Method of underground ventilation
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding the outside air, the organisation of directional movement of air through the tunnels, and removal of exhaust air. At that, the outside air is supplied to an amount equal to 20-30% of the estimated amount of air on excessive heat for ventilation sufficient to maintain the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air medium of underground. The forced recycling is carried out between the stations of a mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, in that process the mixture is subjected to a thermodynamic processing to achieve the required for the underground temperature-humidity air conditions.
EFFECT: possibility of year-round, regardless of weather conditions on the surface, maintaining of the regulatory temperature-humidity parameters and, oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the air medium of underground, reduction of intensity of blast flows, reduction of costs and timing of construction of underground lines.
The invention relates to ventilation and can be used for your main systems (tunnel) ventilation subway(s). Ventilation provide normative values of temperature and humidity conditions (TBP) and support the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground.
There is a method of ventilation of the underground, including directional movement through the tunnels of the air flow generated due to the piston effect of the movement of the train in the tunnel, while outside air is drawn in through the ventilation shaft, and the exhaust air is removed from the tunnel when the train's departure from the station. When this prerequisite is the overlapping section of the tunnel with a special device in the form of a bolt (SU # 1588874 A1, CL 21F 1/00, 30.08.1990 year).
The disadvantage of this technical solution is that to implement this method of ventilation requires special expensive shutter, which should not impede the movement of trains and smoothly, in automatic mode, to provide the opening and closing sections of the tunnel.
Known schematic flow (supply and exhaust) ventilation of the underground with thermodynamic treatment of the supply air (Tsodikov VA "Ventilation and heating subways", Moscow, ed. "Nedra", 1975, str).
Yes the basic scheme as technically and economically feasible due to the extremely large amounts of fresh air.
Also known practical measures aimed at equipping the subway cars Autonomous air-conditioned. However, the condensing units are removed in the tunnels and stations of the amount of heat equal to the amount of refrigeration supplied evaporative devices in cars. When the number of such cars is negligible, the heat does not significantly affect the temperature of the tunnel atmosphere. But if all the cars on the line (or the vast number) will be equipped with air-conditioning, and they will work regularly, savahanna space will do the same amount of heat, which will create overheating of the tunnel atmosphere and the surrounding soil. This will lead to abnormal operation (until failure) of many engineering devices in tunnels and nearby buildings. In terms of the hot tunnel atmosphere and yourself car air conditioners can lose performance, because the capacitors will not be properly cooled.
The closest technical solution of the invention is a method of ventilation of the underground, including the supply of outdoor air, organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels and the removal of exhaust air (Poles AH "Design of ventilation t is ndelay", Moscow, "Ed. literature on construction", 1971, p.25).
The disadvantage of this method is the following.
In the warm period, the supply air temperature often exceeds the calculated value (instead of cooling in underground structures supplied with additional air heat, amplifying thermal load on the ground), which does not allow straight-through ventilation systems to carry out the assimilation of heat in the required quantity and to ensure regulatory TVR (temperature 18 to 28°C according to SNiP 32-02-2003 "the Subways", relative humidity 15-75% according to the same SNP and SP 2.5.1337-03 "Sanitary rules of operation metro").
The present invention is year-round, regardless of weather conditions on the surface, maintaining the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide and required temperature and humidity parameters of the air underground, reducing costs and timing of construction of the subway.
This task is solved in that in the method of ventilation of the underground, including the supply of outdoor air, organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels and the removal of exhaust air, external air supplied in an amount equal to 20-30% of the settlement by the excess heat of the volume of air for ventilation sufficient to maintain but the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air, underground, and produce a forced recirculation between stations mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, during which the mixture is subjected to thermodynamic treatment to achieve the required for underground temperature and humidity of the air parameters.
The proposed method of ventilation of underground illustrated by the diagram on the example of the ventilation of his plot.
Figure 1 - scheme of ventilation according to which produce a forced recirculation with the placement of cameras for a thermodynamic treatment of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air mertondale the linkage;
figure 2 - scheme of ventilation according to which produce a forced recirculation with the placement of cameras for a thermodynamic treatment of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air nearby (natonalism) construction;
figure 3 - ventilation, whereby to produce a forced recirculation with the placement of cameras for a thermodynamic treatment of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air station ventilation chambers.
In the above schemes indicated positions:
1 - the subway tunnels;
2 - metro station
3 - fan units;
4 - ventilation trunks (channels) to supply or remove air from the surface;
5 - camera thermodynamic air handling
6 - vent the system for forced air circulation;
7 - mattonella linkage (figure 1);
8 is nearby (netonline) structure (figure 2);
9 - station Plenum;
10 - air flow (arrows indicate direction of air flow).
The method of ventilation of underground includes the supply of outdoor air fan units 3 through the ventilation trunks (channels) 4 in the amount equal to 20-30% of the design on the heat surplus volume of air for ventilation, the organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels 1 and the removal of exhaust air through the ventilation trunks (channels) 4.
Between stations 2 subway produce a forced recirculation of the mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, during which the mixture is subjected to thermodynamic treatment chambers 5 to achieve the required for underground temperature and humidity of the air parameters.
Forced recirculation air supply fan 6 fan or units 3 depending on the selected scheme of ventilation.
Forced recirculation enhances the piston effect created when the movement of trains through the tunnels 1.
As can be seen from the diagrams, the recirculation air flow passes through the tunnel 1 with overflow from one tunnel to another (parallel) tunnel through space stations 2 and through mertondale what's breakthrough 7 or nearby (Madonnelle) facilities 8.
While moving streams of air are mixed and heated as the assimilation of excess heat. Next, the mixture of outside and tunnel air is subjected to thermodynamic treatment chambers 5 and during recirculation air flows 10 again and again assimilate excess heat.
In all three of the above schemes supply and removal of air, in almost equal amounts, provide station ventilation chambers 9, channels and units which can be used (for example, in case of fire) for the purposes of the smoke.
For thermodynamic air handling using one of the following types (processes):
adiabatic cooling of the air with his hydration;
the cooling air with its drying in direct contact with water (polytropic process);
cooling with air dehumidification in the application of surface coolers.
The selection process is carried out in each case in the design of the metro line on the basis of the calculations to ensure regulatory TVR, but any of the selected thermodynamic processes is feasible due to the significant reduction in the number of processed recirculation air compared to once-through cycle.
Structurally camera thermodynamic treatment of recirculated air can is placed in Martinelli zboyco, nearby (nadtonalnyh) structures in the station cameras ventilation reduced productivity (defined based maintenance of the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground).
There are several methods of calculation of the required volume (quantity) supply of outdoor air for ventilation of underground determining the performance of the ventilation flow systems, such as the calculation of the excess heat, the maximum allowable chemical composition of air underground and other
To date, the performance of ventilation systems underground are made on the basis of calculations for excess heat. Calculations show that the largest main ventilation tunnel ventilation is required for the assimilation of the heat released in the amount of 800 thousand - 1 million kcal/hour per 1 km of the route), so the performance of currently used ventilation systems in 4-5 times greater than that required to maintain the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground.
When determining the performance of ventilation systems are also taken into account thermal storage properties of the surrounding soil, absorbing (warm season) the portion of the excess heat (50-300 thousand kcal/h). In the cold period of the year, the soil must be cooled to the initial values. However, in practice this is not always achieved, which reduces heat-retaining properties of the soil.
In the proposed method of ventilation is maintained supply and exhaust air exchange with the atmosphere, but in a much reduced volume (number), because now this amount is determined based on the task of ensuring the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground, but not TBP: 150-200 thousand m3per hour instead of 600-800 thousand m3/hour. This reduces the intensity of the blast streams, because now moving through the tunnels, the air is summed with a significantly smaller number of supply/exhaust air than when straight the way of ventilation.
Due to their small share of the supply and exhaust component ventilation metro may not have a significant impact on the temperature and humidity parameters of air circulating through the tunnels. This allows you to set the mode thermodynamic air handling, providing optimal parameters TVR regardless of weather conditions on the surface.
The construction of the ventilation chambers ventilation is very time-consuming activity, requiring excavation of the nearby mines (usually manually) and ventilation shafts, with the creation of on the surface required building sites with mountain complexes, with the corresponding overlapping traffic, relocation of city utilities, etc. that is associated with high financial costs and longer construction.
Therefore, it is advantageous to abandon the construction of a distillation vent chambers, and save only the station, arranging the recirculation air flow (recirculation loop) between stations, according to the proposed invention.
If the spans are technological breakthrough, they should be overlapped with easy opening butterfly valves to ensure that they are not closed recirculation loop, and reached stations.
Thus, the proposed method of ventilation of the underground allows year-round, regardless of weather conditions on the surface, to support regulatory options TBP and the content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of the underground, to reduce in 3-4 times the intensity of the blast streams by reducing the number of supply and exhaust air and to eliminate the associated negative maximize doors at entrances, rolling banners, colds and other), to achieve significant cost savings and reduced time of construction of subway lines.
Way to vent the population of Metropolitan including the supply of outdoor air, organization of directional movement of air through the tunnels and the removal of exhaust air and outside air are served in the volume equal to 20-30% of the design on the heat surplus volume of air for ventilation sufficient to maintain the normative content of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air of underground and produce a forced recirculation between stations mixture of outdoor and tunnel air, during which the mixture is subjected to thermodynamic treatment to achieve the required for underground temperature and humidity of the air parameters.
SUBSTANCE: system includes operating and stand-by fan units, each of them contains electric motor, rotor, double inlet box with demountable sectors, detachable collector and diffuser. Rotor supports are radial and radial-thrust bearings. Fan of each fan unit of the system is additionally equipped with detachable semi-housing. Rotor radial bearing is located on rotor shaft between electric motor and double inlet box of fan system.
EFFECT: improving reliability, maintainability and reducing cost of repair of main ventilation mine fan systems.
SUBSTANCE: method involves installation of ascending air pipeline channels on board and beyond the limits of the pit and their connection by main air pipeline channels, arrangement of suction holes of air pipeline channels in working zones of the pit, creation of natural draft in channels due to wind head and air temperature difference inside and outside the channels, movement of contaminated air along channels beyond the pit levels and control of its flow. During winter time the movement of contaminated air from ascending channels installed aboard the pit to ascending channels located beyond the pit limits is performed along bypass air pipeline channels flooded in natural water sources. Control of the air flow removed from the pit is provided by changing the ratio of air flow rates in bypass and main channels.
EFFECT: increasing pit ventilation efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method includes determination of active stope demand for resources of ventilation and climate equipment based on air to be supplied, cooling capacity to be maintained, gas suction to be mounted as input parameters for planned extent of production of active stope in the form of preset values to be recorded in memory by computing unit, recording of these parameters valid values during continuous production by sensors installed in separate active stopes and transmitting of these values to computing unit. If more demand for resources of ventilation and climate equipment is determined, the demand is covered by means of reversing of other available active stopes surplus resources. If less demand is determined, surplus resources are redirected to other active stopes with lack of resources.
EFFECT: enhancing power during underground extraction of hard coal.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in the fresh air supply with ventilator into bottomhole zone and removal of air mixture contaminated with dust and gas from dead stope ore through the wells, which are drilled at regular times in interchamber pillar between the dead and worn stope ores. An interval between the wells doesn't exceed the distance of efficient offscouring of dust-gas mixture with draft source, mounted in the bottomhole space of the dead stope ore. Contaminated air is removed through the worn stope ore, broken into the haulage roadway, and then through haulage roadway. In this respect, the wells from worn stope ore neighbouring to the dead stope ore are preliminary drilled until the configuration of the dead stope ore. Well mouth in the dead stope ore is equipped with effuser, and the well mouth in the worn stope ore is equipped with a coupler connected to the ventilator aligned for the work in direction to haulage roadway. Ventilator is carried over to the well newly uncapped with combined machine.
EFFECT: lowering of air dustiness and reduction of combustive and poisonous gases in the dead stope ore.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in clean air supply into the bottom hole and removal of contaminated air from the bottomhole zone. In this respect, the configurations of circulating air swirling motion are built up. For this purpose, the worn chambers are broken into the airway. In this respect, the additional draft source, mounted in the worn chamber, is aligned for work in direction to the airway, and the mix of fresh air with the airflow contaminated with dust and gas is removed through the worn chamber and airway. In this respect, fresh air is directed to workable stope ore through the haulage roadway or by means of additionally installed ventilation draft source with air feeder, which end is placed in the working chamber, or by means of the adjusting airway stoppings, one of which is mounted on the haulage roadway on the way of air current motion between the working and worn chambers, and the other one is mounted at the mouth of worn chamber, placed in axial alignment with developed stope ore, which is gone away from it through the haulage roadway.
EFFECT: gain in air supply performance.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves fresh air supply through shafts into tunnel and contaminated air removal through other shafts from tunnel using forced ventilation. Cross section of each shaft is separated into two parts having independent connection to the tunnel in which a gate is installed between such connections. Tunnel is closed by means of the above gate when there are no trains moving in it. Air flow via tunnel is arranged at the interval between train movement in directions allowing to reduce the time required for removal of contaminated air from the tunnel. At that, selection of air flow direction is determined considering the length of sections filled with fresh air supplied to the tunnel as a result of suction effect action. Amount of fresh air supplied to each section filled with contaminated air is determined by the formula.
EFFECT: reduction of forced ventilation volumes at fixed time interval between trains, reduction of time required for tunnel cleaning from contaminants after every train passes through tunnel, and increase in tunnel capacity.
SUBSTANCE: ejector comprises a diffuser, two serially installed receiving heads with receivers connected by a hollow cylinder, with two outlet slots and gaskets each having holes. At the same time the main outlet head is equipped with a confusor receiving nozzle. The last flange of the second receiving head may be an anti-deformation flange.
EFFECT: provision of ejector operation for high aerodynamic resistance.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: silencer includes head-frame ventilation stand with wall closed in transverse plane and provided with air-permeable openings, ceiling and roof, and external enclosure made in the form of an upward diverging funnel with sound reflecting inner surface and arranged with a gap relative to ventilation stand. Wall and ceiling of ventilation stand are made of high-porous noise-absorbing blocks. External enclosure is provided with the roof which has an annular through slot in transverse plane. At that, air openings made in the wall of ventilation stand are located in crossing rows between adjacent noise absorbing blocks.
EFFECT: reducing the noise level in vicinity of head-frame structures.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises multiple louver plates adapted to be installed in a frame and to rotate in it around the longitudinal axis between the specified position, in which the louver plates are combined to close or to limit a part of a channel, and the open position for passage of air between plates of louvers and through a channel, an inclined mechanism to impact every louver plate so that in process of usage each louver plate is adapted to be held in the specified position until the specified air flow to the plates is achieved, at the same time the inclined mechanism is a spacer mechanism, capable of impacting every louver plate for its rotation into the specified position and represents a gas spacer connected to a lever mechanism acting at louver plates, for their displacement into the specified position, at the same time at the air flow specified the louver plates are capable of impacting the lever mechanism, which is capable of impacting the gas spacer as each plate is displaced towards the open position.
EFFECT: protection of mechanism against excessive force and automation of operation.
14 cl, 9 ex, 18 dwg
SUBSTANCE: air supplying gate and the main air gate pass along opposite boundaries of mine field so that they run ahead of extraction front through the length equal to distance between axes of the rooms. At that, rooms have the length equal to width of mine field and are located between air supplying gate and ventilation air gate. Fresh air is supplied through the tunnel located in front of extraction front. At that, return ventilation air is removed along auxiliary air gate.
EFFECT: improving concentration of mining operations, reducing volumes of preparatory mine work, and decreasing air leaks through the worked-out area.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline has sections made in form of hermetically interconnected outer and inner covers, mounted with space relatively to each other, and main ventilator. On different ends of pipeline flow meter and additional ventilator are mounted, the latter having adjustable characteristics and being connected to inter-pipe space by branch pipe. In inner cover apertures are made placed along radius and along length of cover. Air comes from apertures to air channel and forms additional air flow near walls of inner cover, which lowers or heightens aerodynamic resistance of ventilation pipeline.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher safety, lesser costs.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has working and reserve ventilators, placed in ventilator chamber. By means of connecting channels ventilators are connected to air-conducting and air-draining channels, which com together in triple-output branch pipes, connected via ventilation channels to general mine ventilation network. Ventilation chamber is separated from air-conducting channels by longitudinal vertical wall. Air-conducting channels are made in form of one mine, separated by longitudinal horizontal wall between triple branch-pipes. Means for reversing air flow are mounted in branch pipes. In connection channels on force or suck-in side of ventilators cutting means are mounted. Assembling drift is connected to end of ventilator chamber.
EFFECT: higher safety, lower costs.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has working and reserve ventilators, each of which has diffuser with rotary branch pipe, electric engine, connected to ventilator by transmission shaft via toothed sleeves, and devices, covering input and output of ventilator. Additionally plant is provided with doubled input box, made in form of mated individual boxes of working and reserve ventilators by rotating these to face each other relatively to vertical planes, passing through axes of ventilators rotation. Side inner walls of ventilators form up a common rib, on which axis of special piece is placed, in turns covering branch pipes of input boxes of working and reserve ventilators. When using ventilator plant near residential or administration buildings its output box is provided by muffler and cowl, and output branch pipes of ventilators are provided with controlling blades.
EFFECT: lower costs, higher durability.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding fresh air along air ducts due to generic depression, and output stream is taken partially through supported mines due to generic depression and partially - through extracted space of extracted or previously extracted column by means of gas-sucking plant. Methane support control in fresh and output streams is maintained. From the surface into air duct a ventilation shaft is drilled and additional fresh air is fed therein in same direction with main stream. Adjustment of methane containment in air streams at extraction portion is performed by changing amount of air, fed additionally.
EFFECT: increased volume of fed fresh air without substantial reconstruction of ventilation system.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has air feeding channels, positioned between support and coal massif and ventilator with pipe for sucking air away. Additionally device is provided with curtain of transparent plastic profiles with load, positioned in lower portion of curtain, positioned on carrying ropes, connected to driving drum. The latter is held on ceiling of support section and provided with electric drive with automatic and manual control. Lower portion of curtain enters a space, formed by walling of cable packer and grating. Ventilator, moved with extraction of coal massif, is positioned in ascending air stream in ventilation drift. Width of curtain equals width of support section, and length is in 1.3 times greater than vertical height of support.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has air-intake channels and ventilator with air sucking pipe. Each air-intake channel is made in form of flexible plastic pipe with gate, placed on lower side of ceiling of support section or in ceiling body in parallel to its longitudinal axis. One end of air-intake channel is positioned at same level with working end of ceiling, and second one is connected to air sucking pipe, held below support section ceiling behind combine in parallel to axis of scrapping conveyer. Ventilator is mounted on mating support on out-flowing air stream. Flexible plastic pipes are made having U-like shape with crosspiece perforated along length, positioned along working edge of support section ceiling. Also, air-intake channel is provided with subs, each of which is made of two intertwined parts, mounted on rotation axis, separated by air-impenetrable insert. Subs and ceiling are interconnected with possible rotation of subs relatively to ceiling, and axis of subs is displaced relatively to axis of joint of support section ceiling and is parallel to it.
EFFECT: higher personnel safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly ventilation of mines or tunnels during bauxite deposit development.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying pure air from field haulage roadway through blind drift of transport horizon into ore rising one due to mine depression; feeding part of air from rising horizon in intermediate blind drift; directing remaining pure air in layered air supply drift and then to entry ways for venting thereof; removing contaminated air through previously developed entry ways in layered venting drifts arranged in exhausted space at deposit ground along the strike; directing contaminated air through venting rises arranged in exhausted space along block boundaries at deposit ground to field venting drift drilled under deposit ground along the strike at venting horizon level and blind drift of venting horizon to field venting drift; supplying pure air from intermediate blind drift to field rise and then to field venting drift through blind drift of venting horizon. Intermediate blind drift and field rise are adapted to evacuate miners in emergency conditions.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and miner's safety due to changing pure and contaminated air mass flow within the boundaries of the block.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to form venting system, which controls thermal mine conditions during combined mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming overburden haulage inclined out of the pit extending across the strike up to interface between exposed and underground mines; extracting mineral from the haulage; constructing venting means and mounting support in approach mine; erecting heat-exchanging mines during opened mining.
EFFECT: elimination of time intervals during venting system construction and mining performing, simplified people evacuation in emergency and possibility to use heat-exchanging mines for other purposes.
FIELD: mining, particularly to vent ore and rock mines.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing fresh and exhaust air by blasting fuel mixture; forming suction jet, which discharges exhaust air outside the mine. Fuel mixture components are supplied by compressed nitrogen. Air mixing is performed with the use of mixture including sodium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide taken in ratio of 1:(3-10). The suction jet is formed by exhaust air ejection. Venting plant is arranged at bottom mine level. Device comprises body with nozzle arranged over fuel mixture and control panel. The device additionally has nitrogen, sodium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide vessels. Venting pipeline is secured to body nozzle. The venting pipeline is provided with jets to supply hydrogen peroxide and sodium permanganate connected with compressed nitrogen cylinder through control panel. The venting pipeline is composed of separate sections put one on another and provided with conical flares. The flares and adjacent sections define annular air suction slots.
EFFECT: provision of independent operation, simplified structure, increased operational safety and reduced power inputs for mine venting.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 2 cl