Pontoon hydropower motor road
SUBSTANCE: pontoon hydropower motor road includes support links in the form of catamarans joined into a belt, on the deck surface of which there is a road surface. Between the catamaran bodies there are hydraulic drives of power plants installed. Double-body pontoon links of the motor road of catamaran type are shaped into a belt along a nonfreezing river bed.
EFFECT: using the invention makes it possible to erect a pontoon road of any length along a non-freezing river bed.
4 cl, 4 dwg
The invention is combinational, because it uses some of the known device in a new, previously unknown combination, giving a completely new effect.
The invention relates to road construction, in particular to the creation of floating roads and highways for land transport in specific conditions: not samartaudio the riverbed downstream of the Siberian hydroelectric power plants (HPP).
The most similar solution proposed are floating bridges-tape. Famous pontoon bridges-tape, for example:
"Floating bridge-ribbon - inventor's certificate SU 1014311 A E01D 15/14, the authors Whitelaw, Intracanal (USSR), Zdero and Bpinow (BNR).
"Reinforced floating bridge-tape split system" inventor's certificate SU 1336637 A1, E01B 15/14, the authors Whitelaw and Intracanal.
"Floating bridge" - patent RU 2184809 C1 IPC E01B 15/14, the authors Malyshev A.A., Kupriyanov Y.A., icov AV, Trefilov V.F., chmelyk PS
Enough detailed classification and construction of floating bridges in the book "Pontoon bridges, ferry and ice crossing, Telow VI, Kanukov IM Ed. Whitelaw. M: "Transport", 1978, 384 S., and in the "Instructions for repair, maintenance and operation of ferries and pontoon bridges, VSN 50-87, the Ministry of car roads of the RSFSR, M., "Transport", 1988.
Known also hydrauli the mini drives converts the energy of river water flow into rotational motion of the drive shaft of the electric generator, for example:
"Hydropower plant to use the energy of water flow" - inventor's certificate SU 1442689 A1, F03B 9/00, authors Eggental and Vaginal.
"Floating HPS "Juvenal" - inventor's certificate SU 1753008 A1, F03 9/00, author Uscreates.
The main reasons for applying for the invention are as follows:
1. Known floating structures for movement thereon land transport, in the form of bridges and employees solely as crossings over water obstacles, connecting them to the opposite shore and having a longitudinal (axial) direction, as a rule, across the river.
2. In the famous bridges tape of the type used monohull floating bases with a variety of their location relative to each other when forming the ribbon bridge.
3. In the famous bridges belt type not used the possibility of using the kinetic energy of water flow to convert it into mechanical motion, such as rotational.
4. In the famous bridges-tapes of the roadway does not have a barrier between the lanes of oncoming traffic.
5. In known hydropower plants with a floating base in the ideal catamaran inner side hulls are parallel to each other and therefore water flow, passing between them, has a constant speed.
6. Energy for lighting bridge-tape and to work in his service must be supplied externally (electricity for General use).
The claimed invention is intended to solve the problem of construction of a highway through the creation of floating structures in the form of a tape having a longitudinal pontoon catamaran base type along (flow) of water, allowing you to build pontoon road of any length on the ice river located between the buildings pontoon catamaran base type devices for power flow of the river water, which is due to the changes in cross-sectional space between the sides of the boat increases speed and, respectively, the kinetic energy of the flow, and ProTeam canvas pontoon road installed the separation barrier, which allows to increase the transverse rigidity of the floating road in the connective elements of the pontoons.
The use of the proposed technical solution will allow the construction of the road floating type using United in the tape along a river pontoon catamaran base type, between the inner sides of which are hydraulic actuators for the power take-off of water flow, which is due to narrowing of the internal is their sides of the catamaran has a variable cross-section to increase the velocity of the flow of water, and on the road carriageway along the road mounted the separation barrier, creating a transverse rigidity of the floating structure.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, which depict: 1 - floating hydropower road, top view; figure 2 - double pontoons (catamarans) roads floating type, incision catamaran in the plane of the waterline; figure 3 - cross section of a floating hydropower road; 4 - floating hydropower road, side view of the docking sites catamarans.
Floating hydropower road consists of floating links (catamarans), collected in the tape 1 along the river (figure 1). Each filler element is a double-hulled pontoon (catamaran) 2 having between buildings narrowing of the inner flanges 3 and extension of the exterior sides of the hulls at the bow 4, where between the aft transom housings (aftershave) ahead of the pontoon 5 and nasal parts (forsterei) buildings standing behind pontoon 6 has a space for the passage of the water flow generated by the flow of the river, the distance between forsterei buildings standing behind the catamaran is greater than the distance between aftershave ahead catamaran (figure 2). The presence of a constriction between the inner the orts catamaran and additional pressure from the side intake increases the rate of water flow in the installation place of the hydraulic cylinders 7 for power generation (mini-hydro). The roadway 8 hydropower floating roads made in the form of grooved concrete structures of the type having a vertical separator 9 and sides 10 fencing role of the ribs between the compounds of the pontoons (catamarans) and in addition to creating conditions for the safe movement of vehicles transverse rigidity pontoon road in places docking bridge boats (catamarans). With the shore and pontoon road connects special wjezdne-exit constructs soil or pile type 11 (figure 1).
The proposed floating hydropower highway is arranged in the riverbed downstream of large hydroelectric power plants, in particular Krasnoyarsk, Bratsk, or other geographical Feature of these places is that the riverbed is usually located in mountainous terrain and at low winter temperatures of atmospheric air water of the river below the dam HES never freezes. For example, the Yenisei river below the dam Krasnoyarskaya HPP does not freeze over a length of over 200 km of channel. Under these conditions, the application of the proposed pontoon road is very efficient for the following reasons.
First, the cost of 1 km of floating road about 2-3 times less than the cost of 1 km of overland road similar parameters (width, floor and others). At Russian prices, the cost of 1 km of land is broadband asphalt road is from 510 to 960 million. On the Central TV channels of Russia in the print media ("MK" for 30.06. - 7.07. 2010) was named the figure of $17 million, and in the "AIF" and more - $32 million (No. 28, 2010) per 1 km of road.
Secondly, the track is floating roads laid on the river bed and therefore has no sharp turns, there are almost no UPS and downs, and in the alternative overland route in the rugged mountain terrain is usually much shorter, such as the distance along the bed of the river Yenisei from Krasnoyarsk to Divnogorsk 22 km and land highway 46 km
Thirdly, greatly simplifies maintenance of the road in floating performed to eliminate the products of precipitation, because the location of the road on the water does not require a different drainage and drainage devices inherent in overland road.
Fourth, floating in the road there is no need for the construction of small bridges and crossings over small rivers and ravines.
Fifth, the presence on the pontoons and pontoon road hydro installations PTO water flow allows you to not only have electricity for lighting and maintenance of the highway, such as heated cloth road during icy conditions, but also to sell surplus electricity. When installing, for example, generators in floating levels autodo the OIG from Krasnoyarsk to Divnogorsk unit capacity 50 kW will receive a total installed capacity of 125 mW, that would be consistent with middle power plant.
1. Floating hydropower road, including reference links in the form of a catamaran, United in the ribbon, on the deck surface which is placed roadway, and between the hulls of catamarans mounted hydraulic power plants, characterized in that the double-hulled pontoon links road catamaran base type formed in the tape along the ice-free river.
2. Floating hydropower road according to claim 1, characterized in that the hulls of catamarans made with narrowing of the distance between the inner sides of buildings, and the distance between forsterei buildings standing behind the catamaran is greater than the distance between aftershave ahead catamaran.
3. Floating hydropower road according to claim 1, characterized in that the Autonomous sources of electricity, with hydraulic drives from the water flow of the river located between the inner sides of the hulls at the point of narrowing.
4. Floating hydropower road according to claim 1, characterized in that the roadway in the form of concrete structures grooved type manufactured together with the vertical and side fences that act as stiffeners connections between the floating link AB is Dorogi the layers prepared in the tape pontoons (catamarans).
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: system contains partition 112 installed across water weight and containing upper and lower ropes 124 in the form of closed loop, between which grates of sails, which provide movement of ropes along closed trajectory, are fixed in series. This movement is converted to electric energy with one or more converters included in the system.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at creating the energy conversion system for electric energy generation with the use of flood movement of water masses, which has no impact on vulnerable seashores and ecosystems of estuaries.
16 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electric generator (EG) includes housing with detachable covers, housing of inductor also with detachable covers made as an integral part of hollow shaft. Electromagnets with cores and coils are installed on inductor housing. Inductor assembled with electromagnets and covers is installed on bearings arranged in covers of EG housing. Two armatures are installed in EG, one of which is fixed, and the other one is movable, or one is movable with possibility of its rotation inside inductor. Windings of fixed armature are fixed in slots of detachable EG housing, and windings of movable armature are fixed in slots of armature housing made as an integral part of shaft and installed inside inductor by means of bearings on brackets fixed on EG base. Between inductor and movable armature there installed is reduction gear which provides simultaneous synchronous rotation of inductor and armature in opposite directions or as per simplified scheme, or with possibility of automatic control of rotation frequency of inductor and armature, and the condition at which the ratio of speeds of opposite rotation of inductor and armature Vi/Va=const is met in both cases.
EFFECT: higher quality of voltage supplied to electric mains, higher EG capacity, operating reliability, reducing material consumption, reducing manufacturing cost of EG, and enlarging application field.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: submersible river plant with top arrangement of work zone comprises housing with lateral top sides, power take-off mechanism, generator, rotary drums, vanes with floats of top section arranged on continuous moving belt revolved by water flow. Float serves to open vanes in flow and fold them in counter flow. Housing front face has guiding crosswise edge to bring about artificial water flow pressure head. Tight compartment is arranged between drums. Vanes represent elastic fabric pockets with stabilising cutout or rigid rotary vanes. Floats represent revolving floating rollers. Sides are arranged at the height of rollers level. Aforesaid tight compartment serves to support said belt and accommodate power take-off mechanism and generator.
EFFECT: simple and reliable design.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to low speed turbine mechanisms for liquid or air medium, for generation of electric energy. Blade for low speed turbines, which carries the load from medium flow and transmits it to power mechanisms, is rigid and consists of two different arms and axial bushing installed with possibility of blade rotation at the pressure thereon of medium flow in operating position or automatic folding of the blade at relief of flow pressure when the blade gets into counter-flow. Large arm is made so that it carries the power load of flow. Smaller arm is supporting at operating position. Blade is equipped with separate replaceable element to which there attached is axial bushing and rotating elastic roller attached in the axis to external edge of the blade.
EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of energy relief of water stream and increasing the efficiency of the whole plant.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to power devices, namely to hydraulic power plants. Hydraulic power plant includes power plant 21 including the main and auxiliary chutes, ideal cable, hydraulic reservoir, reserve capacity, water intake, water guide and water discharge shields. Hydraulic blade 15 is made in the form of frame 22 with the plate rigidly attached to it. End surfaces of driven and drive drums are made in the form of polygon, the stubs of which are located at interface points of edges. Links of endless chain 9 are made in the form of the main and auxiliary ones. On the plane of the main link, on one side there rigidly fixed at an angle of 90° is hinge pin frame of hydraulic blade 15, the opening of which is located between hinge and its lower end part. Height of opening is equal to value of gap 17 between chain 9 and water surface in the main chute when plant 21 is in operating position. Frame 22 is hinged through guides to vertical racks rigidly connected in the lower part to sides of the main chute. Plant 21 is connected through ideal cable hydraulic reservoir at the bottom of which there is a drain cock. Reserve capacity is located above hydraulic reservoir and connected to the latter via pipelines with a cock. Chutes are tightly connected to central water intake shield to which water guide shields are hinged. Water discharge shields are hinged to outlet opening of the main chute.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of river stream use.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device submerged into river along flow motion comprises working element in the form of continuous flexible chain. It covers wheel arranged with groove of specified chain laying and engagement to it and rigidly joined to power take-off shaft. And also blades that represent parachutes connected to continuous flexible chain and arranged with the possibility of opening under pressure of medium flow and folding in case of reverse flow. Continuous flexible chain is made of hingedly joined elements, part of which is connected to parachutes or is arranged in the form of parachutes. Wheel represents a power take-off shaft or electric or hydraulic machine inbuilt into this shaft, two hoops spaced at the distance from each other along axis of power take-off shaft, from which spikes radially come out in plane of wheel rotation, with every of which guide arcs are joined at a specified angle, being covered with hoop to form groove of triangular profile between hoops and locking chain link hinged joints as chain moves along groove trajectory.
EFFECT: invention provides for improvement of operational characteristics by provision of guaranteed engagement of wheel with chain with parachutes.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device submerged along flow motion comprises working element in the form of infinite chain of flexible elements with working and idle branches. It covers front and back pulleys or sprockets connected to shaft of power take-off and arranged with elements of engagement to response elements of chain flexible elements. At least three blade elements are fixed to chain of flexible elements, consisting of spaced axes, on every of which there are blades arranged with the possibility to turn as a book across flow in process of working stroke under pressure of fluid, and in process of idle run they fold with their ribs facing ceiling. Front and rear pulleys or sprockets are connected to each other by means of frame structure. Guide elements for blades are arranged along it following the blades. They are arranged as freely rotating onto axes spaced aside relative to pulleys or sprockets. And they have braces from ropes or hingedly joined traction rods that join blades together to limit their opening for a specified level. And for positioning in flow, frame structure is mounted on supports or is connected by ropes to it and is equipped with pontoons.
EFFECT: simplification of design.
SUBSTANCE: water flow energy converter into electrical energy consists of a body with open flow windows being provided in the lower part of the body during low-tide and in the upper part during high-tide. The converter also includes endless band inside the body, which is reeled on drums, operating blades in the form of double-lever plates. The operating blades are bent relative to each other and provided with hinge in the point of bending. They are installed on the external side of endless band along the whole its length. The stabilisers are installed on drum shafts outside the body boards. The said stabilisers pull down endless band with blades with regard to the body bottom to activate part of the blades in the upper part of endless band during high-tide. Alternatively, the stabilisers lift the endless band to activate part of the blades in the lower part of the endless band during low-tide. There are vertical slots made in the body to adjust height of lifting or pulling down. The movable gate is attached to the body end side and directs flow to the upper part of endless band during high-tide. The movable gate takes horizontal position to allow free flowing during low-tide.
EFFECT: improved effectiveness of device, simple structure and operation, wade range of application.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: river hydraulic unit brought into operation with river flow consists of a load-carrying frame with an action turbine made in the form of an endless conveyor located across the flow and having two shafts enveloped with a flexible towing element with blades installed with the possibility of being turned and fixed, and on the load-carrying frame there located is electric generator kinematically connected to one of shafts of endless conveyor. Hydraulic unit is equipped with an additional flexible towing element enveloping the shafts located along river flow, and with transverse supports connecting flexible towing elements to each other. Blades are installed on the axes fixed on transverse supports. Between endless conveyor's strings there installed is a river flow divider.
EFFECT: increase of total working surface of blades, on which the flowing medium acts, decrease of resistance to movement of blades and increase of power unit output.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to power engineering and can be used in wind electric generators. In the first version electric generator is performed with horizontal axis of rotation and contains blades turning rotor and blades turning stator in opposite direction. Stator is performed as separate teeth with winding without yoke, and rotor is performed as two coupled concentric bushings made of material with high magnetic conductivity and located on the outside and the inside of stator. Radially magnetised constant magnets of interleaving polarity are fixed on bushings. Polarity of adjacent magnets interleaves. Opposite to each other constant magnets are located that create concordantly directed magnet flows. On each tooth concentric winding isolated from body is located. Number of poles 2·p, number of pole pairs p, number of stator teeth z, number of coil groups in phase d, number of stator teeth b per one phase group, and number of phases m are connected by formulas: 2·p=d·(b·m±1), z=d·b·m, p/d=k, where: k=1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5… - positive integer, or number differing from it by 0.5, thereat if k is integer, windings of coil groups in each phase are connected concordantly, and when k differs from integer by 0.5 windings of coil groups in each phase are opposing when m=2, 3, b=1,2,3,4,5…, and if (b·m±1) is even number then d=1, 2, 3, 4, 5…, if (b·m±1) is odd number then d=2, 4, 6, 8…. In the second version of electric generator rotation axis of rotor and stator is made vertical.
EFFECT: increase in specific power in regions with low speeds of wind.
20 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: result is achieved by freezing-in steel ropes at both sides of a crossing along its entire length. At the same time elements are previously installed onto ropes as rigidly connected to them, prior to their freezing-in the ropes are stretched, and after their freezing-in the stretching forces are removed. To freeze-in ropes with elements into an ice cover, they are heated to the temperature above the ice melting temperature by sending electric current through ropes, electric current supply is interrupted after their submersion into the ice cover for the depth below half of the ice thickness, the ice crossing surface prepared in this manner is exposed to low atmospheric temperatures (t<0°C) until full freezing of water in grooves that occurred during ice melting, at the same time the freezing-in process is repeated many times.
EFFECT: preservation of higher weight-lifting capacity by development of compressing forces.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stream-crossing expedients. Proposed segment comprises articulated medium and extreme pontoons with roadway built in deck. Medium pontoons transoms accommodate segment joint assemblies while extreme pontoon transoms support eye bolts and bypass units. Outer board of one of extreme pontoons is furnished with extending flexible folding sector-like floater consisting of inflatable wedge-like vessels arranged between frames. Said frames are fixed in recesses to turn about vertical axles mounted at the center of recess adjoining the roadway. Another extreme pontoon is equipped with rigid pod with length equal to that of pontoon pivoted to the latter to turn about axis parallel with segment lengthwise axis. Said pod features triangular prism shape. With pod in top position, one face of said prism continues segment bottom outlines and, with pod in position, another face does it. Third face is provided with joint device made up of, for example, ear and yoke with moving pin for jointing segments together in pontoon bridges and ferries.
EFFECT: expanded applications.
SUBSTANCE: propulsion assembly comprises displacement hull with side joint assemblies, engine and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons and their opening/closing mechanisms. Water-jet propeller is made up of two water jets. Pontoons are hinged together. Bottoms of pontoons are provided with sledge outlines along crosswise axis of subassemblies. Hinged pontoon side height equals that of river subassembly jointed thereto. Guide cutouts are made in the bottom of every pontoon. Said cutouts are located opposite rotary nozzles of water jets and oriented across propulsion assembly.
EFFECT: increased speed of shuttle ferry.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in freezing in steel ropes on ferry both sides over entire ferry length provided with preset elements rigidly jointed to said ropes. Prior to freezing in said elements, said ropes are pre-stretched. Said elements are made up of steel washers to be heated to temperature exceeding that of ice melting by feeding electric current there through. After immersing said elements in ice to depth half the ice entire thickness, current feed is terminated. Ice ferry surface thus prepared is subjected to effects of low ambient temperature (t<0°C) to complete freezing of water originating in channels of ice melting.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity.
2 dwg, 2 cl
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: watertight band with cords-weights fastened (sewn) thereto is used to accelerate uniform ice buildup all over ice ferry area. For this aforesaid band with cord-float and cords-weights fastened thereto is downed via prepared through ice-hole oriented along said ferry across under-ice water current. Heavier weight is arranged at the distance, exceeding ice thickness, from the edge of band fixed on ice sheet surface.
EFFECT: higher reliability of ferry.
FIELD: construction engineering.
SUBSTANCE: effect is ensured by fastening thermosiphons along the designated line of a prospective ice bridge whereto a reinforcing material is attached at design depth. As water is frozen over, ice supports that increase bearing of the bridge, are formed around the thermosiphons, while the frozen-in material is to reinforce an expanded area of an ice bed.
EFFECT: increased bearing of the ice bridge.
3 dwg, 2 cl
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to ice technology and can be implemented at constructing ice crossing by means of building man-made structures. The technical result is achieved owing to arranging dividing cryogenic films along diagonals in gaps between crosspieces; also side surfaces of panels are made tapered thus decreasing their areas from the side of ice surface.
EFFECT: facilitating integrity of separate elements (panels) of man-made structure (planking) at disassembly and providing multiple repeated usage.
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method can be used in constructing ice ferry by placing artificial structures thereon. The invention covers separate parts of artificial structure (board deck) that can be safely dismantled and repeatedly used. The method consists in laying the board deck onto the ice surface. First, the ice surface is covered with a polyethylene film, and then board decks are placed onto the said film, one across the other. The boards of every deck are laid end-to-end all across the fatty width and separated by polyethylene film. The surface of laid layers is also separated by the said film.
EFFECT: ice ferry strengthening.
FIELD: transport, construction.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing ice ferry consists in cleaning ice surface of snow, placing a layer of heat-isolation material through the cut, along the ice ferry routed, and pressing aforesaid layer to the ice layer lower surface. A continuous layer of ice floats is placed between the ice surface lower surface and the said heat-isolation material.
EFFECT: higher load-carrying capacity of ice ferry.
FIELD: construction, road construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of bridge engineering and is intended for erection of pontoon bridges over water obstacles on a tight schedule and with the least material and labour expenses. It is achieved by the fact that pontoon bridge comprises pontoons open at the bottom, on which bridge supports are mounted to carry spans and road way, and spacers that connect peripheral parts of pontoon to fixed anchors on soil, and every pontoon is arranged in the form of packet of vertically oriented adjacent tanks that are inverted upwards with their bottoms and are connected to system of air supply and its pressure control in every of them, at that spacers are located on the opposite sides of pontoon to form triangular figures with every of them, which are oriented in crossing planes, and have dampers and/or control mechanisms, preferably with remote control, their stretching in process of bridge erection and/or its operation. At that vertically oriented tanks form rows of cells in section with horizontal plane, which are evenly located on at least part of section area.
EFFECT: higher reliability of pontoon bridge operation at different dynamic effect at it, also from wave and wind loads due to provision of stability in pontoons that carry spans and provision of their controlled submersion at specified depth.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg