Method of examination and diagnostics of condition of biological object or its part
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and can be used for examination and diagnostics of biological object or its part. Method of examination and diagnostics includes the following stages: image of biological object is obtained, obtained image is calibrated and standardised, computed morphodensitometric analysis is performed. For this purpose zones of interest are identified on obtained image, required ranges of charcteristics of signal intensity are determined by fixed distribution of characteristics of irradiation interaction with substance on image, graphic presentation of distribution of intensities of image elements is formed with possibility of superposition of graphic presentation on image. After that, morphometric and densitometric parameters of image are determined, said parameters of examined object are compared with analogous parameters of reference group and decision about condition of examined object is taken on the basis of comparison results. When image of biological object is obtained, shooting of examined object is performed with additional application of illuminator with changeable emission spectrum. Source of illumination is moved on circumference around object of examination and angle of ray incidence is changed discretely at each following circle due to movement of illuminator, shooting is performed and series of object images in different spectrums of illumination for each position of illumination source is obtained, calibration of light intensity is performed in different spectrums of illumination. After that, several pictures of image are accumulated with further obtaining by said pictures average image for each version of illuminator spectrum separately, graphic presentation of distribution of intensities of image elements is performed in form of histogram. Histogram is performed with possibility of linearise and expanding in automatic, interactive modes.
EFFECT: application of claimed invention will make it possible to increase accuracy and hardness of obtained images of examined objects, and due to it obtain more objective picture of changes in biological object at the level of its structure.
The invention relates to medicine and can be used to study and diagnose the condition of a biological object or its parts.
A known method for studying and diagnosing the condition of a biological object, or part thereof, consisting in the determination of morphometric and densitometric parameters of the image within the regions of the received image, then the indices of the investigated object compare with similar indicators for the comparison group and the comparison results are decided on the state of the object (1, RU # 2295297, IPC AB 10/00, 2006.01).
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to digital processing of the received information and its low reliability caused by the inability of the study of biological objects on lower hierarchical levels and lack of a broad set of quantitative attributes describing the object, and lack of comparability of survey results over time.
A device for studying cells comprising a laser light source and a microscope for observation of fluorescently labeled cell samples, the camera which is used to collect images of cell samples with a microscope, a computer for collecting digital images from the camera and a group of reflectors (Zer is al), includes electronic control mirrors, the optical axis which can be adjusted so that laser light reflected, focuses on the microscope (5, US No. 2005276456, IPC G06K 9/00, published facilities 15.12.2005,).
The disadvantage of this device is the necessity to introduce in the selected cell samples fluorescing substance that prevents further use of selected tissues for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
A known image processing system, imaging system and a microscope system that includes a unit receiving image data, a unit for the primary image processing relating to color correction and tone correction of image data unit of the secondary image processing, performing a color correction based on a color visual model of the image data, a unit for calculating parameters used in the primary processing of the image before secondary treatment and processing of the image data after the second image processing and controlling unit to control the parameters of the image processing unit of the primary image processing (13, US No. 2009141127, IPC G06R 9/00, published 04.06.2009,).
The disadvantage of this method is the use of methods of color correction and multiple will prefix the other image processing, that reduces the reliability of the diagnostic results.
The closest technical solution to the claimed invention is a method for studying and diagnosing the condition of a biological object, or part thereof, including computer morphodencitometric (MDM) study. The performance of the investigated object compare with similar indicators for the comparison group and the comparison results are decided on the state of the object.
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of quality of the obtained image of the object.
The purpose of this technical solution is the sharpness and contrast of the images of the objects studied, and due to this, obtaining a more objective picture of changes in the biological object at the level of its structure.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that when shooting the object of study in addition use the illuminator with variable emission spectrum, embedded in the microscope.
The method of study and diagnose the condition of a biological object, or part thereof, comprising obtaining an image of a biological object or its parts, calibration and standardization of the received image, conduct computer morfogeneticheskogo research, namely the detection zone is Teresa on the received image, establishing the required ranges of the characteristics of the signal intensity on the fixed distribution characteristics of the interaction of radiation with matter in the image forming columns in the form of arcs passing through the elements with certain characteristics of the interaction of radiation with matter, the division has identified zones on the field with the formation of boundaries between them, which impose the obtained graphs, display the received count on the original image, determining morphometric and densitometric parameters of the image within the regions, the data mapping indicators of the investigated object with similar indicators for the comparison group and the results of the comparison, the decision on the state of the object, wherein when obtaining the image of the biological object or part conduct imaging of the examined object, optionally using the illuminator with variable emission spectrum, you get a series of images of the object in different spectra of light, the calibration of the light intensity is carried out in different spectra of radiation.
Image of the studied object or its parts get with opto-mechanical optical device display.
Image of the studied object or its parts produced using the microscope, is negatoscope.
Image of the studied object or its parts get with digital x-ray machine and/or ultrasonography.
Image of the studied object or its parts receive a magnetic, electric or optical media.
Image of the studied object or its parts produced by the discretization in space and quantization in amplitude.
Image of the investigated object is obtained by filtering.
The image is calibrated by stacking multiple images and/or combining signals from adjacent elements, the receiving signal in the receiving device.
Lighting device with controllable spectral composition of the illuminating beams, built-in microscopes LOMO must ensure the management of the LEDs of the light source for forming the object of illumination light beams with spectral composition, the appropriate range of standard sources of type a, b, C, D and E (revealty), as well as their combinations with the filter as domestic production and foreign.
Lighting device with controllable spectral composition of the illuminating beam must ensure that the mode quasi-monochromatic illumination for the implementation of the spectral method the research object.
The shelter consists of a block of the color of the output light-emitting diodes (LEDs), diffuser and (in the case of transmitted light) may include a condenser of the type CON-3, and control unit LEDs.
Structurally, the OS should be able to install on production models of microscopes type Biolam R, C, D, Micmed 1, Micmed 5, 6 (China-LOMO) and to the microscopes of the class Micmed 2 (inverted bracket condenser, direct and inverted brackets attached).
The shelter when working with the condenser should ensure that the size of the illuminated field required to work with microobjective, having increased from 2.5  to 100 times (10-0,2 mm), and the desired level of illumination.
When working without condenser OS should provide the size of the illuminated field to 27 (21) mm
The block DM includes at least three Board of Directors for the implementation of the continuous spectrum of radiation is not less than 4). The block DM is specified at the stage of technical project.
As a scatterer (OS transmitted light) can be used frosted glass.
For lighting large fields when working as part of macroscope OS should have an implementation for SD different power less than 1 W (1, 2, 3, 5 watts).
The control unit DM should go through the change of currents in accordance with the current dependence of the luminous flux BD (taken from the results of measurements or passport).
One of the possible options for the construction management the ia is the initial setting of the currents, necessary to implement revealsthe source type E, when the emitted luminous flux of all SJ are equal.
Further in accordance with the "table" of values of the ordinates of the function corresponding to the desired spectral curve (source type And etc), the abscissa of which coincide with λmaxradiation DM, factor is introduced To<=1. The value of K is determined by the normalized values of the ordinates of the desired spectrum.
Mode virtual filter introduces a second factor, also designated "table" value normalized ordinate of a transmission spectrum of the optical filter for the corresponding λmaxThe SD.
The common factor is determined by the product of all factors, which may be more than two, for example, by introducing a factor that takes into account the selective properties of the transmittance of the optical system (OS), building the image of the illuminated object, or taking into account the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector, which is often appropriate to level characteristics under eyes. Otherwise, we can account for the selective properties of all system components - source, OS, OS, detector, display system information (SDI) monitor, printer, photo printer, etc.
The values of these coefficients must be defined and in any form "sewn" into the system memory management.
The operation modes of the LEDs OS is set by the operator via the touch screen associated with microprocessor cards based control chipset family Microchip PIC32 or via the USB interface from the external computer.
In VPC MDM analysis includes:
the input device image, such as image sensor in the form of a CCD-camera (CCD), and others;
opto-mechanical optical device display, such as a camera lens, micro, light box, and others, with the possible option in which it may not, for example, when the direct input signal, for example, with digital x-ray machine, ultrasonography and others;
diafragmirovanija extended diffuse source-distributed (according to the law of Lambert) transmitted light, such as light box, condenser dark/bright field (CCTT);
the lighting device of the incident light for the illumination of opaque media (safety table);
lighting system (OS) with controllable spectral composition of the illuminating beam, mounted in the microscope.
2. Specialized system view is of atracta, including:
the digitizer (e.g., frame grabber, an analog-to-digital Converter);
software-controlled storage unit and multi-window (frame) display database (DB) videoarchivesromantic images, including MDM presentation of the results of digital image processing;
Internals - block mates and visual display device (ICD) (for example, an additional monitor or TV) to control and display a set of MDM images.
3. A block of digital image processing consists of:
hardware, such as computing device;
the software part is in the form of specialized software (STRs) MDM analysis of biological objects based on a system of "TENETA"®.
The imaging device images dvuhokonny organization dialog interface, for example, as part of the display (or mnogokletochnogo output images), where
screen or part of screen, which displays, for example, the initial (or previous) display object;
screen or part of screen, which displays, for example, the image of the object in the Clearinghouse and/or MDM representation (or subsequent);
device pairing VPC MDM analysis with local and global networks, such as a modem;
the device documentation (print, CD-RW);
Pro is approximately (a summary of the results, for example, statistical processing, primary data, conclusion).
MDM system allows you to work with groups that were not previously investigated for this system (with the accumulation of a database and so on, i.e. in the training mode)and bio-objects, these past studies. One of the main blocks (blocks in graphics not shown) of the system is the unit an a priori definition of objectives, which form a goal that can be achieved when solving tasks, such as early diagnosis, prognosis, objective assessment of the effectiveness of remedial measures or functional description of photomorphogenesis, i.e. the course of the disease. Another block is the block of a priori knowledge, in which is included a priori knowledge expert on the biological object, for example the structure of the nucleus, cytoplasm, what is the strength of bones. On the basis of these blocks form the information model, i.e. the idea of the combination purpose and object properties. Based on the information model, the researcher develops a particular way of achieving the goal, namely how to choose the tools to obtain the necessary information, such as control signals, in order to adjust this control.
The function of goal setting, consisting of several components, the main of which correspond to the block information model and include the following :
1. Job purpose on the basis of a priori information specialist about the object, such as early diagnosis, prognosis, objective assessment of the effectiveness of remedial measures or functional description of photomorphogenesis.
2. Appropriate segmentation, i.e. the splitting of the object on the area of interest, which subsequently emit, secondaries removed.
In this case, because the function of goal setting if necessary to optimally match the preparation of a biological object to be examined (for example, fixed blood smear, tissue slice, and so on) and enter it using the pre-processing of the bio-object that allows you to increase the amount of information about it. Pre-treatment of the biological object is exposed to, for example, by using chemical substances prior research with the end goal and a priori knowledge of a specialist.
A priori and a posteriori knowledge are divided as follows. When the researcher has extracted information, for example, from some source or decided, then worked on the biological object, evaluated the effectiveness of therapeutic effects and then he turns to the literature in search of similar cases or thus, he uses the a priori information, i.e. not received them. Therefore, the a priori knowledge for those who received them. But the ISS is Edomites has its own empirical experience (a posteriori) and it synthesizes its own individual base experience (a posteriori knowledge) and obtained a priori knowledge to make certain decisions. Accuracy unjustified, since it is not known to the algorithm.
The MDM system analysis "TENETA"®allows you to conduct research and diagnostics on the following structural and functional levels structured hierarchical bio-object:
6. Subcellular (e.g., the combination of supramolecular structures: membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm).
As carriers of information about the bio-object use:
a) native or processed biological object (e.g., blood smears, tissue slice, etc.);
b) hard copy;
C) the generated signal in VPC MDM analysis directly from the equipment used in this survey, computer aided transmission of information.
The principle MDM research is a special treatment introduced in VPC MDM analysis of information about the biological object in the form of image and/or set of parametric indicators and preparing it for morfogeneticheskogo research and subsequent analysis.
System "TENETA"®allows you to work with previously studied biological objects, i.e. with the accumulated data files (video, databases, etc. of comparison groups and modified groups)and research is to previously unused by this method the hierarchical levels of biological object with the ability to create archives databases, etc. Feature of MDM study is the possibility of complex phased analysis of the bio-object based on the transformation of his image during repeated solution of the same problem for different versions of the image object, empirical selection of the most optimal variant with subsequent fixation of the optimal solution as a sequence of operations with the use of feedback. In the MDM study as output data to determine MDM signs in the form of more than 200 comprehensive quantitative indicators to describe the normal and modified (pathological) structures of biological object, as well as to construct new indicators. It should be noted that the list of MDM indicators exist and such that visual analysis is practically not identifies and very poorly estimates (e.g., texture, topological indices). A partial list of MDM characteristics are presented in figure 2. Using the MDM approach, you can log in feature space relations, functional relations that characterizes changes in the relationship of structural and functional dependence (correlation coefficient, regression equation)that are most subtly react to changes in the bio-object, which provides a diagnosis in the early stages of the disease.
Morphogenically the cue diagnostic method allows to explore with the formation of the corresponding data arrays:
- groups of patients with different pathological changes in the body at any hierarchical level;
- group of patients with disease related to a single species, including at different stages;
is the patient on any hierarchical level of the organization;
the group studied objects hierarchical level as one patient groups (for example, types of subpopulations of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear);
- a single of the investigated object and its elements (elements of the membrane of erythrocytes).
When describing MDM research is commonly understood as the following.
1. Morphogenically©is a specialized method of physical rendering of the facility, including reconstruction of its morphological structures, including stereological characteristics of the object according to preliminary information, for example, in the form of a set of matrices of the intensity distribution of the light flux obtained for different wavelengths carrying out the transformation of the methods of digital image processing to local and integral quantitative MDM indicators, allowing to combine methods of evaluating structural uporyadochennosti object-based MDM baseline and measures, such as the definition of the structural entropy and the presence of domain boundaries.
2. MDM options - a set of optical (cytometrics and geometric (morphometric) signs (for example, the gradient of optical density).
3. The original image is a primary image obtained after the input (in this case, optical) image with subsequent digitization in CMDM complex.
4. Image - the TV picture on the screen, covering the object and the background around it.
5. Overlay - highlighted image overlaid on a grayscale or binary image and used if necessary to control the adequacy of the conversion of the image relative to the original image.
6. The binary image is converted original image in two tonal levels by excluding from it the values of intensities that are not included in the specified range.
7. Graph - partitioning of the object on the structural and topological zone with the formation of the skeleton.
8. The object is specified (selected) morphological structure in the original image for subsequent measurements.
9. The background area of the image outside of the object.
10. Intensity - the intensity of the flow, in this case, the light transmitted (or reflected, emitted, depending on the media) through the object.
11. Digital image processing - methods of processing digital images.
12. The comparison group (control group) - statistical structural topological and setting the ical characteristics of biological objects apparently healthy patients.
13. Segmentation is the selection of some parts of the image corresponding to particular structures, relative to the background or other structures by specifying a different light settings.
14. Multi-level segmentation is the selection of some parts of the images by their color painting by specifying a minimum and maximum for each of the parameters describing the color (for example, HSV). If the point of the original image has a color cast that the corresponding values of H, S and V are between specified levels, the point is considered belonging to the selected section, otherwise the point is declared background and it is assigned the background color, in this case - black. The input image in VPC MDM analysis can be carried out with the use of devices in the form of a television camera (TV camera), imager scanner, magnetic or other types of media using, if necessary, of the devices performing the scaling, for example a microscope, etc. When used as a funnel from the media to the VPC MDM analysis of the various streams (e.g., light, heat) can be used flux emitted by the object under study, passed through him or storage medium and reflected from them.
Morphogenicallythe method of diagnosis using VPC MDM analysis computer television on the basis of MDM may include, in this case, an optical device (microscope), the receiving device (video camera), hardware-software device made in the form of a system of "TENETA"®containing interconnected blocks of input, processing, description, image and data processing, and video device (monitor, and if necessary, visual display device (ICD), such as an additional monitor or TV, for example, with a resolution of the screen other than the monitor).
A more detailed description of the work VPC MDM analysis disclosure of all basic operations are presented below.
At the beginning of the work conducted sterowanie microscope at low and high magnification. Align the small increase is as follows: omit the subject table and put in the working position the lens of the microscope (10×), install the product and with the help of macro - and micro screws focus in the plane of the drug, achieving the required field, then reduce the field aperture to minimum and move it into the field of view (the lighting should be dim), then using a screw depth of field of the capacitor to achieve a clear image of the edge of the field diaphragm open field diaf the agmu to the edges of the field of view, focus using microvita and close the gate of the microscope. The alignment on the big increase is as follows: increase the illumination of the drug, omit the subject table and put a drop of immersion liquid on the drug at the center of the flow of light, set in the working position the lens of the microscope (100×), using macro - and micro screws achieve the sharpness of the image, then reduce the field diaphragm, remove the edge of the field diaphragm in the field of view, achieve clarity of his images with a screw depth of field of the condenser and use necessary for this work filters. Before the input image to remember to close the gate of the microscope and display the image of the observed field of view on the video monitor set with screws microscope object in the center of the screen of the video monitor and if you need to completely focus it, controlling the sharpness of the image, for example, on a video monitor. When properly configured and working illuminator alignment microscope must not be violated during the change of the emission spectrum of the light source.
Biological object (fixed smear of peripheral blood) establish on the subject of the microscope table. At the beginning of the working set list and volume measured before MDM research settings. In this case, for example, change auth the following kernel parameters cell: area (AREA), perimeter (PERM), form factor (FF), the optical density (OD) (D), the standard deviation of absorbance (OD), the integral optical density (1).
Using the illuminator with variable emission spectrum, move the light source along the circle around the object of study and discrete change in each subsequent round the angle of incidence of the rays through the movement of the light source along the Z axis and produce the capture object. You get a series of images of the object in different spectra of light for each position of the light source.
The input image is performed with the possibility of rendering it on the screen VPC MDM analysis and subsequent storage of the information on the image in the complex (buffer, file), accumulating if multiple image frames then get on these frames averaged image for each variation of the spectrum of the light source separately. Even at high signal intensity, by reducing noise, improving the image quality. On the monitor screen, you can display more than one image, for which field of the display screen is divided, for example, in the 4th quadrant, which if necessary can be derived in various ways images after their transformations. With the introduction of images in the buffer of the complex is a two-fold decrease of its size in the rtically and horizontally (512*512 to 256*256 or more).
The image of the object (under the image in this case should be understood directly to the research object and the background around him)entered from the TV cameras, convert adapter input television signal, while the spatial discretization of the image by a square raster or grid with a step of scanning a single element (in this case, the pixel and the quantization him on the intensity of the light flux in the different spectra of radiation passing through each element, in the form of a matrix of intensity distribution and different spectra of radiation. Each element represents the average on the small square of the intensity. In this case, the MDM study matrix wondered dimension 256*256*N elements, where N is the number of different implementations of the emission spectrum of the light source and the intensity of the light flux passing through each of its elements, was set in the range from 0 (black) to 255 (white) conventional units (cu), i.e., 256 shades of grayscale colors for quantization in intensity. The overlay image is made with the same spatial dimension, i.e. 256*256, but ask for each item value of the overlay image only two values - 0 and 1.
Standardization of measurements carried out geometric and pricheskoj calibration system for later comparison of the characteristics of objects, removing objects that are partially within the field of view. Geometric calibration is carried out, first, by setting in advance a known scale factor, secondly, by defining it directly by analyzing the image. The scale factor is determined using the reference image as an image object micrometer, which fix two points (distance between which is known in advance) and connect them direct. Determine the magnitude of this segment in the selected units of measurement and comparing it against a known value, determine the scale factor.
Calibration of illumination of the drug (intensity) of light in different spectra of radiation transmitted through the background area of the drug, intended to standardize its light for the subsequent mapping of the optical characteristics of objects of all archives using different drugs. Perform the calibration as follows: determine the average value of the light intensity of each of the picture elements within the selected area, which is further referred to as the background intensity (Iabout), and used for measurement of optical parameters. Averaging light is used for lubrication, determining the average luminance averaging or weighted the second average of pixel reside in the local area. In one of the Windows on the field screen of the monitor display image and move a square frame size*SIZE, within which, including borders, continuously determine the average luminance level of the image elements, the value of which is fixed. Move the frame around the image to start with the background region with the highest intensity, i.e. the lightest area of the image. This can be subjected to calibration, a series of images entered into the buffer directly from the TV camera under the control of the intensity values of the background to ensure its equal value in the image of drugs, injected with TV cameras. The recommended level of illumination in the background region near the object on the slide smear of peripheral blood (unpainted drug) is the value, for example equal to 170 standard units (S.U.), which is achieved by using the knob of the microscope. With proper alignment of the microscope, the intensity of the background at various points near the object must be in the interval 168-172 $ Applying the filtered image, improve image quality, enhance and emphasise the boundaries of objects in the halftone image. Low frequency (LF) filter allows you to smooth out high-frequency noise, to align the image on the background. Carried out, for example,a digital gradient, high frequency (HF), including Laplace, bass averaging, nonlinear, including Gaussian, median filtering, image, linearizing image, and emphasizing silvania selection of boundaries of objects in the halftone image. Level of background illumination image in a multiplicative (by contrast) and additive (intensity) mode at a reference image, which is obtained by input from the TV camera image without objects (the area free of objects, such as plot smear without blood corpuscles), taking into account the correction of the average intensity values of the image. Spend the linearization of the image and increased allocation of boundaries of objects in the image using an intermediate gradient Sobel filter, after which the image diskriminerede single-level segmentation, and selected elements linearizer. The result is an image with clearly defined edges of the elements. The proposed method allows to graphically display the distribution of the intensities of the picture elements, for example, in the form of a histogram (figure 3) with the ability to overlay it on the image and transformation, as well as to enhance the contrast of images using histograms of the intensity distribution of the image elements. With this build the histogram distribution is possible intensities of the picture elements with the ability to linearize (qualitybath), normalize (expandyouth) image in an automatic, online or local modes. The histogram is playing and cumulative frequency histograms, while taking into account all the elements of the image or excluding elements with boundary values of intensity equal to 0 or 255, retain the histogram in the overlay image. Perform equalization of the image, which receive a series of images (for each variant spectrum illuminator) with a uniform histogram with uniform intensity distribution.
Form the image, which is linearly converted to the specified range of intensities of elements in the input (source) image to output the specified range, and the range of intensities for conversion, you can adjust the histogram of the intensity distribution. Spend duplex and dynamic segmentation of the image intensity and highlight the contours of objects. During segmentation of the specified top-level discrimination in the form of ranges of intensities (in the range from 0 to 255). When performing a binary segmentation of the image elements having a value of intensity within the set limits, take the intensity value of 255 (white)and the rest (outside the specified limits) - value and is tensively, 0 (black). When carrying out halftone segmentation of the image elements having intensity within the specified limits remain the intensity value, and the rest (outside the specified limits) take the intensity value of 0. If the value of the lower level is less than or equal to the upper level of discrimination of the image that distinguish the elements in the range of intensities (from 0 to the specified top-level discrimination, and given the lower level of discrimination to 255), i.e., not isolated elements having an intensity value between predetermined upper and lower levels of discrimination image. Initially, take in one of the graphics Windows, for example, left, a histogram of the intensities of the elements, superimposed on the original image, in which the signs of the upper and lower level of segmentation. At selected levels are image segmentation. Ask: the size of the transformation matrix of intensity, range top-level segmentation of the intensities of the filtered image in the range from 0 to 255 and the value of the lower level of the same image, 0, which specify in a simple and interactive modes. Conduct preliminary inversion of the image, i.e. allocate dark objects. Highlight the contours of the objects in the image is agenie with a preliminary set of intensities ranging from 0 to 255 for objects in the input image, the path which you want to select, and assigned to the contour of the object in the output buffer, using, if necessary, the mode expansion of the contour line in horizontal, vertical, diagonal, for example, at an angle of 45 and 135 degrees, horizontal and vertical, in the form of a cross, a square element, for example, with a size of 3*3 pixels, octagonal element. Mathematical morphology exercise for increasing or compression, separation or merger, the selection of the skeleton of the objects (in addition to logical operations on the image) is performed on the binary image (with a given value of the intensity of image elements equal to 0 or 255) and include compression, extension, disconnection capricasix and Association blizkrieg objects, filling gaps inside with closed circuit, a logical operation, the selection of the skeleton of the binary object, the restoration of the broken lines of the skeleton of the object. The selection of the skeleton of the object is performed by building a binary count to set the number of cycles of operation with option invert the input image with the selection of the skeleton of the "black" objects and preserving the free ends of all lines or without saving them with the formation of binary cyclic graph. Restore the line breaks of the skeleton of the binary object to build binanog the graph with the task of cycles of repetition extension end point using a "cross-shaped" element and the cycle selection frame, 255, without extracting the skeleton of the "black" objects save ends of the lines (when the operation is performed without repeating cycle in the output image leaving only the end points of the skeleton of the object). When choosing a field measurement parameters specify the parameters for the total measurement of objects (field parameters) as the number of objects, total area and total perimeter and create a description (descriptors) of these parameters in a temporary database. Before performing the selection of field parameters specify the upper and lower bounds of the parameter values, and parameter limits are set, if necessary, measurement of objects in a certain range of parameter values. In this case, with subsequent measurement of objects exclude the parameters of the object from the temporary database when entering a parameter value outside the specified limits. Selection of classic morphometric and densitometric parameters of the measurement carried out by their jobs, namely the area and perimeter of an object, the diameter of a circle equivalent to the object area, the minimum and maximum diameters of the object, the angle between the X axis and the direction of maximum diameter, form factor, the coordinates of the center of gravity of the object along the axes X and Y, the projection of the object in the image on the X-axis and Y represents the average intensity value and its standard deviation, average mn is an increase in the optical transmittance and its standard deviation, the mean optical density and its standard deviation, the integral optical density of the object. Before the operations ask: lower and upper bounds of the parameter values in the determination of the coordinates of the center of gravity of the object and the projection of the object in the image on the X-axis and Y, the lower and upper bounds for the values of the average value and the standard deviation in the determination of average values: intensity, optical transmittance, optical density and standard deviation, lower and upper bounds of the parameter values in the determination of area, perimeter, diameter of a circle equivalent to the object area, the minimum and maximum diameter of the object, the angle between the X axis and the direction of maximum diameter, form factor and integrated optical density object. The limits of measurement parameters specify, if necessary, measurement of objects in a certain range of parameter values. In this case, with subsequent measurement of objects exclude the object, parameter values which are outside the specified limit. Measurement of objects in the image and obtaining the measurement results in the form of a histogram distribution of the parameters, the table includes: the identification of objects before measurement, automatic and interactive measurement of objects, three the representation of measurement results in the form of a table or histogram of the distribution of parameters of interest, cleaning the internal database. Object identification is performed on the binary image for automatic measurement of objects with the ability to delete objects, partially on the image correction"window dimension" is intended to visually assess the accuracy of the segmentation result (selection of measurement)). The objects represent different intensity, which emit different color. Nearby objects can be denoted by the same color that characterizes the connection of these objects between a "jumper", and measured as a single object, so the data objects share. Automatic measurement of objects on the set in algebraic, geometric, and other transformations of the image, also after selecting morphometric and densitometric parameters. It is possible to vary the set of measured parameters, modes of operations and the number of objects of measurement, including the ability to exclude objects whose parameters can be measured will not visualize the process of automatic measurement, giving a different color to the measured object, for example a white color, and displaying them in another graphics window, the coding of each object, for example, a serial number and stores it in the measurement process. Modes with an interactive activity about which of yackov measurement or automatic measurement of all objects with the exception of objects, parameters to be measured will not be the visualization process automatic measurement, coding each object is carried out only when measuring morphological and densitometric parameters. Then measure the parameters of the object with the possibility of indicating the stages of the operations, and the contours of the measured objects stored in the overlay. If the circuit path of the object was performed in automatic or interactive modes, then the object is considered all the elements that lie inside and under the curve of the path. After measurement of the object image within the overlay contour paint color overlay. After measuring the results with varying types of parameters if necessary, display or print, in the form of a matrix and save it. Output to screen or print with the ability to visualize histograms of the distribution of parameters of interest, including histograms of the results of the last measurement or histogram of all measured parameters of interest, varying the set of measured field or morphometric and densitometric parameters, the number of histogram classes (ranging from 1 to 30) in standby mode or in the automatic display mode of the histogram. In this conclusion, for example, histograms of the distribution of parameter space indicate: Count number measured by the s objects; Avr is the average value of the parameter; StdD - standard deviation parameter; StdEr - standard error of the parameter; Min and Max are respectively the minimum and maximum value; Med - median; Nmod is the number of the class with the maximum frequency value (modal class). Algebraic, geometric, and other image transformations allow carrying out algebraic operations on images and geometric transformations of images, movement, rotation and scaling, and include averaging the two images, invert image, a linear combination of images, elementwise addition, subtraction and multiplication of two images, element-by-element division one image to another image, scaling the image by a factor of 2, task reference, identical with the transformation of the image frames, geometric transformation, mirroring of images, interactive geometric transformation of the image fragment. Linear combination produces elementwise weighted addition in different modes: 0 - assign negative values of efficiency is 0, exceed an amount equal to 255 - the value 255; 1 - the range of intensities linearly transform to the range 0-255; 2 - assign a negative value of the result is 0, and values, p is iisalmen value 255, - the intensity value of the image elements from the input image buffer; 3 - assign a negative value of the absolute values with the possibility of adding constants (-255...255) to the values of the intensities of result items and the use of weights for the image elements in the range from-1.0 to 1.0. Add (element) of the two images is carried out at different modes: 1 - normalization is not carried out; 2 - exceeding the intensity of the elements of the value 255 elements of the assigned value is 255; 3 - the range of values of the intensities of the linear transform to the range 0-255. When you perform subtraction element-by-element subtraction of one image from another using a variety of modes: 1 - normalization is not carried out; 2 - assign negative intensity values of the elements of the result is 0; 3 - the range of values of the intensities of the linear transform to the range 0-255; 4 - exceeding the intensity of the elements of the value 127 elements of the assign an intensity value of 255 when the difference of the intensity values of the elements in the first and second input buffers, less - 127 elements of the assigned value 0. Multiplication (element-by-element) of two objects carry out the preliminary task value constants in the range from 1 to 255, which share the values of the intensities of all elements of the result. The benchmarks set for subsequent identical geometric transformations by specifying the image of point (3) and then combining them into a geometric figure. After an identical conversion in the output graphics window display the converted image is placed in the same place, has the same dimensions and orientation as the previous image. For example, measurement of specialized MDM settings form cytoplasmic membranes of erythrocytes and kernel includes measurement of the parameters of the optical profile of the erythrocyte, a three-level image segmentation for subsequent measurement of parameters of a 4-component object and the measuring of the parameters of the binary count. Measure stereological MDM settings form cytoplasmic membrane of erythrocytes (discocytes) optical profile for a given scan line. Specify the name of the archive then store the result.
Similar operations are performed for each case the spectrum of the light source. When this is imposed by the requirement of consistency of results.
That allows you to:
1. To improve the accuracy of measurement of the shape of the object.
2. To increase the reliability of the reconstruction of the shape of the object, to eliminate the possibility of poaul the deposits of artifacts.
3. To resolve the problem of singularity of the inverse matrix when restoring objects of complex shape.
When working with a group of investigated objects most informative from the point of view of changes of objects and then classify them by subpopulations and analysis group. So, for example, in the study of peripheral blood smear, where the criterion of research and analysis projects are the determining the change in the subpopulation composition of red blood cells, changes in the structure of the nucleus and of the elements included in it, conduct a sample of red blood cells with the formation of the modal groups of subpopulations (ferocity, discocyte etc). Furthermore, they may include different images of the same biological object or image of the same parts of different biological objects. First, identify typical representatives of each group of objects (at low and high magnification), for example, exploring the area of a blood smear, fell into the field of view of the microscope. Sampling is conducted using a priori information under visual control, for example, select the objects related to the same General structural lines, and with the change in the structural variation within the normal distribution. After that of the typical representatives by selective screening using, for example, histograms of the distribution of the intensity is Yunosti each object or other information in the form of numerical characteristics form the modal group, which is represented in the form of images and data about the objects. Thus, the form data array from a set of images and data on the studied biological objects with detection of the most informative and modal (common) groups, each of the hierarchical levels, including the comparison group (control group), and the number of representatives after each sample is reduced. As a result, the image of each object is divided into pixels, defined the information content of the light flux and the area of each of the pixels.
Further, conducting studies of each of the objects corresponding modal group.
1. The method of study and diagnose the condition of a biological object that includes acquiring an image of the biological object, the calibration and standardization of the received image, conduct computer morfogeneticheskogo research, namely: identification of regions of interest on images, establishing the required ranges of the characteristics of the signal intensity on the fixed distribution characteristics of the interaction of radiation with matter in the image, forming the image display intensity distribution of the image elements with the ability to overlay graphics display image definition wide-angle the morphometric and densitometric parameters of the image, data mapping indicators of the investigated object with similar indicators for the comparison group and the results of the comparison, the decision on the state of the object, wherein when obtaining the image of the biological object are shooting the studied object, optionally using the illuminator with variable radiation spectrum, while moving the light source along the circle around the object of study and discrete change in each subsequent round the angle of incidence of the rays through the movement of the illuminator and shoots, receiving a series of images of the object in different spectra of light for each position of the light source, the calibration of the light intensity is carried out in different spectra of radiation, also accumulate multiple frames the image then get on these frames averaged image for each variation of the spectrum of the light source separately, and graphical display of the distribution of the intensities of the picture elements are in the form of a histogram, which is done with the ability to lanzirotti and expandyouth in automatic or interactive modes.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the image of the examined object are obtained from the opto-mechanical optical device display.
3. The method according to claim 2, otlichuy is the, that image of the investigated object is received with the help of a microscope, viewing box.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the image of the examined object are obtained from the digital x-ray machine and/or ultrasonography.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the image of the examined object are obtained from the magnetic, electric or optical media.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the image of the examined object are obtained by discretizing space and quantization in amplitude.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the image of the examined object is obtained by filtering.
FIELD: engineering of video microscopes.
SUBSTANCE: video microscope has emission source, optical system for delivering its radiation to optical surface of object table, optical system for forming image and electronic image receiver, and also block for controlling and processing an image, electrically connected to electronic image receiver. Video microscope additionally includes at least one test object, controllable special selector, positioned between radiation source and optical system for delivering radiation and electrically connected to controlling and video processing block, and optical system for delivering radiation includes light splitter and photo-detector, optically connected to output of selector through light splitter and electrically connected to block for controlling and processing image. During registration of image, arrays of digital image data of researched and test objects are received and array of digital data for optical response function of researched object is formed by splitting each value of digital data array of image of researched object onto appropriate value of data of digital image data array of test object.
EFFECT: improved efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: illuminant has ring provided with illumination elements and power source. Ring is provided onto lens of microscope. Illumination elements are fastened onto rods mounted in seats of ring in spherical hinges for longitudinal movement inside rods. High brightness glow light-emitting diodes are used as illuminant elements. Each illuminant element is mounted individually above object of observation at the position providing the best illumination. Illumination with different color illumination sources is also provided.
EFFECT: prolonged service life; reduced power consumption.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to phthisiology. In order to carry out differential diagnostics X-ray examination of patient's lungs and laboratory test of blood parameters are performed. In case if inhomogeneous and highly-intensive infiltration of lung tissue is detected, level of cortisol in blood serum is additionally determined, and if its value is from 808 nmol/l to 2500 nmol/l, caseous pneumonia is diagnosed, if value is from 159 nmol/l to 718 nmol/l, infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method increases accuracy of differential diagnostics of caseous pneumonia due to determination of level of cortisol in blood serum.
SUBSTANCE: stage of atopic dermatitis in children is diagnosed by immunobiological assay of patient's peripheral blood. A degree of lymphocyte expression of CD95+ markers is evaluated. If the CD95+ value exceeds 60.09% enables diagnosing an acute stage of the disease, while the CD95+ values 20.33% to 60.09% shows a chronic stage.
EFFECT: well-timed prediction of the clinical course ensured by accuracy and acceleration of dianosis of transmission of the acute stage of atopic dermatitis in children into the chronic stage.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely endocrinology and diabetology. The clinical course of diabetes mellitus is predicted by evaluating the following risk factors: tongue rolling, myopia, jug ears, joint hypermobility, platypodia, astenic body, diagonal fold of the earlobe, high skin elasticity, varicosity, visceroptosia, height/span > 1.1, clinodactyly, mitral valve prolapse, renal cysts, Gothic palate, chest distortion, biliary tract deformation, arachnodactylia, false left-ventricular chordas. If the patients suffering type 1 diabetes mellitus shows 5 or more indicators, a high risk of developing diabetic nephropathy and arterial hypertension is predicted. If the patients suffering type 2 diabetes mellitus shows 5 or more indicators, a high risk of developing ischemic cardiac disease is predicted. If observing 4 or less indicators in the patients suffering types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, a minimum risk of the unfavourable clinical course of diabetes mellitus is predicted.
EFFECT: method enables predicting the clinical course of diabetes mellitus in the patients with types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus on the basis of the indicators of increased dysplastic stigmation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, in particular to pediatrics. When child is one month old, their somatic and neurological status is estimated and equation of regression is calculated: 42.423-4.373 ×No of group - 0.524 × sex - 0.972 × retardation of development of motor functions - 1.264 × intrauterine infection - 0.763 × allergic dermatitis- 1.212 × disembriogenesis stigmas + 1.807 × advancing development of communicative functions, where - No of group - 2 for group of children, who receive and No of group 3 for group of children who do not receive additional medical-corrective procedures; sex - 1 female, 2 - male; retardation of development of motor functions - 0 no, 1 present; intrauterine infection - 0 no, 1 present; allergic dermatitis - 0 no, 1 present; disembriogenesis stigmas - 0 no, 1 present; advancing development in communicative functions - 0 no, 1 present. Equation is calculated twice - for situation of application and absence of carrying out complex of medical-corrective procedures. Obtained values for both groups are compared and necessity of carrying out medical-psychological-pedagogical programme is determined.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to obtain objective estimation of age development of child and determine necessity of carrying out correction of their development.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, in particular to endosurgery. In order to perform early diagnostics of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic transpapillary interventions, general clinical and physical examination, biochemical analysis of patients' blood are performed. In the course of post-operative examination "index of pancreatitis" (IP) is determined by formula: Hn=((Ap/An)x(PS1/PS0)×(L1/L0)×(PC+1))/4, where: Ap are values of patient's blood amylase; An are maximal values of blood amylase in norm; PS0 is average value of patient's pulse before endoscopic transpapillary interventions; PS1 is average value of pulse after endoscopic transpapillary interventions; L0 is number of blood leukocytes before endoscopic transpapillary interventions; L1 is number of blood leukocytes after endoscopic transpapillary interventions; PC is pain coefficient. Degree of pain syndrome expression is evaluated in points: 0 points - pain in abdomen is absent at rest and palpation; 1 point - pain in abdomen is present at palpation and is absent at rest; 2 points pain in abdomen is present at rest and increases at palpation; 3 points - together with pain syndrome, positive peritoneal symptoms are present. If IP≥ 1, acute postoperative pancreatitis is diagnosed.
EFFECT: method increases accuracy of early diagnostics of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic transpapillary interventions due to determination of totality of interconnected informative criteria such as value of amylase, value of pulse, number of leukocytes in blood, pain coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine. In order to predict risk of development of occupational bronchopulmonary pathology, venous blood is sampled, genetic material is isolated, polymerase chain reaction is performed with specific primers, nucleotide sequence is determined and on the basis of this polymorphic versions of gene of matrix metalloproteinase 1 polymorphism 1607 delG are determined. In carrying out polymerase chain reaction specific primers MP1-F 138F BIOTIN - GCG TCA AGA CTG ATA TCT TAC TC A TAA ACA ATA and MP1-R 138R ACA TgT TAT gCC ACT TAg ATg Agg AAA are used. After carrying out polymerase chain reaction, reaction of pyrosequencing with application of specific primer MP1-S 138S gTA gTT AAA TAA TTA gAA Ag and detection of nucleotide sequence are performed. After that, comparison of obtained nucleotide sequence with reference sequences is carried out and obtained program is used to determine version of polymorphism 1607delG in nucleotide sequence, by which risk of development of occupational bronchopulmonary pathology is predicted.
EFFECT: method increases rate of carrying out prediction of risk of development of occupational bronchopulmonary pathology.
3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, namely to pediatrics. In order to estimate level of bronchial asthma control in children analysis of night symptoms in patient and determination of characteristics of lung function are carried out. Frequency of night attacks, peak rate of exhalation in child, mother and father are evaluated. Additionally determined are: child's, mother's and father's age and height. Taken into account are: content of total Immunoglobulin E in child, child's chest circumference, age at the beginning of disease, duration of disease, duration of anti-inflammatory therapy, coefficient of gender identity, volume of performed anti-inflammatory therapy, treatment with inhalation glucocortocosteroids separately and together with inhalation long-acting β2-agonists, application of cromones, application of antileukotriene drugs, passive or active smoking, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, sensibilisation to household, epidermal and pollen allergens. Level of bronchial asthma control is estimated by value of coefficient obtained in application of discriminant analysis.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase accuracy of estimation of level of bronchial asthma control in children due to determination of lung function characteristics taking into account contribution of inheritance factor and time factor, volume of performed treatment, accompanying atopic diseases, spectrum of child's sensibilisation, individual anthropometric characteristics of child and their parents.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to obstetrics and gynecology, and is intended for diagnostics of degree of chronic placental insufficiency severity. Degree of lack of correspondence of ultrasonic fetometry (US fetometry) data to gestation age of fetus is determined. Assessment if carried out by diagnostic CPI scale. Degree of blood flow impairment in uterine and umbilical arteries, integral parameter of fetus state (IPFS) and response of cardiovascular system of fetus (RCVSF) are evaluated. Each said parameter is given definite points depending on value. Calculation of final parameter is performed by summing up points given to said parameters. If value of final parameter in accordance with elaborated classification of CPI severity degree is from 1 to 3 points, I degree of CPI severity - dysfunction of placenta, is diagnosed; from 4 to 9 points - II degree of CPI severity - decompensated placental insufficiency; from 10 to 13 points - III degree of CPI severity - progressing decompensated placental insufficiency; from 14 points and higher - IV degree of CPI severity - critical placental insufficiency.
EFFECT: method is safe and non-invasive, makes it possible to increase accuracy of diagnostics of CPI severity degree due to standardisation of diagnostics process by application of elaborated clinical classification of said pregnancy complication, based on complex point scale of estimation of CPI severity degree.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to medicine, namely a catheter, particularly a catheter for collection of a number of samples inside a blood vessel along its length, and related methods, particularly a method for creating a data profile for one or more biomarkers recovered from a blood vessel wall, a method for profiling a length of the blood vessel for determination of the pathological or physiological state of the blood vessel wall, and a method for blood sampling in vivo from the blood vessel. A catheter comprises an elongated central body, at least one collection portion limited along the elongated central body for sample collection in the central portion of the blood vessel, and at least one mixer presented radially outside the elongated central body. Said body is introduced in the blood vessel and arranged along it. At least one mixer extends around said body circumferentially substantially in all radial directions. The mixer is presented to serve as an blood flow obstruction along the blood vessel to create a blood flow from a layer bordering the blood vessel wall along the whole periphery of the blood vessel in said body so that to enable said at least one collection portion collecting samples from the bordering layer.
EFFECT: invention provides improved better result consistency and closer correlation of the actual positions of biomarker sources and the positions in which such biomarkers are initially collected.
23 cl, 25 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to otolaryngology, and deals with immunotherapy of purulent rhinosinusitis. Method is based on data of genotyping by signs of allele polymorphism of cytokine gene, obtained in analysis of blood cells and cells isolated from washings from sinuses. If high-producing allele of gene LL-β "2/2" and low-producing allele of gene TL-1RA "1/1" are identified in patient, immunotherapy with preparation of recombinant 1L-1RA, conditioned by regulation of activation of phagocytic activity of neutrophils, is performed.
EFFECT: method ensures efficient treatment of patients with lingering course of disease, who cannot be treated by traditional methods of therapy, due to individual selection of immunopreparation taking into account immunogenetic peculiarities of organism.
6 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: medicine, clinical toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: at patient's hospitalization one should gather the data of clinical and laboratory values: on the type of chemical substance, patient's age, data of clinical survey and laboratory values: body temperature, the presence or absence of dysphonia, oliguria being below 30 ml/h, hemoglobinuria, erythrocytic hemolysis, exotoxic shock, glucose level in blood, fibrinogen and creatinine concentration in blood serum, general bilirubin, prothrombin index (PTI), Ph-plasma, the state of blood clotting system. The state of every sign should be evaluated in points to be then summed up and at exceeding the sum of points being above "+20" one should predict unfavorable result. At the sum of "-13" prediction should be stated upon as favorable and at "-13" up to "+20" - prediction is considered to be doubtful.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of prediction.
2 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves studying blood samples with venous blood mixed with vital stain like methylene blue. Degree of vital stain absorption by erythrocytes is determined by applying photocolorimetry. The value drop being more than 25%, extracorporal detoxication is to be predicted as ineffective.
EFFECT: simplified method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves evaluating prognostic signs and calculating their prognostic weight. Consciousness disorders and diagnosis set at prehospital stage are used as the prognostic signs. Calculations are carried out from formula: lethal outcome %= -15.99+19.1•C+14.7•DS-2.79•C•DS, where C is the ranged consciousness disorder degree, DS is the diagnosis set prehospital stage. The higher is the value, the higher is lethal outcome probability.
EFFECT: accelerated and simplified prognosis method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves evaluating proliferating processes by calculating index of positive cell nuclei (Ki-67). The Ki-67 value being from 6 to 16%, erosive ulcerating stomach lesions accompanied by stomach hemorrhage and hemorrhagic shock is to be predicted. The value being from 17 to 30%, erosive ulcerating stomach lesions without hemorrhage is to be predicted.
EFFECT: high accuracy of prognosis.