Hydraulic turbine

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine with transverse flow includes rotor installed so that it can be rotated about the axis. Rotor includes at least there blades for performing the rotor rotation about the axis when it is arranged in flowing water. Rotor includes multiple elements in the form of three-dimensional structure formed of triangles. At least one of the above elements includes one of the above blades. At least one blade is elongated and has a straight line. The above line is not parallel to the above axis and does not lie with it in one and the same plane.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing the turbine strength and providing the possibility of creation of extended horizontal structure.

18 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a turbine designed to extract energy from the flow of water, for example, for the production of electricity.

There are a number of devices for energy from the tidal flow of water. One option are still barriers across the mouth of the rivers, which are visually and environmentally Intrusive. Another option are the "point extraction devices intended for use in areas of high tidal flow. The latest devices are "free flow", which does not impede the flow by creating a continuous barrier. They are the starting point for this development.

A large part of the point of extraction devices similar in appearance to the "underwater windmills", i.e. they are axial turbines (the axis of rotation of the turbine parallel or nearly parallel to the direction of flow). Typically, each turbine has two or three blades usually with a variable pitch. Options include tunnel turbine and turbine supported around its perimeter and not on the axis. One or two turbines are typically installed on each support structure.

Economic indicators of marine developments are such that there are very large fixed costs associated with each condition is the time, resulting in bulky devices become more economically feasible. In the case of wind turbines, large-sized device can be easily performed by increasing rotor diameter (and height of the support structure). However, since tidal turbine is limited by water depth, increasing the diameter tidal turbine impossible over strict limits. The primary way by which you can get more power from devices with axial flow, is to increase the number of devices (and therefore costs)and not to increase the size of the device. Thus, there are problems that it is difficult to achieve the benefits of large-scale economic projects, maintenance costs increase, and axial turbines are essentially expensive in manufacture and maintenance of signs, such as blades with variable pitch.

One proposed option of the axial turbine is a turbine with transverse flow axis of rotation essentially perpendicular to the flow direction or, at least, the main component of flow direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation).

Wind turbine cross-flow is well known. The simplest is usually known as the Savonius rotor. A more effective device is a turbine of Darius (for patentovannaja in 1931), see figure 1. It was used as a wind turbine, almost always with a vertical axis in a wide scale range and number of options.

The device is based on the same principle as the turbine of Darius, but placed with its axis vertical in the water, known as turbine Davis, which applies to about 1980, When placed with a vertical axis, however, the turbine cross-flow, remains without changes in scale.

Therefore, one suggestion is that the device type turbines Darrius or Davis, but with the horizontal axis. The main type of rotor 3 bladed turbines Darrius shown in figure 2. If the turbine of Darius with a horizontal axis passes across the stream, the blades become long and narrow (relative to their length). Each blade is subjected to large horizontal efforts, which are strongly affected when the rotation of the turbine. Turbine of Darius in this form is, essentially, a very flexible design. It counteracts the applied loads due to the creation of bending moments and shear forces in the blades. As a result, long turbine of Darrius will be unreasonably large deflections.

Below shows the stress-strain state of the turbine of Darius, and discussed the problem with the deflections. Figure 3 depicts the ID from above 2-blade turbines Darrius. Under the action of lateral loads from the hydrodynamic forces of the blade 11, supported at its ends, will be deformed, as shown in the drawing by dashed lines 12 (deflection greatly enlarged for illustration).

The deflection can be reduced by installing a rigid reinforcing plates 13 sites along the turbine, as shown in figure 4. They reduce the "deflection" of the whole structure, but do not reduce the deflection from the shift". Full deformation is still large, as shown in figure 4.

As well as the problem of deflection described above, there is also a problem in that since the deflections change with the rotation of the turbine, the material will experience excessive fatigue loading. Therefore, there is the challenge of creating a sufficiently large turbine with a horizontal axis.

Another proposed design is the Gorlov turbine, which is a variation of turbine Darrius, but with spiral blades (this provides the advantage of continuous production of electricity). An example of the Gorlov turbine rotor shown in figure 5. Device Gorlova was proposed as a turbine, driven by the wind and turbines driven by water, with vertical or horizontal axes. Additional information can be is allowed to receive, for example, from US 5642984. In some cases (as shown in figure 5) blades 11 are supported by end plates 13, in other cases - spokes from the Central shaft. However, the spiral blades do not form an essentially rigid structure, but because of its rigidity Flexural provide structural integrity. This means that the blades can not be formed in a particularly long design without encountering the problems associated with depressions described above. In addition, there is also the problem that the spiral blades are essentially difficult and expensive to manufacture.

The present invention aims to eliminate, at least partially, one or more of the above problems.

The present invention describes the turbine cross-flow, containing a rotor mounted for rotation about an axis, the rotor includes at least three blades to effect the rotation of the rotor around the axis when the blades are in the water, while the rotor contains many elements in the form of three-dimensional triangular design, with at least one of these blades contains one of these elements, with the specified at least one blade is elongated and has a line, which is essentially a straight line, whereas the om line specified, at least one blade is not parallel to the specified axis and located such that the line of the blade and the axis does not lie in one plane.

Turbine in accordance with the present invention has the advantage that ensures the scalability of the device, allowing it to be positioned horizontally.

Embodiments of the present invention solve the problem of deflection, by creating a three-dimensional triangular structure, i.e. non-planar rigid structure that can withstand the loads created mainly as a result of compression and stretching. The triangular design is, preferably, a host of essentially straight, if they were to be replaced by elements that were connected at its end with "connections on pins" (i.e., compounds that do not deter moments), then an equivalent structure would be statically defined or backup. It would not have formed the mechanism. In a real design, in which connection can transfer points, loading in design is, however, mainly axial, and design will be hard because internal communication is triangular in shape. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the number of blades is six, and the blades are angled otnositelno the axis of rotation. On the contrary, turbine type of turbine Darrius usually consists of two or three parallel blades (turbine Davis usually consists of 4 blades)that are not triangular. In the present invention the blades are used to build the elements of a rigid design, eliminating the main causes deformation of the structure under the action of lateral load.

The location of the line is essentially straight blades of the turbine and the rotational axis of the turbine so that they do not lie in one plane, gives the opportunity to implement embodiments of the present invention, in which one or more turbine blades are components of one of the constructive elements of three-dimensional triangular design, so that further communication is not required.

Embodiments of the present invention will be described below only as an example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

figure 1 depicts a wind turbine of Darius;

figure 2 depicts a 3-bladed turbine of Darius with a horizontal axis, which is not consistent with the present invention;

figure 3 depicts the deflection of the long 2-blade turbines Darrius, which is not consistent with the present invention;

figure 4 depicts the deflection of the long 2-blade turbines Darrius with reinforced sections, which are not suitable for the et the present invention;

figure 5 depicts the helical turbine Gorlova, which is not consistent with the present invention;

6 depicts a 6-blade turbine, with blades form a triangular structure, in accordance with the embodiment of the present invention;

7 depicts a multi-element configuration with six blades in each element according to the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig depicts a 6-blade construction embodying the present invention, with blades that are offset from tangent;

Fig.9 depicts the 6-blade construction embodying the present invention, with blades that are offset radially;

figure 10 depicts the 6-blade construction embodying the present invention, with the blades shifted tangentially and with a triangular end;

11 depicts an asymmetric 6-blade construction embodying the present invention, with three blades, parallel to the axis;

Fig depicts the deflection long with ties stiffness 2-blade turbines Darrius, which is not consistent with the present invention;

Fig depicts a vertical view of the turbine installation embodying the present invention;

Fig depicts a view in section of the turbine installation on Fig;

Fig depicts a top view of the turbine installation on Fig;

Fig image of the t is comparable to the installation of axial turbines, which do not correspond to the present invention;

Fig depicts long turbine installation embodying the present invention; and

Fig depicts a view in section of the turbine installation as an active dam.

In the drawings, similar elements are denoted by similar reference positions.

The main application envisaged for the embodiments of the present invention is the extraction of energy from tidal flows, but the device can, equally, be placed in other types of flow, such as in rivers or streams, caused by ocean currents. Below will be referred to tidal flows only as an example, but it is only the preferred placement and does not preclude placement in other locations of the stream.

The first option exercise

The turbine of the first variant implementation of the present invention is depicted in Fig.6. Compared to the turbine rotor in figure 2, the number of blades is increased to six, and the blades 11 re-aligned for the formation of a triangular shape. 6 depicts one design element. You should pay attention to the fact that the blades 11 are elongated elements used for formation of triangular design. In this case, the blades are not parallel to the axis 14 of rotation of the rotor. In addition to the, the blade 11 is not inclined radially with respect to axis 14, and leaning on a tangent, so that the longitudinal line of the blades 11 and the axis 14 of the rotor are not in the same plane. Thus, the blades 11 to form the elements of three-dimensional triangular design. Of course, the blades can be tilted radially, for example, if the rotor would have to suzhivatsya at the end. Multiple elements can be connected together to form a continuous structure, as shown for the three elements of figure 7. Although the elements are depicted with the same diameter and the same length, this is not important. For example, the diameter may be greater in deep water. There are no particular limitations on the diameter of the turbine, but usually it can be 20 meters when used at a water depth of 60-80 m is Much smaller versions, of course, possible.

The number of blades of the turbine is determined with reference to a plane perpendicular to the axis of the turbine rotor, which crosses the largest number of blades connected with this axis, this number determines the number of blades. Thus, Fig.7 depicts the construction of a six-bladed rotor of the turbine, although it consists of three elements, and each contains six separate blades. Preferably, all blades are also elements forming, hence, is her least part of the triangular structure. However, not all elements of the triangular structures are necessarily blades.

The profile of the blades may take any suitable form known to the turbine of Darius. For example, the blades have the shape of an aerodynamic profile in the cross section, with the aerodynamic profile is symmetric, i.e., the profiles of the opposite surfaces, which are the same.

In the present embodiment, the blades are essentially straight and form a straight line along its length. Optionally, the aerodynamic profile of the blades may be curved (although the line of the longitudinal direction of the blade remains essentially straight) for optimal hydrodynamic efficiency, so that a radial direction from a rotation axis perpendicular to the plane of the blade along its length. However, even in this case, the line of each blade is straight. In one type of construction of each blade has a Central straight bar of steel, and the outer body forms an aerodynamic profile, which can be curved. The enclosure can be made of lightweight material such as fiberglass or other composite material.

Other embodiments of the

In large part, the present invention design is a triangular cleopatria rigid structure, using the blade as structural elements. This makes it possible to locate the turbine across the stream and reduces the number of necessary supports. Although 6 and 7 depict straight curved blades that intersect on the drive on the end of each element and have the same size and are equally inclined to the axis, none of these signs is not important for the present invention. Other alternative embodiments of and alternatives the first alternative implementation of the present invention include the following features:

(a) the Blades can be slightly curved. They must not have a constant width along the chord. Some will, however, function as elements, working in compression and tension for wood construction (essentially triangular structure).

(b) the Blades can be slightly offset to where they intersect, as shown in Fig (offset tangentially) and Fig.9 (radial displacement). These structures provide the basic requirements of a rigid design, but can be preferred from the point of view of hydraulics.

(c) They must not overlap on the disk, but can intersect the triangular ends 15, as shown in figure 10.

(d) the Blades can vary in size and angle to the stream. Figure 11 shows an example in which three blades parallel to the axis rotation system-easy installation the I, and three smaller blades tilted. They still form a rigid triangular structure.

(e) the Number of blades is not necessarily equivalent to six. For example, you may use a different number of blades, for example eight, taking into account the requirements, in accordance with which the turbine has a triangular structure.

(f) Another way to perform a hard triangular design is carried out using at least three blades, transversely sealed with flexible elements working in tension, by choice, in the form of rods with a streamlined cross-section. The image of the effect of additional connecting elements given in Fig. This drawing does not match the version of the implementation of the present invention as it relates to 2-blade turbine and shows the connection stiffness in one plane only for simplicity, but it is given for comparison with figure 3 and 4. As shown in Fig, the deflection from the shift of the whole structure becomes much less, and the corresponding deformation is reduced. Individual blades 11, still, 12 are deformed, as shown in Fig, but the deflection is much less than the previous comprehensive deformation of the structure, shown in figure 3 and 4.

Placement of a turbine embodying the present invention

Fig depicts a typical possible placement of turbines in plewase the present invention. Shows two rotor 5 turbines, supported by three structures 3, 4, attached to the seabed, two of the structures 3 are passed through the surface 1 of water, and one design 4 fails. For reasons connected with shipping, wave load and the environment, may be the best use of support structures which do not pass through the surface of the water. The rotors of the turbine can be connected to separate generators (not shown) or can be connected together with a single generator 6 in one of the support structures 3. To reduce the applied torque to the support structure adjacent turbine rotors can rotate in opposite directions. In addition, not all rotors 5 turbines must have the same diameter and also a constant diameter along their length.

Fig depicts a cross-section along the axis of the turbine embodying the present invention, showing the flow 7 of the water, perpendicular to the turbine 5. When the flow changes direction to reverse the tide system, the turbine 5 is rotated in the same direction as before: turbine 5 also rotates regardless of the direction of flow.

Fig depicts the same device from above, showing the thread 7, which is perpendicular to the turbine 5. The stream does not have to be exactly in the perpendicular direction. Inclined threads will, however, cause the some reduction in efficiency.

For comparison with Fig, Fig depicts a typical placement of axial turbines 8, occupying similar width across the stream. In comparison with the turbine embodying the present invention, the device with axial flow

(a) crosses the lower section of the flow,

(b) requires more support structures, all of which must pass through the surface to access the generators

(c) requires more generators

(d) requires more primary seals for bearings, etc.

In a shallow estuary, for example, the number of turbines embodying the present invention, will be connected together to form a long setup, as shown in Fig, with one or more generators 6.

Turbine embodying the present invention, can also be placed in streams with higher speed, for example in rivers. In appropriate cases, the turbine 5 can execute the function "active dam, see Fig. Downstream from the dam, the thread may become supercritical, followed by a hydraulic jump back to laminar flow.

The support structure 3, 4 can take any suitable form. For example, they can be fixed structures with foundations on single piles, numerous piles, gravity bases or caissons. The supporting structure may be made of steel or concrete is. Tethered floating structures may be suitable in certain applications (for example, at a very great depth).

Generators can also take any number of suitable configurations. For example, generators may or generators with a low angular velocity without gear, or generators with a higher angular velocity defined gearbox between the turbine and the generator. Each support structure may be installed one generator (or even two generators) or the rotors of the turbine 5 can be simply connected together with supporting structures (for example, using the clutch, which will provide a slight angular displacement), and the PTO can directly be located at one point along the line. More complex devices in which mechanical transmission system used for the location of the generator above the water level, is also provided.

1. Turbine cross-flow, containing a rotor mounted for rotation about an axis, the rotor includes at least three blades to effect the rotation of the rotor around the axis when the blades are in the water, while the rotor contains many elements in the form of three-dimensional structures formed from triangles, and at least one of these is a separate estimate contains one of these blades, in this case, at least one blade is elongated and has a line, which is essentially a straight line, when this line is specified, at least one blade is not parallel to the specified axis and located such that the line of the blade and the axis does not lie in one plane.

2. Turbine according to claim 1, containing at least six blades forming the structural elements formed from triangles.

3. Turbine according to claim 1 or 2, in which each blade is essentially a straight line.

4. Turbine according to claim 1 or 2, in which at least one blade has an aerodynamic profile.

5. Turbine according to claim 1 or 2, in which at least one blade has an aerodynamic profile that is curved along its length.

6. Turbine according to claim 1 or 2, in which in at least one location along the specified axis plane perpendicular to the specified axis, intersects at least six elements specified triangular structure.

7. Turbine according to claim 1 or 2, in which said axis is essentially horizontal.



 

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9 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydroenergetics, to low pressure flows of seas, rivers and water outlets of hydro electric stations and reservoirs. A tidal hydroelectric plant contains a cylindrical body of the machine compartment with a gear box and electric generator of the tail hydroturbine with arms, mounted on its axis and the axis of rotation. On the upper part of the body is fixed a flat pylon, on the end of the pivot system and the axis of rotation. The body is suspended on a crossbeam in the passage of the catamaran for lifting the power station to the level of the servicing platform on the grooves of the support bridge pier, connected by the arch with a lifting mechanism. Arms of the hydroturbine are made short and wide sweptforward on the leading edge and with a concave surface in the form of a parabolic curve, and a convex surface of the tailpiece perforated with slanting slits.

EFFECT: reduces the depth of the low pressure power stations, increases the hydrodynamic quality of the hydroturbines arms, and ensures periodic lifting of the power station from the water.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroelectric station includes energy converter consisting of chain of hydraulic turbines. Hydraulic turbine is built on hollow carrying shaft-cylinder with conical fairings on bases inscribed into inner ends of blades-semicylinders whose outer ends are clamped together in several places over length of hydraulic turbine by narrow rings-hoops and form multiblade cylinder with hollow belts with ballast on end faces providing neutral buoyancy of hydraulic turbine. Adjustable ballast in hollow part of carrying shaft-cylinder provides variable buoyancy of hydraulic turbine to submerge hydraulic turbine in water completely at neutral buoyancy or rising to surface. Energy converter is connected with electric generators arranged on the bank through system transmitting rotation and arranged in bank cavities. Rotation transmitting system employs different modes of transmission of rotation and connection and movable power unit with travel motion mechanism by means of which it displaces inside cavity. Movable power unit is connected with energy converter and, moving vertically, can set power converter at required depth.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

4 dwg

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