Method of creation of additional water stocks in recovery of peat bogs
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.
EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.
The invention relates to peat extraction, specifically to restore peat bogs, and in particular irrigation of depleted peatlands.
At present in Russia the area of the depleted peatlands estimated is about 900 thousand hectares (in the European part of Russia is 70% of all worked out peat bogs), and is used only 20-30% of these areas. Disturbed marshes, primarily bogs developed for the extraction of peat, are unproductive lands with unclear trend and speed of healing, periodically threat of fires, air pollution from fires and surface water for erosions, etc. So for ecological rehabilitation of depleted peatlands, resume them in the swamp - and tortoiseshell processes, Renaissance biosphere functions, as well as to eliminate erosion and fire situation carry out the restoration of depleted peatlands (rewetting), including their initial watering. For example, one of these projects (the Rationale for re-swamping peat deposits "Boolean moss", State scientific institution the Institute of Zoology of NAS of Belarus, Minsk, 2007) restoration of wetland fauna and flora will occur che is ez 10-15 years, the functions of the peat accumulation and binding of carbon dioxide will recover in a few decades. Only on irrigated area developed peatlands, according to experts, you need 2-3 years.
When restoring depleted peatlands one of the main objectives is the creation of an effective system of accumulation of water to restore the water balance of the peat bog cutover. As noted in one of the sources (Adeleke. Green pipeline on drained peatlands. M: Rosselchozizdat, 1984 page 7.), "when there is insufficient rainfall and strong evaporation on peat-bog soils intensively drained by a network of public or private drainage, ground water often goes deep into the earth, the soil moisture is below the optimum. In such cases, on peat soils it is necessary to apply additional (artificial) hydration... the most common problem events on irrigation of wetlands is the lack of water needed to restore the marshes". This lack of supply, as a rule, a supply of water from natural sources or artificial reservoirs, which, in turn, is associated with considerable expenditure of energy and material resources, the complexity of the work in hard to reach places, it is Timothy take into account the scarcity of freshwater resources in many regions, seasonal restrictions on the carrying out of such works.
Technical result achieved in the claimed invention, is creating additional sources volume of water necessary for irrigation developed peatlands in the reduction of the volume of intake for these purposes, fresh water from natural sources and man-made reservoirs during their intensive use in the summer, eliminating seasonal restrictions on the carrying out of works on irrigation developed peatlands in improving fire safety in areas depleted peatlands in reducing the risk of occurrence of emergency situations in improving the overall environmental situation around the developed peatlands in reducing the total cost of material resources for liquidation of consequences of emergency situations, environmental and technological disaster.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the creation of additional water supplies is carried out in the autumn-winter period of the year with the establishment of a sustainable average daily air temperature is below the freezing temperature of water and use ice in blocks, made in the form of polyhedra.
The invention is illustrated by drawings.
Figure 1 presents: 1 - the natural source of fresh water (or artificial reservoir with fresh water is), 2 - site manufacturing of blocks of ice, 3 - block of ice, 4 - vehicle for delivering blocks of ice on the mapped areas 6 peatland 5, building 7, made of blocks of ice.
Figure 2 presents the structure of the stacked multiple layers of 3 blocks of ice.
In this case, as shown in figure 1, near the available natural source of fresh water (or artificial pond with fresh water) 1 at site 2 are made of blocks of ice 3. Custom blocks using the vehicle 4 then move on mapped areas 6 of the peat bog cutover 5. Delivered to areas of peat blocks are then several layers, as shown in figure 2, the structure 7 in the form of a polyhedron. Each mapped area of the peat bog cutover depending on the area in a similar way to erect one or more structures from ice blocks.
With the beginning of spring-summer period of the year with increasing ambient temperature, and begins the process of ice melting in the construction of the surrounding snow cover of peat and frozen in winter soil layer, however, due to the significant volume of water stored in the erected structures in the form of ice, and geometrical parameters of the structures of the melting of ice in such a construction will be less of intensive the m and longer, than the process of thawing of the snow cover and frozen in winter the upper soil layer of peat. As a consequence, the soil is saturated Obvodnogo peatland water will occur over a longer period of time and more efficiently than in normal conditions.
The way to create additional water supplies while restoring peat bogs, characterized in that is carried out in the autumn-winter period of the year with the establishment of a sustainable average daily air temperature is below the freezing temperature of water using ice in blocks, made in the form of polyhedra, with near available source of freshwater to produce blocks of ice, then made the blocks with the help of a vehicle moving on mapped areas of the peat bog cutover and stack several layers in the structure in the shape of a polyhedron, with each mapped area of the peat bog cutover depending on the area to erect one or more structures from blocks of ice.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.
EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.
SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in removal of water from a drop, giving the specified position to the drop bottom, laying of a water-impermeable geomembrane onto this bottom and covering of a geomembrane and a beach with a protective layer from natural soil. The geomembrane edge is installed above the rated water level in the pond, created in the drop with atmospheric precipitation and put into economic turnover. In plan beyond the geomembrane the protective layer in its base comprises an antifiltration layer coupled with a geomembrane.
EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.
5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.
EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground water with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals with fractions of various size, layer by layer with further compaction of each layer, laying of drainage layer with construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, topographic mapping of the whole pit is performed, and as per its results there made is planning with extraction of sections representing geological natural monument and sections subject to further filling. At that, filling with construction waste is performed while cuts of deposits representing geological natural monument are kept free, and possibility of access to them, monitoring them and arranging the museum of the Earth is provided. The rest sections of the pit according to the planning are broken into zones and filled; at that, overburden rocks are laid on the drainage layer. Hill is formed in one of the zones with its further terracing. Burial places are built on terraces. Columbarium and crematorium rooms are built in the rest zones. Foundation bases of the above buildings are arranged in the following sequence: first, overburden rocks laid on drainage layer are levelled, and piles are driven to the design depth from planning level of the pit. Then, buffer pad from sand of average grain size is made without compaction and binding concrete is provided above buffer pad. Zones are separated from each other by means of artificially created three-dimensional soil shapes, and tracks and access ways are covered with natural or artificial stone.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.
SUBSTANCE: recovery method of mined-out pits involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground waters with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals, laying of drainage layer of construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, first, planning is performed and cuts of deposits of average coal age are determined. Filling with construction waste is performed while those cuts of deposits of average coal age are kept free, and access is provided to them in order to monitor them and to arrange the museum of the Earth. Then, in the centre of the pit, on the drainage layer there laid are overburden rocks; at that, a hill is formed; after that, when the hill height reaches average absolute level, terracing of hill slopes is performed by means of a bulldozer; and section is pre-broken and furrows indicating the boundaries of the future terraces, tracks and access ways are ploughed. Bed of each terrace is formed with reverse cross slope to two gradients; at that, width of terrace bed is not less than seven metres. For each terrace, starting from lower tier of terraces, along the whole perimetre of the pit, there built are embankment plate or stone walls and they are bound with cement mortar. Drainage system is routed and burial places are built on terraces.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work owing to excluding the necessity of extraction of large volumes of soil for creation of fertile layer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selective mining, movement and storage in separate soil wastes; at that, soil groups are laid periodically to the waste height of 2.5 m, at flattening of 25-35° waste boards. At that, lower part of the group which is 15-20 cm thick - low-fertile overburden rocks; middle part of the group which is 10-12 cm thick is laid with natural looser with fraction size of not more than 10 mm and upper part of the group is filled with organic fertiliser.
EFFECT: reduction of bioproductivity of clay soils and improvement of protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, movement and storage of the soil layer and overburden rocks, mining of the open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes close in their composition to natural minerals, laying of the draining layer from construction wastes, with thickness of at least 0.6 m and fraction size of 150-200 mm. After filling of the pit with construction wastes, terracing is carried out using a bulldoser, at the same time at first the site is laid out, and furrows that mark borders of future terraces, paths and access roads are tilled. Then the bed of each terrace is formed serially with the bulldoser with a reverse cross inclination up to two degrees, along the entire perimetre of the pit. Bed width at each terrace is arranged as at least equal to seven metres. Then retaining walls are arranged from plates or stones and are bound with cement mortar. The drainage system is laid, and places are arranged on the terraces for burial of the deceased.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to reclamation of worked-out pits. The method includes backfilling of worked-out space up to the upper underground water level by construction waste close to minerals by composition, and setting drainage layer. After the pit is filled with construction waste, terracing is carried out using a bulldozer. Furthermore, at first the area is divided and ribs are plowed, the ribs indicate the borders of future terraces. The bed of each terrace is formed by a bulldozer with reverse crossfall up to 2 degrees. Support walls are erected along the whole perimeter of the pit and drainage system is installed, while decorative plants, lawns and gardens are organized.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensity of worked-out pits reclamation, soil is protected from wind and water erosion.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: flattening of quarry sides is done bottom-up by means of their filling by application of stronger rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry. Filling may be carried out up to various vertical elevations at the board of the quarry depending on mine technical conditions of deposit bedding.
EFFECT: accelerated process of damaged lands recovery by increasing stability of flattened boards of the quarry to erosion processes, by arrangement of water reservoirs in the mined area with parameters favourable for recovery of their biological productivity.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame, a processing module, antenna units, a motion sensor and a propeller for free movement along a bottom. Antenna units are arranged along the frame perimetre. The frame consists of rods and represents three parts connected in a hinged manner.
EFFECT: increased quality of doing operational monitoring of feeder canals by surveying an entire feeder canal along the perimetre and much faster survey of canals.
SUBSTANCE: air-hydraulic water lift contains lower tank with inlet and outlet tubes, overhead tank, gate switch and partition of pools. Additionally water lift contains upper tank with air duct and water conduit with return valve communicating with overhead tank. Lower tank is equipped with floater and gates with rods. Gate switch is made in the form of cylindrical sealed body. Flexible and moving spherical element is located inside cylindrical body. Support in the upper part has gate fixing component. Fixing component communicates with rods of lower tank having thrusts to contact levers of gate switch.
EFFECT: reduction in lost of energy during friction and simplification of liquid lifting.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a trench antifiltration curtain embedded into a confining layer with a vertical water-impermeable flexible screen and a trench filler from filtering material, closed along the perimetre of the dried area, inside which there is a secured site, a device for deep directed distributed supply of fresh water into the soil massif of the dried area and the secured site and a drainage device. The drainage device is made in the form of a drainage vertical well (wells) with depth below the level of ground waters. The device for fresh water supply is made in the form of water-absorbing pits (pit) with depth to the level of ground waters. In the first version the drainage well is installed in the centre of the secured site and is connected with the drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. Pits are arranged along the secured site perimetre in the medium of filtering material of the antifiltration curtain trench filler. In the second version two and more drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least one pit arranged along the curtain perimetre in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the third version two drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header and a slot drain installed at the depth below the ground waters level. The well is made at the opposite side of the secured site and is located in plan in the middle part of the trench filler from the curtain filtering material. In the fourth version two drainage well are installed one at two sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least two pits, every of which is installed in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the fifth version four drainage well are installed one at four sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to a drainage horizontal well arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at four pits, every of which is installed at the border of the dried area in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of meliorative system operation and lower salt content in water-absorbing soil massif and drain flow down to rated parameters of mineralisation.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to operational monitoring of irrigation system tray channels technical condition in hydrotechnical construction. In method for performance of operational monitoring with the help of nondestructive check instruments and with application of ultrasonic method and method of impact pulse, reinforced concrete tray is separated into three survey zones by detection of specific defects and damages for each zone. Zone 1 is investigated to detect defects and damages that lead to destruction of tray bottom part. Zone 2 is investigated to detect skew cracks in tray board. Zone 3 - to detect long cracks, which lead to collapse of tray board. Using obtained data, technical condition of irrigation system tray channels is predicted.
EFFECT: more accurate assessment of stressed-deformed condition of reinforced concrete trays of irrigation channels and to predict their remaining service life.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to nondestructive methods for control and diagnostics of operational condition of tray channels. Device for diagnostics and forecasting of technical condition of tray channels in irrigation systems includes frame, antenna blocks and motion sensor. Device is equipped with processing module. Frame copies channel shape and is equipped with support rollers. Antenna blocks are arranged along frame perimetre.
EFFECT: makes it possible to improve quality of tray channel operational monitoring, to speed up their inspection with nondestructive test methods and to carry out forecasting of remaining service life of tray channels.
FIELD: irrigation systems, particularly ones to be used with opened water streams using energy source, for instance hydraulic level drop at retaining structures.
SUBSTANCE: water lift unit comprises chamber with controllable water inlet, water outlet pipe and water lifting means made as pump. The chamber has orifice receiving water inlet flow regulation valve. The valve has float, rod and guiding means. The chamber is connected with water outlet pipe provided with water turbine having shaft extending into chamber interior and communicated with shaft of water lifting means pump.
EFFECT: possibility to create pressure difference enough for water lifting along with possibility to retain desirable structure throughput.
FIELD: irrigation, particularly artificial water canals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves punching perforation orifices in film web; cutting furrows; breaking down and spreading soil lumps; laying perforated film webs along furrow perimeter and securing film web edges to berm. Number of perforation orifices made in film web increases from front furrow end to rear end thereof. Method is realized with the use of device including frame carrying working tool used for furrow cutting. Spreader, perforated film web accumulation means and pressing rollers are serially installed behind the working tool. The spreader comprises two rows of paired rollers freely rotating about their axes fixedly secured to shaft by means of bearings and loaded with spring. Roller is installed behind perforated film web accumulation means. The roller may perform limited vertical movement and is pressed with spring to furrow bottom and sides. Pressing rollers and scrapers are arranged behind the roller.
EFFECT: prevention of irrigation water losses during furrow filling with water; elimination of plant rootage damping-off.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly devices to maintain predetermined water level in contour-ditches of rice irrigation system.
SUBSTANCE: water spillway device adapted to discharge water from upper pool of contour-ditch comprises partition with delivery outlet to be closed with inclined gate arranged from lower pool side and supported by horizontal pivot pin, control chamber and elastic sealed vessel located in control chamber. Control chamber includes delivery pipe having inlet orifice provided with valve, which is connected with upper pool float through rod. Elastic sealed vessel comprises discharge orifice having diameter smaller than that of delivery pipe and acts on piston cooperating with gate through rod and hinge. The gate has side partitions and sealing means.
EFFECT: possibility to use natural atmospheric precipitations for irrigation purposes, prevention of crop losses due to increased accuracy of necessary water level maintenance in rice contour-ditches and provision of optimal rice irrigation regime along with decreased labor inputs.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly irrigation ditches, namely gravity flow, open channel water distribution systems to control water flow in irrigation canal with water consumers, which take water along the canal.
SUBSTANCE: water-distribution system comprises irrigation canal with head gate, sealed chamber with sliding float communicating with upper pool and discharge means through three-way gate installed in supply pipeline, three-way gate control sensor, movable water consumer with water-intake means, blocking structure made as elastic shell and water level sensor. Water-intake means of water consumer is provided with sheet fixedly secured to upper end part thereof and adapted to block upper part of water flow. The sheet is associated with spherical elastic shell, which blocks remainder water flow part and provided with balancing means. The balancing means is located around spherical elastic shell perimeter. The sheet is linked to head part of water-intake means by flexible tie. Hollow body is connected to outer side of water-intake means. The hollow body is adapted to receive water level sensor made as float with vertical post. The post has two parallel contact rods connected to one post end and associated with power source. The contact rods cooperate with trolley cables in horizontal plane. The trolley cables are carried by masts installed on irrigation canal berm and distributed along the full canal length. The trolley cables are connected to power source through spring-loaded contact rods arranged in water-intake means and receiver/transmitter unit. Time delay unit is connected with gate control sensor. Sliding float is connected with head gate through kinematical connection means. Movable water consumer is provided with programmable control device, which controls water-intake means location height.
EFFECT: reduced operational costs, decreased water consumption for agricultural crop watering, decreased water reserve volume, simplified structure and reduced costs of irrigation system object construction.
FIELD: hydraulic equipment, particularly to drain water from tailing pits, for closed drainage systems formed in zones characterized by severe climatic conditions.
SUBSTANCE: spillaway comprises service water vessel, shutoff member made as lower water level regulator arranged in discharge pipeline, upper water level sensor and magnet, which cooperates with magnetic mass when shutoff member is in its closed position. Float-type lower water level control member is installed from discharge pipeline interior side and is used as heat insulation means. Upper water level sensor is made as float and connected to shutoff member by means of vertically-aligned adjusting rod, which regulates upper water level. Magnetic mass is located on lateral pipeline. Magnet is installed on shutoff member.
EFFECT: increased leakage prevention, elimination of service vessel cooling and, as a result, extended field of application.
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented with the help of pressure hose charge. At a safe distance for operators-fire fighting personnel from the fire-front a reference surveying rod is set. In accordance with the intensity of the fire the flame height is estimated, and the charge is placed behind the surveying rod at a distance Δ in the direction of fire. The distance Δ is determined by the ratio where: T1 - is flame temperature, T* - is the temperature of destruction of the charge shell, T0 is the temperature of the environment, H - is height of the flame, T' - is temperature of the pyrolysis zone. When approaching the edge of the fire to the reference surveying rod the charge is exploded. Certain flame sources are extinguished with a disintegrator.
EFFECT: combined method allows to increase the effectiveness of firefighting and provides safety of operations.