Method of skin and soft tissue wound and wound infection healing

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely surgery, and concerns skin and soft tissue wound and wound infection healing. That is ensured by using tissue coatings impregnated by a phytotherapeutic substrate in the following proportions: eucalyptus leave extract - 30.0 gram; pot marigold blossom extract - 10.0 gram; purple Echinacea herb extract - 10.0 gram; distilled water to 1000.0 ml.

EFFECT: method provides higher clinical effectiveness ensured by an ability of the phytotherapeutic substrate to clean the wounds fast from necrotic elements and providing a faster process of natural healing.

3 ex

 

The invention relates to medicine, namely to the field of conservative treatment of wounds and wound infections of skin and soft tissues. Modern methodology topical treatment of patients with wounds of the skin based on the use of various antibacterial drugs and bioactive dressing devices with desired properties, not taking into account the phase currents of the wound healing process. However, at present not sufficiently developed scientific approaches to the selection of the most rational combinations of antimicrobial agents that are effective for the treatment of wound infections.

There is a method of treatment of wounds and wound infections of skin and soft tissues through the application of allogeneic skin, including the dermis and epidermis (1).

The disadvantage of this method is complicated preservation and storage of material and unsatisfactory long-term results of treatment.

There is a method of treatment of wounds and wound infections skin and soft tissue by applying a gel-forming wound dressing, currently the most known powder preparations, forming a wetting liquid gel coating: "Helper", "Hadron", "Debrisan" (2).

The disadvantage of this method is the particular orientation, which is only 1 phase of wound healing, frequent allergic reactions after application of the necessity of daily dressings.

There is a method of treatment of wounds and wound infections skin and soft tissue by applying a film wound dressing consisting of natural and synthetic materials: collagen, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polipolaritatea and others (3). The disadvantage of this method is the disturbance of gas exchange in the wound, because the violation of gas and vlagopronitsaemostyu.

There is a method of treatment of wounds and wound infections skin and soft tissue by applying fabric coverings impregnated with solutions of various antiseptics (4).

The disadvantages of this method are frequent allergic reactions after application and the low efficiency of treatment. This method is used for the prototype.

The aim of the invention is to improve the effectiveness of treatment of wounds and wound infections of skin and soft tissues.

This goal is achieved by the fact that tissue-based wound dressings impregnated phytotherapeutic substrate in the following ratio of components: leaf extract of eucalyptus - 30,0 g; extract of calendula flowers - 10.0 grams; herb extract of Echinacea purpurea - 10.0 g; distilled water to 1000,0 ml.

The proposed method for the treatment of wounds and wound infections of skin and soft tissues is implemented as follows.

On the fabric base is applied phytotherapeutic the mini substrate, obtained in the following way: take a leaf extract of eucalyptus - 30,0 g, extract of calendula flowers - 10.0 grams, herb extract of Echinacea purpurea - 10.0 grams. Received phytotherapeutic substrate is placed in a cuvette filled with distilled water to 1000,0 ml, and then produce the extraction method remuneratio: phytotherapeutic substrate serves from the bottom in a continuous stream under pressure, then leave for 8 hours for infusion after infusion from the tank is drained retrieval. The capacity is recycled from the bottom in a continuous stream under pressure boiling purified water 920 ml and left on for 8 hours. After 8 hours from the tank is drained 960 ml extract.

The obtained extraction defend at a temperature of 3-5C, the resulting extract is filtered through double layer of cheesecloth, discarding the precipitate. Ready-to-extract Packed in sterile glass bottles, the resulting wound coating is dried at room temperature to evaporate the moisture within 6 hours, and then wound covering is treated with ultraviolet lamp for 1 hour, the bactericidal effect of ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 253.7 nm. The radiation source is a germicidal lamp Philips TUV 30 W LL, Packed in a sterile package.

The developed method provides restoration of the integrity of anatomical and functional structures of paragen the x of the skin. When the contact wound dressings from the wound begins a uniform and gradual intake of medicinal substances in the form of complexes fine particles, which helps to fight inflammation in the wound. The coating protects the surface of the wound and creates an ideal environment to accelerate the natural healing process, has analgesic, sedative effect. The efficiency of the developed wound dressings due to, firstly, the local use of phytotherapeutic substances contained in the coating zone of the nidus combination of fine particles of eucalyptus, Echinacea and calendula, secondly, the coating can further enhance the effect of treatment at the expense of phytotherapeutic activity of the combination of substances (the wound is cleared from necrotic items faster)third, the use of wound dressings eliminates frequent dressing changes, because the phytotherapeutic combination of funds from calendula extract, Echinacea extract and extract of eucalyptus affects wound in the form of fine particles, which allows ligation with frequency 1 every 2-4 days.

Clinical examples.

Example 1. Patient "B". Diagnosis: Infected burn the front surface of the right femur II senior Complaints when viewed on the pain in the area of the wound, purulent discharge, swelling and redness around the wound. Sick for 5 days to get dressing with ointment bandages, swelling and redness was reduced, wound wore serous-purulent character. On the sixth day of treatment have been used wound dressings containing phytotherapeutic substrate, consisting of eucalyptus, Echinacea, calendula, 1 every 2 days for 8 days. Against the backdrop of ongoing dressings phenomena of inflammation is controlled, the wound is actively granulosum, swelling and redness in the area of the wound was significantly reduced, poor wound hemorrhagic.

Example 2. The Patient Is "H". Diagnosis: Infected wound middle third of the left forearm. In the home was injured (cut with a kitchen knife), medical care was not applied, the wound was infected, appeared swelling, redness, purulent discharge from the wound. In the operating conditions revealed an abscess. In the postoperative period in the early integrated treatment within 5 days received bandaging wound with bandages soaked in antiseptic solution (chlorhexidine), on a background of treatment condition did not improve, continued swelling, redness, purulent discharge from the wound was re-operation opening purulent streaks on the forearm", after the operation in the local treatment of the patient began to apply wound dressings containing Phi is terapevticheskii substrate, consisting of eucalyptus, Echinacea, calendula, 1 every 2 days for 6 days. On a background of treatment inflammation cropped, edema and hyperemia no discharge from the wound scarce, the wound is actively granulosum, healed by first intention on the 8th day after the operation.

Example 3. The Patient "P". Diagnosis: Infetsirovanna amosulalol right heel region. When viewed from the right heel region edematous, hyperemic, palpation is painful to observe. Received bandaging the wound coating containing phytotherapeutic substrate, consisting of eucalyptus, Echinacea, calendula, 1 every 3 days for 6 days. Against the backdrop of ongoing dressings inflammation decreased, edema and hyperemia no, the wound is actively granulosum. Epithelization of wounds on the 8th day after the start of treatment.

A method of treating wounds and wound infections of skin and soft tissues intended for the treatment of patients with wounds and wound infection skin and soft tissues, for use in medicine for holding dressings and in treatment of surgical and combustionengine hospitals. The use of the proposed method can improve the effectiveness of local treatment of wound infections skin and soft tissue, which in turn reduces the patient's stay in hospital.

SOURCES of INFORMATION

1. Matusow V.M., M. Golovanov, Beroea V.K. Renew the e coatings Aligica AK and Alogical ACF in the local treatment of nonhealing wounds and trophic ulcers // proc. proc. "Modern approaches to the development of effective dressing devices, suture materials and polymer implants". - Moscow, 1995. - S-129.

2. Mulyukina M.V., Moiseev, A.A., Tabarruk L.D., etc. creating a self-adhesive medical dressings / international. proc. "Modern approaches to the development of effective dressing devices, suture materials and polymer implants". - Moscow, 1995. - P.37-38.

3. Lyapunov N.A., Datsenko BM, Mohart N.A., etc. theory and practice of local treatment of purulent wounds (drug therapy). - Kiev, 1995. - 190 S.

4. Migasena, Bmostacedo. Wounds and wound infection: a Guide for physicians. - 2nd ed., revised and enlarged extra - M.: Medicine. 1990. - 592 S.

The method of treatment of wounds and wound infections skin and soft tissue by applying fabric coverings impregnated with antiseptic solution, wherein the tissue-based wound dressings impregnated phytotherapeutic substrate in the following ratio of components: leaf extract of eucalyptus - 30,0 g; extract of calendula flowers - 10.0 g; herb extract of Echinacea purpurea - 10.0 g; water distsilirovannoj to 1000,0 ml.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine. A method involves daily abscess cavity sanitation, sanitation liquid evacuation. Then the abscess cavity is filled with a copper nanoparticle suspension in physiologic saline in the concentration of 100 mcg/ml, exposing for 30 min to be evacuated thereafter.

EFFECT: method provides fast and effective growth inhibition of pathogens in the abscess cavity, intensifies hepatic regeneration, normalises hepatic function.

3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, dentistry, and is applicable for preventing and treating dental diseases of teeth and oral cavity. For this purpose, a surface of gums and teeth is exposed to an optical range, and the exposure is combined with tooth brushing with using a tooth paste. The tooth brushing is combined with exposure of the oral mucosa opposite to the teeth. The tooth paste is presented by a tooth paste with a photosensitiser. Wave length of the emission directed to the teeth is specified to be close to the wave length of photosensitiser excitation. Wave length of the emission directed towards the oral mucosa opposite to the teeth is specified in a short-wave optical spectrum.

EFFECT: method provides improved antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-caries action ensured by stimulation of cell restoration processes, improvement of local tissue circulation and nutrition, relieved oral irritation and inflammation.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to veterinary science. The preparation contains pumpkin sludge 84-86%, walnut concentrate 10-12%, the preparation Metrosept 2-3%, emulsifier T2 1-2%.

EFFECT: preparation is safe for animals, effective in treating inflammatory processes and wound surfaces, possesses prolonged action.

4 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compounds of general formula (I), where R is n-C12H25 or n-C16H33.

EFFECT: compounds of formula having bactericidal and fungicidal properties.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutics. A composition contains nanosized silver powder, nanosized aluminium powder and nanosized diamond powder in the following proportions, wt %: nanosized silver powder - 40, aluminium powder -30, nanosized diamond powder -30.

EFFECT: composition shows a combined immunomodulatory and antibacterial effect, low toxicity.

3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing concentrates of nanodispersions of zerovalent metals such as silver, gold, copper, palladium, platinum and mercury, which have antiseptic properties. Said method involves mixing a solution of a soluble metal salt in a solvent with ammonia to obtain a complex which is then mixed with alkalnolamine to form a solution. The obtained solution is mixed with a solution of a polymer stabiliser to obtain a stabilised metal cation which is then reduced by adding to the solution an organic or inorganic reducing agent to form a stable dispersion of metal nanoparticles. The disclosed method is realised at a defined ratio of components for 10-60 minutes in an air atmosphere at temperature of up to 100C.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at obtaining metal dispersions with high sedimentation and chemical resistance and high antiseptic power, which are compatible with a physiological NaCl solution; the method also cuts duration of synthesis and considerably simplifies the process, increases efficiency and complete conversion of cationic metal into a zerovalent metal.

38 cl, 3 tbl, 104 ex

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and is applied in surgery, dermatology, obstetrics, gynaecology and otorhinolaryngology for treating pyoinflammatory processes of soft tissues and mucous membranes. An agent contains the following components, mass fractions: as a base - enterosgel (60.0-80.0), as therapeutic components, an antiseptic - 0.05% chlorhexidine bigluconate (20.0-40.0), and a regeneration stimulator - methyluracil (2.0-4.0).

EFFECT: invention provides the therapeutic agent possessing antiseptic, wound-healing and sorption functions.

4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers in particular to solutions for mouth rinsing. The water based composition possessing antimicrobic activity consists of: a) from 0,001 to 10 % of weight octenidin dihydrochlorid b) from 0,05 to 30 % of weight of not ionic surface-active substance - derivative fat acids, c) from 0,01 to 10 % of weight poliol, chosen from 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3 propylene glycol, butane-1,4-diol, sorbite (hexa-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexole) and glycerin or their mix, d) from 0,05 to 10 % of weight of fruit acid and-or its salt chosen from lemon acid, dairy acid, apple acid, wine acid, glycogenic acids, fumaric and amber acid or their mix, e) from 0,025 to 10 % of weight of flavour and-or sweetener, chosen from alitam, aspartame, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, stevioside, sucralose, suosane and thaumatinor their mixtures with water - up to 100 %. The composition is applied as a solution for mouth rinsing and controlling S. Aureus and/or E. faecalis resistant to methicillin.

EFFECT: invention provides efficiency of application as the solution for mouth rinsing awhich is characterized by pleasant taste and a small tendency to foaming.

11 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to creation of composition for oral cavity care, which have, at least, two vegetable active ingredients, obtained from plants. Composition for oral cavity care also includes per oral acceptable carrier for introduction of sufficient amount of, at least, two active ingredients in vivo.

EFFECT: vegetable active ingredients ensure to compositions for oral cavity especially efficient antimicrobial (antibacterial, antiviral and/or antifungal antioxidant anti-inflammatory ageing slowing down and/or healing properties.

5 cl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely, to proctology, and is intended for low-invasive treatment of complete complex pararectal fistulas. Sinus tract is examined, its direction and presence of external and internal holes are determined. Successively, each sinus tract is treated through external hole, with obturation of external hole of untreated sinus tract, as minimum two times, with two-day interval. Treatment is carried out during 40-80 seconds by ultrasonic fluctuations with frequency 20-60 kHz with simultaneous supply of liquid phase. As liquid phase, used is alcohol solution in amount 10-20 ml, depending on sinus tract dimensions, which is supplied at rate 0.25 ml per second. As alcohol solution used is three percent alcohol iodine solution or seventy percent ethyl alcohol.

EFFECT: method is low-invasive, makes it possible to eliminate injury of anatomical structures of anal canal, reduce treatment cost, can be carried out on outpatient basis.

2 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to veterinary science and poultry production. A phytomineral composition is characterised by preparing a solution of 3-4 g of sea salt in 1000 ml of purified water. The solution is heated to temperature 80-90C, added with dried and ground everlasting, marigold, nettle, birch buds, pine buds, yarrow, laminaria in the following proportions in the solutions, g: everlasting 8-10, marigold 8-10, nettle 8-10, birch buds 8-10, pine buds 8-10, yarrow 8-10, laminaria 8-10, sea salt 3-4. The mixture is soaked in boiling-water bath and kept heated for 1-1.5 hours, cooled, squeezed out, filtered. During autumn, spring and winter, the mixture is added with Saint-John's-wort in the amount of 3-4 g. A method for using the phytomineral composition is characterised by processing a premise by the phytomineral composition in the form of fog spray small dispersion at approximately 1-1.5 ml per m3 and exposing for 5-10 minutes if counting from the spraying termination time.

EFFECT: use of the declared group of inventions provides effective reinforcement of the poultry immunity, has no side effects.

1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to veterinary science and poultry production. A phytomineral composition is characterised by preparing a solution of 3-4 g of sea salt in 1000 ml of purified water. The solution is heated to temperature 80-90C, added with dried and ground everlasting, marigold, nettle, birch buds, pine buds, yarrow, laminaria in the following proportions in the solutions, g: everlasting 8-10, marigold 8-10, nettle 8-10, birch buds 8-10, pine buds 8-10, yarrow 8-10, laminaria 8-10, sea salt 3-4. The mixture is soaked in boiling-water bath and kept heated for 1-1.5 hours, cooled, squeezed out, filtered. During autumn, spring and winter, the mixture is added with Saint-John's-wort in the amount of 3-4 g. A method for using the phytomineral composition is characterised by processing a premise by the phytomineral composition in the form of fog spray small dispersion at approximately 1-1.5 ml per m3 and exposing for 5-10 minutes if counting from the spraying termination time.

EFFECT: use of the declared group of inventions provides effective reinforcement of the poultry immunity, has no side effects.

1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to veterinary science and poultry production. A phytomineral composition is characterised by preparing a solution of 3-4 g of sea salt in 1000 ml of purified water. The solution is heated to temperature 80-90C, added with dried and ground everlasting, marigold, nettle, birch buds, pine buds, yarrow, laminaria in the following proportions in the solutions, g: everlasting 8-10, marigold 8-10, nettle 8-10, birch buds 8-10, pine buds 8-10, yarrow 8-10, laminaria 8-10, sea salt 3-4. The mixture is soaked in boiling-water bath and kept heated for 1-1.5 hours, cooled, squeezed out, filtered. During autumn, spring and winter, the mixture is added with Saint-John's-wort in the amount of 3-4 g. A method for using the phytomineral composition is characterised by processing a premise by the phytomineral composition in the form of fog spray small dispersion at approximately 1-1.5 ml per m3 and exposing for 5-10 minutes if counting from the spraying termination time.

EFFECT: use of the declared group of inventions provides effective reinforcement of the poultry immunity, has no side effects.

1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to veterinary science and poultry production. A phytomineral composition is characterised by preparing a solution of 3-4 g of sea salt in 1000 ml of purified water. The solution is heated to temperature 80-90C, added with dried and ground everlasting, marigold, nettle, birch buds, pine buds, yarrow, laminaria in the following proportions in the solutions, g: everlasting 8-10, marigold 8-10, nettle 8-10, birch buds 8-10, pine buds 8-10, yarrow 8-10, laminaria 8-10, sea salt 3-4. The mixture is soaked in boiling-water bath and kept heated for 1-1.5 hours, cooled, squeezed out, filtered. During autumn, spring and winter, the mixture is added with Saint-John's-wort in the amount of 3-4 g. A method for using the phytomineral composition is characterised by processing a premise by the phytomineral composition in the form of fog spray small dispersion at approximately 1-1.5 ml per m3 and exposing for 5-10 minutes if counting from the spraying termination time.

EFFECT: use of the declared group of inventions provides effective reinforcement of the poultry immunity, has no side effects.

1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to veterinary science and poultry production. A phytomineral composition is characterised by preparing a solution of 3-4 g of sea salt in 1000 ml of purified water. The solution is heated to temperature 80-90C, added with dried and ground everlasting, marigold, nettle, birch buds, pine buds, yarrow, laminaria in the following proportions in the solutions, g: everlasting 8-10, marigold 8-10, nettle 8-10, birch buds 8-10, pine buds 8-10, yarrow 8-10, laminaria 8-10, sea salt 3-4. The mixture is soaked in boiling-water bath and kept heated for 1-1.5 hours, cooled, squeezed out, filtered. During autumn, spring and winter, the mixture is added with Saint-John's-wort in the amount of 3-4 g. A method for using the phytomineral composition is characterised by processing a premise by the phytomineral composition in the form of fog spray small dispersion at approximately 1-1.5 ml per m3 and exposing for 5-10 minutes if counting from the spraying termination time.

EFFECT: use of the declared group of inventions provides effective reinforcement of the poultry immunity, has no side effects.

1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and aims at treating the patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) in the stage of latency and degree I manifested stage of hepatic encephalopathy. The preparation Essentiale forte N is used. It is combined with prescribing the preparation Mucofalk. The course is 28-30 days.

EFFECT: method enables reducing dyspepsia events and encephalopathy manifestations.

5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to creation of toothpaste for treatment of diseases of oral cavity mucosa and inflammatory diseases of periodontium tissues. Therapeutic and prophylactic toothpaste for treatment of inflammatory diseases of periodontium and oral cavity mucosa contains peptides associated with phospholipids, obtained from liver of Gadidae family with quantitative ratio, wt %: peptides 40-99 and phospholipids 1-60, as well as abrasive material, shape-forming thickening agent, water-retaining substance, cleaning and foam-generating component, preservative, dye, flavour and purified water in specified component ratio. Therapeutic and prophylactic toothpaste can additionally contain antioxidant, sweetener, plant extract, fluorides and/or desensitising agent. Application of toothpaste in short terms results in considerable improvement of state of periodontium and oral cavity tissues. In particular, fast elimination of inflammatory process, reduction of bleeding and painfulness of gums are observed.

EFFECT: paste produces healing effect, accelerates reparative processes, improves tissue trophism, does not possess side effects, does not cause allergic reactions and can be used in any age irrespective of presence of accompanying diseases.

17 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cosmetic industry and represents product for hair dyeing, which includes first component, including alkaline agent, second component, including hydrogen peroxide and foam-generating container of non-aerosol type for releasing solution of first and second component mixture in form of foam, where mixture solution includes the following ingredients (A) and (B): (A) from 0.1 to 10% by mass of non-ionic surface-active substance and (B) from 0.1 to 5% by mass of cation surface-active substance and mass ratio of ingredient (A) to ingredient (B) (content of ingredient (A)/content of ingredient (B) constitutes from 1 to 100.

EFFECT: invention ensures improved sensation of touch, easiness of application and property of supporting foam.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cosmetic industry and represents product for hair dyeing, which includes first component, including alkaline agent, second component, including hydrogen peroxide and foam-generating container of non-aerosol type for releasing solution of first and second component mixture in form of foam, where mixture solution includes the following ingredients (A) and (B): (A) from 0.1 to 10% by mass of non-ionic surface-active substance and (B) from 0.1 to 5% by mass of cation surface-active substance and mass ratio of ingredient (A) to ingredient (B) (content of ingredient (A)/content of ingredient (B) constitutes from 1 to 100.

EFFECT: invention ensures improved sensation of touch, easiness of application and property of supporting foam.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cosmetic industry and represents product for hair dyeing, which includes first component, including alkaline agent, second component, including hydrogen peroxide and foam-generating container of non-aerosol type for releasing solution of first and second component mixture in form of foam, where mixture solution includes the following ingredients (A) and (B): (A) from 0.1 to 10% by mass of non-ionic surface-active substance and (B) from 0.1 to 5% by mass of cation surface-active substance and mass ratio of ingredient (A) to ingredient (B) (content of ingredient (A)/content of ingredient (B) constitutes from 1 to 100.

EFFECT: invention ensures improved sensation of touch, easiness of application and property of supporting foam.

5 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to veterinary science and poultry production. A phytomineral composition is characterised by preparing a solution of 3-4 g of sea salt in 1000 ml of purified water. The solution is heated to temperature 80-90C, added with dried and ground everlasting, marigold, nettle, birch buds, pine buds, yarrow, laminaria in the following proportions in the solutions, g: everlasting 8-10, marigold 8-10, nettle 8-10, birch buds 8-10, pine buds 8-10, yarrow 8-10, laminaria 8-10, sea salt 3-4. The mixture is soaked in boiling-water bath and kept heated for 1-1.5 hours, cooled, squeezed out, filtered. During autumn, spring and winter, the mixture is added with Saint-John's-wort in the amount of 3-4 g. A method for using the phytomineral composition is characterised by processing a premise by the phytomineral composition in the form of fog spray small dispersion at approximately 1-1.5 ml per m3 and exposing for 5-10 minutes if counting from the spraying termination time.

EFFECT: use of the declared group of inventions provides effective reinforcement of the poultry immunity, has no side effects.

1 ex

Up!