Method for production of slowly digestible carbohydrates

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: sterilised food product contains starch. The starch has amylose content in an amount of at least 60 wt %. The average starch particles size is equal to 1 - 15 mcm. At least 90 wt % of the starch particles have diameter less than 50 mcm. The indigestible starch content is equal to less than 50 wt %. The slowly digestible starch content is equal to 15 - 75 wt %. The starch composition is produced by way of starch material heating till the temperature is equal to at least 110°C and subsequent fast cooling to a temperature lower than 20°C. The average rate of cooling is equal to at least 10°C per minute. Additionally one describes a food product based on the carbohydrate composition. The carbohydrate composition contains 15-75 wt % of the said starch composition, 10-60 wt % of glucose, maltose and/or maltodextrins, 0-25 wt % of fructose, lactose and/or sucrose, 0-50 wt % of mono- and disaccharides other than glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose and sucrose, 0-30 wt % of non-amylose glucose oligomers and 0-30 wt % of non-starch fibres.

EFFECT: invention allows to produce a dietary food product efficient for fast provision of glucose to the consumer and supporting glucose stock in the blood during a prolonged period, stable during a month's storage at a temperature lower than 10°C.

12 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 5 ex

 

The present invention relates to a method for slowly digestible starch by processing vysokoimpulsnogo starch. In addition, the present invention relates to a product with slowly digestible starch and its application in power.

Glucose is an important energy source for cells of the human body and in great numbers are present in food ingredients. After the consumption of starch or other diet available sources of glucose and subsequent absorption of glucose is released in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is rapidly and efficiently absorbed from the lumen of the duodenum. Typically, the concentration of glucose in the blood increases. The change in glucose after eating is called postprandial glucose response (PPGR), which can be measured as the area under the curve (AUC), which is a graphical representation of concentration of glucose in the blood over time. For its own functioning of every cell in the human body to maintain homeostasis of glucose levels in blood and tissues. An important tool for achieving glucose homeostasis is the secretion of insulin by the pancreas, when it begins to increase the concentration of certain components of the food product, such as glucose. In normal circumstances is elstak this increases the transport of glucose into cells, from glucose glycogen is formed and run other metabolic changes that cause a rapid decrease in the levels of glucose in the blood to normal.

A subject that does not have a normal response to insulin, is resistant to insulin. From resistance to insulin suffer from large groups of subjects, such as the large number of subjects with obesity, people suffering from so-called metabolic syndrome (or syndrome X), diabetes and many patients in hospitals or private hospitals, have developed a temporary or long-term insulin resistance as the cause of their diseases. In some diabetics also lack the ability to increase the concentration of insulin in the blood after consumption of food (i.e. postprandial). Subjects suffering from insulin resistance, demonstrate abnormally high postprandial glucose response even after consumption of moderate quantities of food ingredients, including glucose. When high post-meal glucose concentrations occur relatively often and for long periods of time, they can cause serious health problems. Known secondary side effects that can be detected in diabetics, are the problems associated with the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, poor supply peripheral tissues by the blood, stroke, heart attacks and the like, along with the problems associated with the kidney, in particular abnormal glomerular filtration rate, and a wide range of neuropathy and retinopathy, such as cataract. It was also found that the mortality of patients from certain diseases in hospitals is associated with severe insulin resistance. Numerous studies have been devoted to the reduction of postprandial glucose response (PPGR). To induce low PPGR offered many different types of carbohydrates. For this purpose also suggested the inclusion of dietary fibers in the source and dietary products, such as viscous fibers, such as gums and pectins. The disadvantage of using these fibers is the increase in viscosity, resulting in flatulence, bloating, loss of appetite and possible constipation when used in liquid products in effective amounts.

In U.S. patent 6890571 describes the use of easily digestible starch as carbohydrate, which provides glucose for a long period of time, for example, for the treatment of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, abnormal fibrinolysis, obesity. The starch according to U.S. patent 6890571 enzymatic branched, at least 90% and which incorporates both linear alpha-glucan, preferably vysokobarotermicheskogo amylose with 5-65 anhydrous-glucose units connected by an alpha-1,4-D-glucosidase relationships, and DE>6,0. Not observed changes in material properties during conventional processing of the food product when added to a wide range of food products in the range of 1-50 wt.%. During the test, from 22 to 50 wt.% absorbed in the first twenty minutes, and 48-74% wt. absorbed within two hours after the start of the test. In Table 2 of U.S. patent 6890571 shows the profile of digestibility after heating at 85°C for 20 minutes and cooling, and crystallization at room temperature within about 31-40% wt. digested within the first 20 minutes (faster metabolism) and 29-36% wt. from 20 to 120 minutes (slow absorption) after the start of the test. The document is silent about the behavior of ingredients when heated to a higher temperature and, in particular, when ultra-high temperature processing, which is used when receiving enteral clinical nutrition. Also, the document is silent about the effect of heating on the matrix, which includes proteins and/or lipids and/or other carbohydrate fractions. It is known that these components are able to interact with the crystals of amylose and digested.

In EP-A 0688872 describes a method of obtaining resistant starch with ISOE what Itanium branching enzyme and conversion. The product is commercially available as Actistar RM (resistant maltodextrin). In EP-A 0846704 (USA 6043229) describes retrograding starch with more than 55 wt.% resistant starch obtained from potato or preferably tapioca maltodextrin using dilution, acidification, branching at the expense of processing isoamylase with subsequent spray drying. This resistant starch has more than 50% of the linear chains of alpha-glucans with SP within 10-35 and with the temperature of the melting peak of the DSC below 115°C. It is suitable for use as a prebiotic component, in particular a fibre - source of butyrate.

In WO05/000904 describes the composition of resistant starch, obtained by heating maltodextrin - derived resistant starch - oil at a temperature of about 150°C followed by rapid cooling to a temperature of about 70°C and aseptic packaging. For a complete food product other components, in particular, water-based, such as proteins and carbohydrates, separately sterilized and then added in the last heat treatment in the oil starch, because otherwise about half of the content of resistant starch is lost.

In the United States 2006/0025381 describes chemically modified starch for assurance excretion of glucose in the long PE the iodine-time. The resulting modified starch provides less than 25 wt.% glucose for 20 min and from 30 to 70 wt.% for 120 minutes. Modification can be achieved by hydroxyethylammonium, acetylation, octenyl-succinylcholine, phosphorylation and the like.

In WO 2004/069877 describes a method of obtaining gelirem starch product with a low content of amylose (below 50 wt.%, namely, 20-30 wt.%) when at least 170°C, in particular about 200°C under mild conditions of acidity followed by rapid cooling. This document is silent about the stability of the content of slowly digestible starch.

The authors of the present invention have found that commercial resistant starch, which has a useful content of slowly digestible starch during storage for several weeks, lose the contents of this slowly digestible starch and becomes arenaceous not attractive product. A very serious disadvantage for liquid products, in which the starch form undesirable precipitates after some time.

The object of the present invention relates to a method for slowly digestible starch without chemical modification, which is stable under conventional storage conditions.

Another object of the present invention relates to a method for datecheck the th product effective to ensure the rapid consumer glucose and supporting clinically significant supply of glucose for an extended period of time without bringing the result to undesirable high concentrations of glucose in the blood, even in subjects with insulin resistance.

Another object of the present invention relates to a dietary product for subjects suffering from insulin resistance to disease prevention, which is the result of long and frequent high levels of glucose in the blood, such as diseases, which are the end products of enhanced (AGE), neuropathy, retinal disorders and kidney problems.

According to the present invention it was discovered that the problem of instability and unattractiveness sensation in the mouth when consumed slowly digestible starches may be permitted by heating the product of resistant starch in the presence or absence of other food components, at least up to 120°C for at least 3 minutes followed by rapid cooling to a temperature below 20°C. the resulting product remains unchanged and is dispersed in the liquid form during storage over an extended period of time, at least 1 month at a storage temperature below 10°C.

The main stages of the method of obtaining a slowly digestible starch (SDS) with an effective particle size are stage stage heating and cooling. The heating is carried out at conditions equivalent to at least 120°C for 3 minutes, for example, up to 30 minutes. The temperature of the heating should be sufficient for melting the greater part of the amylose, but not so high as to destroy amylose. Typically, this implies a minimum temperature of about 110°C (for melting) and a maximum temperature of about 160°C (to avoid destruction). It is obvious that the maximum temperature can be easily determined by the expert in the field of engineering that applies the present invention. Examples of these equivalent conditions is the rate is the atur 110°C for 6-75 minutes temperature 130°C for 1-10 minutes, 140°C for 15 seconds to 5 minutes and so on. The preferred period of time is 4-30 minutes at a temperature of 121°C, 3-20 minutes at a temperature of 124°C for 2-15 minutes at a temperature of 130°C. Although to obtain a product with the desired distribution of particles can be used to lower the temperature while providing sufficient reaction time, as mentioned above, it is preferable to use temperatures of at least 120°C to obtain high proportions of slowly digestible starch, more preferably at least 123°C, and most preferably at least 127°C.

The cooling rate is at least 5°C per minute, preferably at least 10°C per minute for the temperature interval over at least 20°C, preferably for the entire temperature interval. In particular, the cooling rate may be above about the melting temperature of the amylose, i.e. in the interval from 100 to 60°C. alternatively or additionally, in a preferred variant embodiment of the present invention, the cooling is carried out rapidly (more than 10°C per minute) in the range of lower than 40°C, in particular in the range from 30 to 40°C. Therefore, the temperature interval from 40 to 30°C should preferably be completed in 2 minutes, essentially for 1 minute, the most is it preferable for 30 seconds. Cooling should continue at least until reaching 20°C, preferably below 10°C, essentially below 5°C. Rapid cooling can be carried out on an industrial scale using traditional devices, such as high-performance heat exchanger.

Preferably after processing, the product is not kept at room temperature for an extended period of time; in essence, the time during which the product is kept at a temperature of from 10 to 30°C, preferably should be less than 7 days, or preferably less than 72 hours, more preferably less than 24 hours. The product stored at 5°C, stable for at least 1 month, means that the content of the SDS is not reduced by more than 10%, essentially no more than 5%, and of the liquid product is deposited not more than 10% of starch.

Last cooked starch can be stored as such, or be used directly. Alternatively, it may be dried by spray drying or freeze-drying after cooling, preferably at temperatures below 15°C and stored in powder form, which can be restored to use.

Preferably carry out heat treatment of the suspension containing starch and optionally other food components, where dispersed the collapse of the al is present in a concentration at least 2 wt.% (m/m), more preferably at least 4 wt.%, most preferably at least 6 wt.%, for example, up to 20 wt.%. Essentially the environment suspension is a water, this means that at least 40 wt.%, preferably, at least 60 wt.% suspension is a water.

The product of the present invention slowly digestible starch has an amylose content of at least 60 wt.%. Preferably the content of amylose is within more than 65 wt.% and less than 90 wt.%, the remaining starch preferably is an amylopectin (i.e. branching). He has an average degree of polymerization of from 15 to 100 anhydrous-glucose units, preferably from 20 to 70 anhydrous-glucose levels. This is equivalent to a medium-weight molar mass of from 2400 to 16200, preferably from 3200 to 113000.

The starch product (volume) has an average particle diameter of 0.1 to 20 μm. In particular, the starch product has an average particle diameter of 1 to 15 μm, more preferably from 3 to 12 μm, more preferably from 5 to 10 μm. Additionally, the volumetric average particle diameter D(v, 0.5) is defined as the diameter at which 50% vol. (and, if equal to the density of 50% by weight) of the particles have a smaller diameter, the particle size may be defined as the volumetric average diameter D[4,3], the which represents the particle diameter of largest volume. Indicator D[4,3] for the product of the present invention the starch is preferably from 0.5 to 25 μm, more preferably from 4 to 20 μm, most preferably from 8 to 18 μm. At least 90 wt.%, preferably, at least 95 wt.% particles have a size less than 50 microns. Preferably, at least 80 wt.%, more preferably at least 90 wt.% particles have a size less than 20 microns.

The products of the present invention can be divided according to the size distribution of particles during heating. The product of the present invention demonstrates the different size distribution of particles when heated and then slowly cooled particles compared with the same heated and then quickly cooled. The difference is at least 10% less than the indicator [D 4,3] and/or at least less than 15% of the metric D(v, 0.5) with the product of the present invention in comparison with the same product that does not contain starch that has undergone heat treatment according to the present invention. Used herein, the term "rapidly digestible starch" (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and "nevereverever starch" (NDS) correspond to the classification proposed Englyst, H.N. and other in Eur. J. Clinical Nutrition (1992) 46, S33-S50. The classification method involves incubation with pancreatic amylase and amyloglucosidase at which the temperature of 37°C. RDS is a starch, hydrolyzed during the first 20 minutes, and SDS is a starch, hydrolyzed within the next 100 minutes, i.e. from 20 to 120 minutes after the start of incubation. NDS is a fraction of starch that is not digested within the first 20 minutes after the start of the test on the digestibility, the application of NDS is equal to RS part ingredient resistant starch. The content of the relevant pages S35, S38 and S39, which describes the classification method, introduced here by reference. The total number of starch, including resistant starch, determined according to the method described McCleary, J Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. Int, 85, 1103-1111.

The product of the present invention the starch is characterized by a relatively high proportion of slowly digestible starch (SDS) at least 15 wt.%, and relatively low proportions as easily digestible starch (RDS) in less than 60 wt.%, and neperebrodivsego starch (resistant) (NDS) less than 50 wt.%. The SDS content is preferably at least 20 wt.%, more preferably at least 25 wt.%, even more preferably, at least 30 wt.%. The actual upper limit of the SDS is 75 wt.%, in particular 60 wt.%, essentially, 45 wt.%. The content of the RDS is preferably less than 50 wt.%, most preferably lower 48 in the C.%, the lower limit is, for example, 15 wt.%, in particular 25 wt.%. The contents of the NDS (RS) in the product according to the invention is preferably less than 40 wt.%, more preferably less than 30 wt.%, essentially less than 27 wt.% or even not more than 25 wt.%. The actual lower limit is 10 wt.%, in particular, 15 wt.% The NDS. These percentages refer to the total weight of the product, i.e. NDS+SDS+RDS.

The source material for the product of the present invention slowly digestible starch may be any (stable) starch product with a significant proportion of NDS. Preferably, the source material is a resistant starch type RS3, i.e., not granulated, retrogradely or crystalline starch. For example, the source material may be commercially available, partially hydrolyzed, not necessarily without branches and retrograding starch, for example, under the trademark Actistar® from Cerestar. The starch may be derived from any source, such as wheat, tapioca, potato, maize, rice and the like. The product of the present invention slowly digestible starch can be combined with additional carbohydrates, digestible or neperevershenymy or preferably both. In particular, the carbohydrate composition of the present invention contains about is 10 to 80 wt.% (of the total weight of the carbohydrates), preferably 15-50 wt.% the product of the present invention slowly digestible starch, together with 0-80 wt.%, in particular 10-70 wt.%, essentially 30-60 wt.% other digestible carbohydrates (not including RDS and SDS portion of the product according to the present invention slowly digestible starch) and 0-30 wt.%, in particular 5-20 wt.% non-starch fibers.

Examples of other digestible carbohydrates include glucose, maltose and maltodextrins, fructose, lactose and sucrose. Advanced carbohydrate composition can contain mono - and disaccharides, other than glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose, such as galactose, ribose, mannose, tagatose, isomaltose, palatinose and trehalose, and not amylose (=- [α]-l,4-linked) oligomers of glucose, such as pannosa, isomaltooligosaccharide and the like, which are slowly digested.

Non-starch fiber that can be added include soluble polysaccharides, such as galactanes (for example, gum Arabic, pectins, galactomannans (e.g., guar, tar, carob bean gum), arabinogalactan, xiloglucanes (for example, tamarind gum), glucomannan (for example, konjac), (arabino)xylane (psyllium), fructans (Levan, inulin), β-glucan and the like and their hydrolysis products are soft, insoluble polysaccharides such as cellulose and oligosaccharides, that is their as fructo-, galacto-, arabino-, manno - and xiaoshuai, soybean oligosaccharides, and the like.

For example, the carbohydrate composition can contain to the NDS, SDS and RDS components of slowly digestible starch:

a) according to the present invention (15-50 wt.%);

(b) 10-60 wt.%, preferably 20-40 wt.% equivalents easily digestible glucose, selected from glucose, maltose and maltodextrins;

(c) 0-25 wt.%, preferably 2-20 wt.% fructose, lactose and/or sucrose;

(d) 0-50 wt.%, preferably 10-35 wt.% mono - and disaccharides other than glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose and sucrose; in particular 5-25 wt.% monosaccharides other than glucose and fructose, in essence galactose, mannose and/or ribose and 5-30 wt.% other gluconeogenesis disaccharides other than maltose, lactose and sucrose, essentially palatinose, lacrose, trehalose, trehalose and/or turanose;

e) 0-30 wt.%, preferably 0-20 wt.% pamyatnykh oligomers of glucose;

f) 0-30 wt.%, preferably 5-20 wt.% non-starch fibers, preferably at least half of which, or in the alternative, 3-10 wt.% all carbohydrates are soluble non-starch oligosaccharides, such as galacto-, manno-, fruit - and Xylo-oligosaccharides.

The above percentages calculated from the total weight of the carbohydrate fraction. Used herein, the term "oligos the arid" and "oligomer" refers to a polymer with from 3 to 20 mnoznych links. Used herein, the term "not amylose oligomers of glucose" refers to oligomers of glucose, most of the relations which, other than the α-1,4 linkages. The presence of one or more, but less than half of all naglyadnyh parts still can be attributed to oligomers to glucose oligomers. They are considered to be slowly digested.

In a more preferred variant of the embodiment of the present invention relates to a liquid food product that contains proteins, lipids, digestible carbohydrates and/or dietary fiber, including product starch or carbohydrate composition described above. Preferably the food product is sterilized, where sterilization can be carried out separately from other food components, or various combinations of food components, including the product slowly digestible starch, where sterilization and heat treatment of resistant starch is one and the same stage of processing. A food product of the present invention preferably contains 5-35 EN.% (energy %, i.e. the percentage of total energy provided by carbohydrates, proteins and lipids), more preferably 10-30 EN.%, most preferably 12-24 EN.% protein; 8-50 EN.%, more preferably 10-40 EN.%, most preferably 15-35 EN.% lipids, and 25-80 EN.%, preferably 35-70 EN.% and the most preferred is sustained fashion 45 to 60 EN.% digestible carbohydrates, including slowly digestible starch. The content of dietary fiber, including nevereverever starch is from 5 to 60, preferably from 10 to 40 g per 1000 kcal. The content of starch fibers may be from 2 to 4, preferably from 5 to 25 per 1000 kcal.

The products of the present invention can be used for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, or to control postprandijalnog glucose response, as described further below.

Carbohydrate composition can be used, for example, as an additive or part of a partial or complete food product, including additional protein and/or fiber, minerals, vitamins and the like. The composition may be a dry powder or solid or semi-solid composition. Preferably the food product is a liquid that is suitable for enteral feeding, or receiving enteral mixtures in small SIPS through a straw. He has osmollnosti preferably 300 to 700, more preferably 330-600, most preferably 340-500 mosmol/l, and caloric content of from 0.6 to 2.0, more preferably from 0.75 to 1.5 kcal/ml liquid product preferably includes the accessible fraction of the carbohydrates of the present invention in the amount of 60-200, preferably 80-160, more preferably 100-140 g/l

Viscosity p is sewage product low and affordable to ensure flow characteristics for receiving enteral mixtures in small SIPS through a tube for enteral feeding. Measured at a temperature of 20°C, shear rate 100/sec viscosity is 1-60, preferably 1,4-40, more preferably 1.8 to 30 MPa*s (for comparison: the rate of water - one). Diet products according to the present invention may further include an agent that produce insulin, preferably a sulfonylurea, and/or anti-diabetic drug, preferably of biguanides and/or thiazolidinedione. When the composition according to the present invention contains a sulfonylurea, its content is 0.1-4 g per 1 kg of dry matter.

The protein fraction of the diet compositions of the present invention can be obtained from vegetable protein to which may be added, at least one free amino acid, peptide or protein from an animal source. 10-99 wt.%, preferably 20-80 wt.% protein fraction receive preferably from plants belonging to the legume species or of leguminous plants. Preferably proteins derived from one or more selected from the group of soybeans (Glycine max), peas (Pisum species), bean (Phaseolus species), fenugreek (Trigonella species), lupine (Lupinus species), lentils (Lens species), peanuts (Arachis species), tamarind (Tamarindus), clover (Trifolium) and alfalfa (Medicago). Such protein composition additionally support the improvement of post is rundialog glucose response and postannealing insulin response. Alternatively or additionally, 5-75 wt.%, in particular 10-50 wt.%, protein can be a fungal protein, preferably derived fromFusarium, especially F. venenatum. The remaining protein, i.e. 1-90 wt.%, preferably 20-80 wt.% can be a protein of animal origin.

Amino acids or peptides chosen for the enrichment of amino acids, which increase the rate of nutrient protein fraction as a whole within the framework of the requirements for indispensable amino acids. In particular, these amino acids are lysine, leucine and phenylalanine. The composition can include 100 g of amino acids from 1.8 to 5 g of methionine and/or 4.5-9 g threonine, and/or 8,6 to 17 g of leucine and/or 5.5-9.5 g of Proline. Source of animal protein selected from certain milk proteins and liquefied protein from muscle tissue of animals or fish hydrolyzed protein. Most preferred are milk proteins, essentially whey protein, and more preferably whey protein, comprising less than 40 wt.% and even more preferably less than 30 wt.% Kappa-casein or glycomacropeptide of the total weight of protein. Preferably, at least 30 wt.%, more preferably at least 40 wt.% animal protein is an α-lactalbumin and/or egg white or egg white protein.

The protein content of the products is preferably 0.5 to 15 g, more preferably 1-10 g and most preferably 2 to 7 g per 100 ml of product. Calculate the amount of energy, which provide protein, lipid and digestible carbohydrates using factors Atwater (4, 9, 4, respectively) for each of them, the amount of energy of the protein is 10-30 EN.%, preferably 14-28 EN.%, most preferably 17-26 EN.%, and from digestible carbohydrates 35-70 EN.%, preferably 40 to 60 EN.%, and most preferably 42-55 EN.%, the composition comprises 5-80 g/l, preferably 20 to 50 g/l protein fractions.

Diet composition of the present invention further include a fraction of the fat and lipids. This lipid fraction comprises oleic acid and essential fatty acids such as linolenic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, but may also include conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 long-chain fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Preferably the fatty acids comprise less than 10 wt.% saturated fatty acids and less than 1 wt.% transnationa fatty acids. The lipids is 10-60 g/l, preferably 15-50 g/l, more preferably 31-46 g/l In terms of the number of lipids in the product, as EN.% using factors Atwater, lipids is 25-45 EN.%, preferably 28-40 EN.%, and n is andmore preferably 30-38 EN.%. Lipids include triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, (lyso)phospholipids, sphingolipids and ceramides. In the calculation of the lipid fraction is not included other components, soluble in petroleum ether or hexane, such as cholesterol and other sterols.

Additionally, the food product may include microingredients, such as vitamins, trace elements and mineral substances, well known from the prior art, and equivalents carnitine, Inositol, taurine and other food components such as fragrances, dyes or processing AIDS. Calcium and phosphorus are also chosen in the range 10-70 mg/100 ml, preferably 20-60 mg/100 ml the Ratio of calcium to phosphorus is in the range 0.8 to 2, preferably from 1.1 to 1.9, more preferably from 1.3 to 1.8. Diet composition of the present invention is used to maintain prolonged glucose response in the blood and tissues after consumption and, in fact, used for diabetes and/or insulin resistance. Subjects suffering from or is extremely susceptible to insulin resistance include, for example, seriously or critically ill patients, particularly patients receiving analgesics, such as suffering from severe forms of cancer or HIV infection. Other groups of patients suffering from difficulties in control of the e PPGR, include those subjects who underwent major surgery or other trauma, subjects with low power, those who are suffering from deficiency of protein, subjects suffering from obesity, metabolic syndrome, syndrome X, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia and abnormal fibrinolysis, as well as a large part of the group of old age in Western society. Optionally, the product can be used for subjects with an increased risk due to hereditary history of the development of insulin resistance, PPGR in the blood of a mammal after 20 minutes to 4 hours after injection. Even more preferably to maintain stable glucose concentration up to 3 hours, more preferably up to 2 hours after administration. Essentially, a flat glucose or PPGR means that the level of glucose in the blood does not vary by more than about 1.6 mm, and preferably less than 1.3, more preferably less than 1.0 mm in 20 minutes within the above mentioned time after consumption of 20.

In the case of diabetes, the glucose levels in the blood, usually lasts from 4 mm to 15 mm. However, in the case of severe diabetes, you may experience excess peak postprandial concentration of glucose in 15 mm. In such circumstances, the diet composition is I, comprising fraction of the carbohydrates of the present invention, should be consumed more than one meal and/or in combination with the introduction of the appropriate amount of insulin prior to consumption of the food product. In the case of diabetes, you can control the level of glucose in the blood even below 11 mm.

Preferably the glucose levels in the plasma can be controlled from 5 to 8 mm during the above period without consuming large amounts of fiber, as this can cause discomfort in the gastrointestinal tract, and without replacement sources of glucose and other carbohydrates, which require extremely high metabolic capacity or a large number of lipids that can be bad for obesity and diabetes such subjects as the main part of the inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent and some of the peoples of the Caucasus, for people who just eat uncontrollably, such as athletes during exercise, or entities, for a long time holding the attention such as students or during exams, or during negotiations. Therefore, the product starch, carbohydrate composition and diet compositions of the present invention can be used for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, control of postprandial glucose response, metab the symbolic syndrome, syndrome X, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abnormal fibrinolysis, and/or disorders associated with the transfer of complex surgery or injury in mammals, maintaining a stable level of glucose or physiologically acceptable profiles of lipids or cholesterol in the blood.

Also the product can be used for prevention in subjects susceptible to or suffering from hypoglycemia, under hypoglycemia should be understood condition, when the levels of glucose in plasma are below 4 mmol/L. This is essentially desirable for diabetics, for example, after the introduction of insulin, or during a long time without eating, such as night.

In addition, the products are effective for reducing the risk of occurrence and reduce the severity of some diseases, often associated with an elevated level of glucose in the blood, including retinopathy, kidney disease and neuropathy. Can also be carried out prevention of diseases associated with the penetration of glycation products (AGE). The efficiency of the products can be determined by measuring the levels of glycosylated molecules of hemoglobin (HbIAc) in the blood.

In the illustrations that follow:

Figure 1 - graph showing the distribution of particles in Actistar at different temperatures, expressed in percentage of particles of a specific diameter to the total volume of particles (see Example 1).

Figure 2 - graph of the content of RDS, SDS and RS Actistar at different temperatures, determined according to method of Englist, in percent by weight of the powder (see Example 5).

EXAMPLES

Methods

Determine the content and the particle size distributions of resistant starch (RS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS).

The definition of RDS and SDS

Content bystroprotochnogo starch slowly digestible starch in each sample determined by the method described by Englyst and others (Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1999, 448-454). This method is modified in two points: the amount of glucose was determined by spectrophotometry instead of HPLC. The reaction is stopped using 1 M HCl instead of ethanol, and the samples are cleaned using Carrez reagents.

Procedure summary:

25 ml of the food product sample is diluted or dissolved 10 mg CHO/ml, incubated in a water bath-shaker with a solution pepsin/guar/HCl for 30 minutes at 37°C to simulate gastric digestion. Followed by a 120 minute incubation with a solution of Pancreatin/invertase/amyloglucosidase to simulate gastric digestion of carbohydrates. In early gastric digestion (t=0) at t=10, t=20, t=30, t=60 and t=120 in the sample add 1 M HCl solution. Then add in the sample solution Carrez I, Carrez II and 0.1 M NaOH and CME is more after each addition, and all filtered through a 0.45 µm filter. Glucose is measured in the pure filtrate using a set of GOD-PAP (Roche Diagnostics). Glucose is formed in the first 20 minutes of the RDS, glucose is formed in the following 100 minutes of SDS.

Conducting each analysis check control; subjected to boiling potato starch in which the starch is RDS.

Determination of resistant starch

In each sample, determine the content of the RS and DS method AOAC 2002.02, AACC method 32-40 described by McCleary and other (J AOAC Int. 85, 2002, 665-675; ibid. 2002, 1103-111). All the necessary reagents were purchased from Megazyme International Ireland Ltd as a set of K-RSTAR for analysis of resistant starch.

Procedure summary:

100 mg of dry matter of each sample is incubated in a water bath-shaker with a solution of pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) for 16 hours at 37°C, during which unstable starch is dissolved and hydrolyzed to glucose under the combined effects of the two enzymes. The reaction is stopped by adding an equal volume of ethanol, and RS is removed by centrifugation in the form of sediment. Then double-washed suspension of aqueous ethanol (50%), followed by centrifugation. Free liquid is removed by decantation. RS in the sediment dissolved in 2 M KOH intensive stirring in an ice bath using a magnetic Parashiva the feeder. This solution is neutralized acetate buffer, and hydrolyzing starch to glucose using AMG. Glucose was measured by the reagent glucoseoxidase/peroxidase (GOPOD), and it is a measure of the RS content in the sample. DS define, collecting and washing with 100 ml of the original supernatant and measure the glucose content using GOPOD. The sum of RS and DS, as a percentage of the source material, corresponds to the output of the finished product, which is from 80 to 100 wt.% when all of these conditions.

Conducting each analysis check four controls included in the set of K-RSTCL to control the content of resistant starch in the flour from Megazyme International Ireland Ltd.: normal corn starch 0.67 wt.% RS, crushed dry common beans 4.7 wt.% RS, Actistar to 48.3 wt.% RS and native potato starch and 63.4 wt.% RS.

Determination of the size distribution of the particles

The particle size distributions analyzed using a Mastersizer (Malvern Instruments; the size of the lens: 300 mm RF; wave length: 2.40 mm; Probsably: MS 14; the Model for analysis: polydisperse). All samples measured at the darkening 15-25%. Data expressed as % of the total particles, particles employed with a certain diameter.

Example 1

Actistar, available from Cerestar, suspended in demineralised water (14,7% (m/m)). The suspension is heated for 5 minutes at 80, 90, 100, 110, II 130°C in an oil bath and then cooled to room temperature using tap water. After 24 hours storage at 20°C) after heat treatment was measured content of RDS, SDS and RS and the distribution of particle size. The content of RDS, SDS and RS determined by the Englyst method, are shown in Table 1 below. Indicators expressed as percentages of the total weight of the powder; that is, in g/100 g on an "as is" and expressed as mean ± SEM (n=3). Actistar includes 5.7 wt.% non-starch components (water, protein and ash from the total weight, the rest was 94.3 wt.%.

Table 1
Working temperature (°C)Bystrooborachivaemy starch (g/100g)Slowly digestible starch (g/100g)Resistant starch (g/100g)
8028,6±2,010,4±0,955,3±2,3
9032,9±2,313,8±2,247,6±4,5
10037,1±3,516,3±3,640,9±6,8
11040,3±1,025,6±5,428,4±5,9
12043,2±1,932,4±4,918,7±6,2
13039,6±5,033,1±2,721,5±5,9

Example 2

Following the procedure of Example 1, Actistar heated at a temperature of 124°C for 4 minutes at three different concentrations: 4, 8, and 15 wt.% (m/m). For each concentration, the cooling is conducted slowly (air) or quickly (using cold water). The content of RDS, SDS and RS are shown in Table 2 below.

Table 2
4 wt.% slowly4 wt.% quickly8 wt.% slowly8 wt.%
quickly
15 wt.% slowly15 wt.% quickly
RDS504942393335
SDS7221136 1638
RS(NDS)372341194520

Table 2 demonstrates that the rapid cooling leads to a strong increase in the content of SDS and more concentrated suspensions have a higher content of SDS compared to less concentrated suspensions. The particle size distributions shifted toward smaller sizes at fast cooling, in particular in more concentrated suspensions.

Example 3

Following the procedure of Example 1, Actistar heated at a temperature of 124°C for 4 minutes at 6 wt.%. Cooling is carried out in four different ways: (a) slowly (air) to room temperature, (b) slowly to a temperature of 30°C and then rapidly to room temperature in an ice bath, (c) slowly to 40°C and then rapidly to room temperature in an ice bath, and (d) rapidly to room temperature in an ice bath. The content of RDS, SDS and RS are given in Table 3 below.

Table 3
(a) slowly(b) slow/fast is 30°C (c) slow/fast 40°C(d) rapidly
RDS44484238
SDS11193340
RS(NDS)39271916

Table 3 confirms that the rapid cooling leads to a strong increase in the content of SDS and that, in particular, the interval from 30 to 40°C is very important. The particle size distributions shifted toward smaller sizes at fast cooling, and only rapid cooling to a temperature below 40°C and rapid cooling in the entire interval allows to obtain more than 95% of particles less than 12 microns.

Example 4

The following products are obtained and heated at a temperature of 121°C for 4 minutes and then quickly (ice) or slowly (air) is cooled.

1. 4 wt.% actistar in the water.

2. 4 wt.% actistar in the food product (food containing fibre Tentrini).

3. the same product, and 2 without actistar.

The results are shown in Table 4

Table 4
D (v 0,5)D [4,3]
Particle diameter (ám)quicklyslowlyquicklyslowly
Product 113231632
Product 29131723
Product 3111213

Example 5

Actistar, available from Cerestar, suspended in demineralised water (14.7 wt.%). The suspension is heated for 5 minutes at 121°C in an oil bath and then cooled to different temperatures (4°C, 20°C, 30°C and 40°C) water bath. After 24 hours storage at specified temperatures) after heat treatment was measured content of RDS, SDS and RS. The content of RDS, SDS and RS determined by the Englyst method, shown in Figure 2. Indicators expressed as percentages of the total weight of the powder is ka; that is, in g/100 g on an "as is", and expressed as mean ±SEM (n=3). Actistar includes 5.7 wt.% non-starch components (water, protein and ash from the total weight, the rest was 94.3 wt.%. This clearly shows that a large part of the RDS, which is present at 4°C, close to the total content of RS, converted into SDS and RDS.

1. Sterilized food product containing starch with:
(a) amylose content of at least 60 wt.%;
(b) the average particle size of from 1 to 15 microns and at least 90 wt.% the starch particles has a diameter less than 50 microns;
(c) contents neperebrodivsego starch less than 50 wt.%; and
(d) the content of slowly digestible starch 15-75 wt.%.

2. A food product according to claim 1, in which at least 80 wt.% particles have a diameter less than 20 microns.

3. A food product according to claim 1, in which the average particle diameter is from 2 to 12 microns.

4. A food product according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein said starch is (C) the content neperebrodivsego starch from 10 to 35 wt.%, preferably from 15 to 30 wt.% and/or the content of slowly digestible starch from 20 to 60 wt.%, preferably from 25 to 45 wt.%, and/or the content of easily digestible starch from 15 to 60 wt.%, preferably from 25 to 50 wt.%.

5. A food product according to any one of claims 1 to 3, which is a liquid.

6. A food product according to any one of claims 1 to 3, containing 25-80 EN.% re arisaema carbohydrates, additionally 5-35 EN.% protein and/or 8-50 EN.% lipid.

7. A food product according to any one of claims 1 to 3, additionally containing soluble or insoluble non-starch dietary fiber in the amount of 5-20 g per 100 g of total carbohydrates, or 5-25 g per 1000 kcal.

8. A food product according to claim 6, in which the protein content is 10-30 EN.%, lipid content is from 10 to 40 EN.%, and the content of digestible carbohydrates, including slowly digestible starch is from 25 to 80 EN.%, and the content is not digested carbohydrates, including nevereverever starch, is from 10 to 40 g per 1000 kcal.

9. A food product according to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which the content of slowly digestible carbohydrates is reduced not more than 5 wt.% when stored for 1 month at 5°C.

10. Food containing carbohydrate composition comprising by weight carbohydrate fraction:
(i) 15-75 wt.% starch composition, representing a product according to any one of claims 1-3;
(ii) 10-60 wt.% glucose, maltose and/or maltodextrins;
(iii) 0-25 wt.% fructose, lactose and/or sucrose;
(iv) 0-50 wt.% mono - and disaccharides, which differs from glucose, fructose, maltose, lactose and sucrose;
(v) 0-30 wt.% pamyatnykh glucose oligomers;
(vi) 0-30 wt.% non-starch fibers.

11. A method of obtaining a composition of starch, containing slowly digestible to Ajmal, including:
a) heating of the starch material, which at least partially nevereverever and has an amylose content of at least 60 wt.%, to a temperature of at least 110°C;
b) rapid cooling of the heated material of the starch to a temperature below 20°C at an average cooling rate for the entire temperature interval is at least 10°C per minute.

12. The method according to claim 11, in which at the stage b) is heated, the starch material is cooled to a temperature below 5°C.



 

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