtain the filling mixture must be used quicklime first grade with total conditional content of CaO+MgO is not less than 90%. Quicklime is more active compared to hydrated, besides curing reaction occurs damping with evolution of heat, which reduces the cost of heating zoloshlakootval autoclaved material. You know, the more free lime Cao, the more energetic there is a process of synthesis of tumors [Bozhenov P.I. Technology autoclaved materials. - L.: Stroiizdat, Leningrad. separa-tion, 1978. - 368 S.].

Laboratory studies performed in SE STU showed that the use of anhydrous calcium lime second and third grades does not provide the necessary compression and filtration properties zoloshlakootval autoclaved material compression and filtration properties of zoloshlakootval Travego autoclaved material with the same parameters varied within considerable limits, and also that the use of slaked lime and ground slag CHP impossible to get a waterproof material, so as slaked lime has a lower activity, as chemically bound water significantly reduces the physico-mechanical properties of the material [Isayenko A.V. study of the dependence of compressive properties of autoclaved backfill materials based on fuel and toxins from the parameters of the backfill mix /Avisena, Aveuglante // Vestnik St.Petersburg University. STU. - Kemerovo, Kuzbass state technical University, 2011. No. 1. Pp.37-43].

The maximum water vapor pressure in autoclave processing taken equal to 0.9 MPa, since it is known that at lower pressure autoclave synthesis of practically does not occur [Bozhenov P.I. Technology autoclaved materials. - L.: Stroiizdat, Leningrad. separa-tion, 1978. - 368 C.], and the creation of a higher pressure in the vertical opening mines difficult.

Modes of autoclave processing is determined on the basis of the test of physical mechanical properties of the specified backfill mixture after it is processed in a laboratory autoclave chamber under the following settings: shutter speed filling mixture before autoclave processing - 2-10 hours; temperature rise to +176°C - 0.75 to 4.5 hours; holding at the maximum temperature and pressure - 6-8 hours; decreasing the temperature and pressure of 4-5 hours [Isayenko A.V. study of the head of the dependence of compressive properties of autoclaved backfill materials based on fuel and toxins from the parameters of the backfill mix /Avisena, Aveuglante // Vestnik St.Petersburg University. STU. - Kemerovo, Kuzbass state technical University, 2011. No. 1. - P.37-43].

Example. Ash mixture CHP from hydraulic mine dump Kemerovo CHP and anhydrous calcium lime first grade milled in a ball mill to a particle size of not exceeding 0,16 or 0.08 mm Chemical composition of ash and slag mixture CHP taken according to table 1. The chemical composition of the used lime: Cao - 94,00%, MgO Of 1.99%, SiO2of 1.00%, Al2O3- 1,05%, Fe2O3- 1,07%, SO3to 0.5%. The maximum particle size of ash CHP is assumed to be the maximum size of the particles of ground slag CHP.

When laboratory testing samples are made in a laboratory autoclave (AL), designed for carrying out physico-chemical treatments of various substances and materials neutral, acidic and alkaline solutions at elevated temperatures and under pressure.

The treatment is carried out at a specified temperature schedule. The ascent and descent temperature regulate by means of the rheostat. Pressure control with pressure gauge installed on the autoclave.

Mode autoclave processing accept the following: extract filling mixture before autoclave processing - 2 hours; getting up to temperature +176°C - 0.75 hour, holding at the maximum temperature and pressure - 6 hours; reducing the temperature and pressure for 5 hours.

In table 2, the PR is maintained original compositions backfill mixes (ground slag CHP is listed as slag, ground calcium calcium lime first grade as lime, ash CHP - as ash). Make the filling mixture composition, relevant experience No. 1 of table 2, the molded specimens are cylinders with a diameter of 71 mm and height 20 mm; specimens are cylinders with a diameter and a height of 150 mm Put them in the autoclave, produce autoclaving and cooled to room temperature. Similarly produces different structures backfill mixtures listed in table 2.

Experience sample-cylinders with a diameter of 71 mm and a height of 20 mm and determine the relative deformation zoloshlakootval autoclaved material by the method of compression compression in accordance with GOST 12248-96 [GOST 12248-96. The soils. Methods for laboratory determination of strength and deformability. - Instead of GOST 12248-78, GOST 17245-79, GOST 23908-79, GOST 24586-90, GOST 25585-83, GOST 26518-85; with an introd. 1991-01-01. - M.: stroiizdat, 1996. - 64 S.]. This characteristic was determined by the results of tests of specimens in compression instrument (odometer), excluding the possibility of lateral expansion of the sample at its loading vertical loading.

Preliminary tests showed that the average density saleslogistix autoclaved materials does not exceed 1250 kg/m3. When the depth of the shafts up to 1000 m maximum pressure for determining the compressive properties zoloshlakootval the new autoclave materials 12,5 MPa, such a negative option possible in the absence of coupling of filling the array with the lining of the trunk. The compression ratio of all samples are shown in table 2, at a pressure of 12.5 MPa is 0.00%.

Specimens are cylinders with a diameter and a height of 150 mm test in accordance with GOST 12730.5-84 [GOST 12730.5-84. Concretes. Methods for the determination of water resistance. - Instead of GOST 12730.5-78, GOST 19426-74; with an introd. 1985-01-07. - M.: STANDARTINFORM, 2007. - 12 S.] and determine the filtration coefficient. The test results of the samples are presented in table 2.

From table 2 it follows that the claimed technical effect, i.e. a reduction in labor and material costs, improvement of ecological situation in the area of the liquidated mines achieved by the use of filling mixture, without using expensive vintage concrete based on cement, gravel and sand.

The filling mixture composition containing fly ash of thermal power plants, slag and water, characterized in that it contains as slag slag CHP and additionally calcium calcium lime first grade, and these ash, slag and lime, together ground to a maximum particle sizes of 0.16 mm in the following ratio, wt.%:

ash CHP4,32-14,32
slag CHP 22,55-42,58
calcium calcium lime first grade18,92-29,29
waterto 28.57-44,44

or until the maximum particle size of 0.08 mm in the following ratio, wt.%:
ash CHP5,99-16,13
slag CHP28,30-47,04
calcium calcium lime first grade12,99-23,67
waterto 28.57-44,44



 

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5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.

EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.

6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg

Fill mix // 2282724

FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.

SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.

2 tbl

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