Method of underground ventilation

FIELD: ventilation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding the outside air, the organisation of directional movement of air through the tunnels, and removal of exhaust air. At that, the outside air is supplied to an amount equal to 20-30% of the estimated amount of air on excessive heat for ventilation sufficient to maintain the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air medium of underground. The forced recycling is carried out between the stations of a mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, in that process the mixture is subjected to a thermodynamic processing to achieve the required for the underground temperature-humidity air conditions.

EFFECT: possibility of year-round, regardless of weather conditions on the surface, maintaining of the regulatory temperature-humidity parameters and, oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the air medium of underground, reduction of intensity of blast flows, reduction of costs and timing of construction of underground lines.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to ventilation and can be used for your main systems (tunnel) ventilation subway(s). Ventilation provide normative values of temperature and humidity conditions (TBP) and support the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground.

There is a method of ventilation of the underground, including directional movement through the tunnels of the air flow generated due to the piston effect of the movement of the train in the tunnel, while outside air is drawn in through the ventilation shaft, and the exhaust air is removed from the tunnel when the train's departure from the station. When this prerequisite is the overlapping section of the tunnel with a special device in the form of a bolt (SU # 1588874 A1, CL 21F 1/00, 30.08.1990 year).

The disadvantage of this technical solution is that to implement this method of ventilation requires special expensive shutter, which should not impede the movement of trains and smoothly, in automatic mode, to provide the opening and closing sections of the tunnel.

Known schematic flow (supply and exhaust) ventilation of the underground with thermodynamic treatment of the supply air (Tsodikov VA "Ventilation and heating subways", Moscow, ed. "Nedra", 1975, str).

Yes the basic scheme as technically and economically feasible due to the extremely large amounts of fresh air.

Also known practical measures aimed at equipping the subway cars Autonomous air-conditioned. However, the condensing units are removed in the tunnels and stations of the amount of heat equal to the amount of refrigeration supplied evaporative devices in cars. When the number of such cars is negligible, the heat does not significantly affect the temperature of the tunnel atmosphere. But if all the cars on the line (or the vast number) will be equipped with air-conditioning, and they will work regularly, savahanna space will do the same amount of heat, which will create overheating of the tunnel atmosphere and the surrounding soil. This will lead to abnormal operation (until failure) of many engineering devices in tunnels and nearby buildings. In terms of the hot tunnel atmosphere and yourself car air conditioners can lose performance, because the capacitors will not be properly cooled.

The closest technical solution of the invention is a method of ventilation of the underground, including the supply of outdoor air, organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels and the removal of exhaust air (Poles AH "Design of ventilation t is ndelay", Moscow, "Ed. literature on construction", 1971, p.25).

The disadvantage of this method is the following.

In the warm period, the supply air temperature often exceeds the calculated value (instead of cooling in underground structures supplied with additional air heat, amplifying thermal load on the ground), which does not allow straight-through ventilation systems to carry out the assimilation of heat in the required quantity and to ensure regulatory TVR (temperature 18 to 28C according to SNiP 32-02-2003 "the Subways", relative humidity 15-75% according to the same SNP and SP 2.5.1337-03 "Sanitary rules of operation metro").

The present invention is year-round, regardless of weather conditions on the surface, maintaining the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide and required temperature and humidity parameters of the air underground, reducing costs and timing of construction of the subway.

This task is solved in that in the method of ventilation of the underground, including the supply of outdoor air, organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels and the removal of exhaust air, external air supplied in an amount equal to 20-30% of the settlement by the excess heat of the volume of air for ventilation sufficient to maintain but the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air, underground, and produce a forced recirculation between stations mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, during which the mixture is subjected to thermodynamic treatment to achieve the required for underground temperature and humidity of the air parameters.

The proposed method of ventilation of underground illustrated by the diagram on the example of the ventilation of his plot.

Figure 1 - scheme of ventilation according to which produce a forced recirculation with the placement of cameras for a thermodynamic treatment of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air mertondale the linkage;

figure 2 - scheme of ventilation according to which produce a forced recirculation with the placement of cameras for a thermodynamic treatment of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air nearby (natonalism) construction;

figure 3 - ventilation, whereby to produce a forced recirculation with the placement of cameras for a thermodynamic treatment of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air station ventilation chambers.

In the above schemes indicated positions:

1 - the subway tunnels;

2 - metro station

3 - fan units;

4 - ventilation trunks (channels) to supply or remove air from the surface;

5 - camera thermodynamic air handling

6 - vent the system for forced air circulation;

7 - mattonella linkage (figure 1);

8 is nearby (netonline) structure (figure 2);

9 - station Plenum;

10 - air flow (arrows indicate direction of air flow).

The method of ventilation of underground includes the supply of outdoor air fan units 3 through the ventilation trunks (channels) 4 in the amount equal to 20-30% of the design on the heat surplus volume of air for ventilation, the organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels 1 and the removal of exhaust air through the ventilation trunks (channels) 4.

Between stations 2 subway produce a forced recirculation of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, during which the mixture is subjected to thermodynamic treatment chambers 5 to achieve the required for underground temperature and humidity of the air parameters.

Forced recirculation air supply fan 6 fan or units 3 depending on the selected scheme of ventilation.

Forced recirculation enhances the piston effect created when the movement of trains through the tunnels 1.

As can be seen from the diagrams, the recirculation air flow passes through the tunnel 1 with overflow from one tunnel to another (parallel) tunnel through space stations 2 and through mertondale what's breakthrough 7 or nearby (Madonnelle) facilities 8.

While moving streams of air are mixed and heated as the assimilation of excess heat. Next, the mixture of outside and tunnel air is subjected to thermodynamic treatment chambers 5 and during recirculation air flows 10 again and again assimilate excess heat.

In all three of the above schemes supply and removal of air, in almost equal amounts, provide station ventilation chambers 9, channels and units which can be used (for example, in case of fire) for the purposes of the smoke.

For thermodynamic air handling using one of the following types (processes):

adiabatic cooling of the air with his hydration;

the cooling air with its drying in direct contact with water (polytropic process);

cooling with air dehumidification in the application of surface coolers.

The selection process is carried out in each case in the design of the metro line on the basis of the calculations to ensure regulatory TVR, but any of the selected thermodynamic processes is feasible due to the significant reduction in the number of processed recirculation air compared to once-through cycle.

Structurally camera thermodynamic treatment of recirculated air can is placed in Martinelli zboyco, nearby (nadtonalnyh) structures in the station cameras ventilation reduced productivity (defined based maintenance of the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground).

There are several methods of calculation of the required volume (quantity) supply of outdoor air for ventilation of underground determining the performance of the ventilation flow systems, such as the calculation of the excess heat, the maximum allowable chemical composition of air underground and other

To date, the performance of ventilation systems underground are made on the basis of calculations for excess heat. Calculations show that the largest main ventilation tunnel ventilation is required for the assimilation of the heat released in the amount of 800 thousand - 1 million kcal/hour per 1 km of the route), so the performance of currently used ventilation systems in 4-5 times greater than that required to maintain the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground.

When determining the performance of ventilation systems are also taken into account thermal storage properties of the surrounding soil, absorbing (warm season) the portion of the excess heat (50-300 thousand kcal/h). In the cold period of the year, the soil must be cooled to the initial values. However, in practice this is not always achieved, which reduces heat-retaining properties of the soil.

In the proposed method of ventilation is maintained supply and exhaust air exchange with the atmosphere, but in a much reduced volume (number), because now this amount is determined based on the task of ensuring the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground, but not TBP: 150-200 thousand m3per hour instead of 600-800 thousand m3/hour. This reduces the intensity of the blast streams, because now moving through the tunnels, the air is summed with a significantly smaller number of supply/exhaust air than when straight the way of ventilation.

Due to their small share of the supply and exhaust component ventilation metro may not have a significant impact on the temperature and humidity parameters of air circulating through the tunnels. This allows you to set the mode thermodynamic air handling, providing optimal parameters TVR regardless of weather conditions on the surface.

The construction of the ventilation chambers ventilation is very time-consuming activity, requiring excavation of the nearby mines (usually manually) and ventilation shafts, with the creation of on the surface required building sites with mountain complexes, with the corresponding overlapping traffic, relocation of city utilities, etc. that is associated with high financial costs and longer construction.

Therefore, it is advantageous to abandon the construction of a distillation vent chambers, and save only the station, arranging the recirculation air flow (recirculation loop) between stations, according to the proposed invention.

If the spans are technological breakthrough, they should be overlapped with easy opening butterfly valves to ensure that they are not closed recirculation loop, and reached stations.

Thus, the proposed method of ventilation of the underground allows year-round, regardless of weather conditions on the surface, to support regulatory options TBP and the content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground, to reduce in 3-4 times the intensity of the blast streams by reducing the number of supply and exhaust air and to eliminate the associated negative maximize doors at entrances, rolling banners, colds and other), to achieve significant cost savings and reduced time of construction of subway lines.

Way to vent the population of Metropolitan including the supply of outdoor air, organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels and the removal of exhaust air and outside air are served in the volume equal to 20-30% of the design on the heat surplus volume of air for ventilation sufficient to maintain the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of underground and produce a forced recirculation between stations mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, during which the mixture is subjected to thermodynamic treatment to achieve the required for underground temperature and humidity of the air parameters.



 

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