Biomimetic neurostimulation apparatus

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, namely to methods and apparatuses for neurostimulation therapy. A neuromimetic apparatus comprises first and second inputs receiving neural signals with the first input receiving signals afferent to a suspected area and the second input - different from the suspected area. The input emitting neural compatible signals efferent to the suspected area. A signal processing unit comprises a forward channel arranged between the first input and output, and a modulation channel receiving signals from the second input and feeding a signal into the forward channel. The forward channel comprises a first sensor, a processor trained to imitate the suspected area functions which is a second neural area, a signal generator feeding signals to the efferent third area suggested to be healthy. A method for substitution of the suspected neural tissue functioning implies the stages of implantation of the neuromimetic apparatus, emission of at least one stimulus based on the processing function, signal control from the first and second inputs, signal sample comparison from the first and second inputs and emission sample adaptation on the basis of the comparison results.

EFFECT: use of the invention enables higher adaptability and flexibility for diagnosing and treating neuromotor outcomes, such as Parkinson's disease.

12 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of devices for biomimetic stimulation.

Alternative treatment of neurological disorders is neurostimulatory therapy. This therapy uses electrical or magnetic stimuli on the nervous tissue by means of an external or implanted devices. The device biomimetic stimulation described by Berger et al., Proc. IEEE, Vol. 89, #7, July 2001, s-1012. This document describes the e-transformation model I / o the hippocampus.

The present invention is the provision of adaptive and flexible device for biomimetic stimulation.

Objectives and advantages will be apparent upon reading the following description and claims. From the following description it will be obvious that the more adaptive and flexible device can be used as a prosthesis for the damaged tissue and includes at least one signal processing unit, which includes a direct communication channel and the channel modulation. The communication simulates the treatment of neurological signals between areas, afferent and efferent to the suspicious area. Channel modulation informs the communication in response to signals received from another place. Channel modulation can feed back the signals even more efferent than the output from the drove of communication.

Violations, potentially curable by this therapy include motor impairment, cognitive impairment or damage. Especially there is a hope, what is more adaptive and flexible device would be useful for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Other examples of neurological disorders that are potentially curable with such a device include multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, pain, and other cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, bipolar disorder, syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, addiction and even obesity. Moreover, the treatment can be used in rehabilitation therapy following stroke or traumatic brain damage.

Aspects of the invention will now be described by non-limiting example with reference to the following figures:

Figa diagram of the device for biomimetic stimulation in the patient's head and an external management system.

Figw - schematized view is similar to a circuit functioning part of the brain.

Figure 2 is a more detailed diagram of part Figv.

Figure 3 shows the diagram of a biomimetic neurostimulator implanted in the brain or nervous way.

4 is a block diagram sequence of operation of the device Figure 3.

Figure 5 illustrates what the transfer function.

6 illustrates the function of the frequency conversion.

Fig.7 illustrates the pulse sequence.

Fig shows an alternative implementation 3.

Figa shows the input signal.

Figv shows another input signal is delayed relative to the first input signal.

Figs shows the output of the neurostimulator.

Fig.9D shows an alternative solution of the neurostimulator.

The following additional documents of a patent is incorporated herein by reference: US 5,913,882; WO 2005053787A1 and US 20050113744A1.

Figa diagram of the patient's head 101 includes a device 102 for biomimetic stimulation equipped with optional antenna 103 (shown schematically) for external connection. Could be other types of external communication, such as abstraction, United with the outer surface of the skull of the patient. The device 102 is shown within the brain, but it could be placed in other neural pathways, such as the spine.

Optional external system 104 communicates with the device 102 via the antenna 105. The external system 104 provides data to the device 102, for example, when the medical professional determines the progression of the breach or from any sensor. The external system 104 may additionally or alternatively provide auxiliary processing or control the pressure to 102.

As an example of a typical circuits of the brain, Figv shows a schematic circuit ganglia-thalamocortical motor nerves (Y. Temel et al., Progress in Neurobiology volume 76, S. 393-413 (2005)). This figure shows the crust 150 brain, compact part 151 of the dark matter (SNc), putamen 152, the outer segment 153 "pale globe" (GPe), thalamus 154, brain stem and spinal cord 155, hypothalamic nucleus (STN) 156 and the inner segment 157 "pale globe" (GPi). Excitatory connection marked "+", inhibiting communication marked "-" and the modulating referred to as "m". Physiological functions, schematized in this circuit are affected in diseases of the motor nerves of the type of Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia, for example. The proposed device for biomimetic stimulation is well adapted for the correction of the pathological signals in these circuits the brain.

Figure 2 is a more detailed diagram of subsection chain brain, as shown in Figv. Shows the area of the neurological system shows the signal flow predominantly in one direction. Some areas of regulation of motility is particularly able to have a thread of this sort. In General, the flow will move from the afferent (upstream) region to efferent (downstream) region. Subsection circuit receives afferent the signals on his (synaptic) inputs 202 and produces neurological signalson its outputs 203. Four lines are shown as inputs 202 and 203 outputs. Four is an arbitrary number. In fact, signals from other areas of the brain or other neural pathways typically modulate afferent signals in accordance with a very vysokonapornoj function I / o. In addition, the size of O and the size I will be mostly different. The modulating signals may be any abscopal 204 and/or exciting 205 and mainly include signals as direct communication and feedback. As afferent input signals, and modulatory signals essentially non-stationary, thus, the output signal will be highly dynamic. Note that as shown in Figv, two-way flow of signals between areas (either directly, or through a large chain) is another common theme in the neurological systems. The operation of such circuits can be described in a similar manner.

Figure 3 shows the diagram of a biomimetic neurostimulator implanted in the brain or nervous pathway. Pathway includes three areas 306, 307 and 308. It is assumed that the regions 306 and 308 remain healthy, while region 307 Lieb is damaged or may become corrupted. It is assumed that according to Figure 2, the primary flow of nerve signals going in one direction, for example from 306 to 307, 308. Estimated dysfunction 307 illustrated illustration of the signals 325 arising from it, in the form of dashed lines.

The implanted neurostimulator includes a first sensor 309; a processor 310, which includes the process 310a training/write and steady process 310b; generator 311 incentives, and the second sensor 312. The first sensor 309 receives afferent signal 313 from the damaged area.

Generator incentives 311 is, for example, a generator of electric pulses. Generator incentives 311 provides a simulated response for field 308. The second sensor 312 receives efferent signal 314 from the field 308.

Optional external node or nodes 315 communicate (wirelessly or otherwise) to the processor. External node or nodes 315 can have many optional features, such as additional sensor that reads some input other than neural activity (e.g., muscle activity, movement, digestion, or some other physiological or non-physiological parameters), or additional processor, in the case of some functions, especially learning requires more CPU.

Element 316 is output neuromimetic prosthetic device, the WTO as elements 317 and 318 are used as inputs.

The sensors 309 and 312 can be of many types, including: electrical, optical, chemical, biochemical, electrochemical, magnetic or a combination of both. Generator 311 incentives can radiate incentives of many types, including electrical, magnetic, optical, chemical, biochemical, or their combination. Although drawn only one sensor at positions 309 and 312, can be used more than one sensor. Although drawn only one generator 311 incentives, can be used more than one generator. Moreover, could also be used by more than one processor 310 with more than two subprocesses.

In another exemplary embodiment, processor 310 is designed in such a way that it passes through two stages of training, as shown in the block diagram Figure 4.

At the first stage it is assumed that the region 307 operates at least to some extent. During the first stage of the process 310a simply control signals 313 and 314 at step 401 and educates themselves on the stage 407 sample stimulus/response response regions 307 and 308 on the signals 313. Then, the controller 310 detects at step 402 that the region 307 has become so corrupted that its functioning should be replaced. This detection may be performed in response to observations of changes in efferent signal 314. Altern is effective such detection may be performed in response to a signal 330 from the external node 315, for example, if a doctor diagnoses a sufficient deterioration requiring activation of the prosthetic device.

In the second stage of the learning process 310b continues to monitor the signals 313 and 314; however, at step 403, it now activates the block generator 311 incentives by requiring users to provide some stimulation region 316 308. Then, at step 405, the processor compares the signals 313 and 314, whether they follow the sample stimulus/response recorded during the first stages of learning. If the observed samples are different from the memorized samples, at step 406, the processor must adapt samples 316 generator incentives to return to step 403, control another step 404, then in step 405 to compare the signals 313 and 314 again.

The second stage of training may continue indefinitely, continuing to adapt the emitted impetus to the continuing deterioration of the region 307.

Alternative prosthetic device uses only the second stage of training, with reference to a database of samples of stimulus/response. Such a device is well suited for application to the next, for example, after a stroke or traumatic brain damage, where in contrast to the gradual degradation due to progressive disease, there was a sudden degradation of brain function.

Aspects of the learning process Figure 4 can be represented by the control of optional external devices 315. Favorably, if the learning process requires computationally intensive and requires more money than it would have been easy to insert in the implanted device.

Optional patient may be asked to perform tasks within the first and/or second stages of learning.

The processor 310 includes a feature that allows you to extract from the read signal output signal, which is transmitted to the generator 311 incentives (e.g., pulse generator). This output signal may, for example, amplitude, or frequency, or phase modulation of the electrical stimulus generated by the generator incentives 311. Feature implemented in 310 can be complicated, as, for example, described in an article by Berger. Alternative processor may have simpler functions, such as the transfer function or frequency conversion.

Means for reading and analyzing the detected nerve signals are well known in the art. For example, through the use of algorithms for detection of spikes (see, for example, Zumsteg et al., IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 2005, Book 13, pages 272-279) can determine the presence of nerve signals spikes detected by the sensor element(s). This can be obtained temporal sequence of action potentials, which may optionally be processed, for example, for whom avania frequency.

Figure 5 illustrates the transfer function suitable for use by the processor 310. This figure shows a few of the nervous signal 501 and the output signal 502 stimulus with a fixed delay in relation to the matter of the nerve signal. After a nervous signal is detected (for example, using the above ways to sort spikes), the stimulator generates the emission of incentives after a specified delay. Both signals is illustrated by the magnitude of the voltage depending on time. A typical value of d delay is 0.1-10 MS. A special sequence of pulses is only a rough illustration. Can be used in other sequences. Can be used for modulating the input signal to increase/decrease this delay d.

6 illustrates the function of the frequency conversion alternative suitable for use by the processor 310. In this figure the frequency of the read signal (action potential-series, or potential field), shown on the horizontal axis, is connected with the frequency of the output series of pulses, shown on the vertical axis. In this figure F0shows the intersection with the horizontal axis and "a" indicates the angle at which the function crosses the horizontal axis. "F0" and "and" can be modulated by other input signals, for example signals the AMI feedback or other signals. The function shown here as linear, but may take other forms.

7 illustrates a series of pulses produced by the generator incentives 311. The figure shows the pulse voltage or current depending on time. The figure shows the emission amplitude And delay d' and width w. Typical is within the range from 0.1 to 4 Volts (or 0.1 4 mA, depending on the resistance of the electrode) and the pulse duration 10-1000 μs.

Especially it is assumed that dyskinesia, especially one that is associated with Parkinson's disease will respond to the prosthesis type, illustrated in figure 3, because it is believed that dyskinesia caused by excessive stimulation, uncompensated feedback, and is not configured to the exact intention of the direct link.

Fig shows an alternative implementation of Figure 3. On Fig the last two numbers in the number of items in the cells and the ellipses show the ratio of those cells and ellipses having the same last two numbers in figure 3. In the embodiment, Fig the affected area 807 has a two-way flow of signals 813, 823, 824, 825 with afferent and efferent areas. Output signals 823 and 825 from 807 again illustrated by dashed lines to indicate that they refer violated when the region 807 becomes broken. Pig in the cancel two additional channel 820 and 821 feedback nieustraszony figure 3.

Figa-D illustrate an implementation option modulation of the output signal of the neurostimulator based on the read signals. Figa and 9B show two read signal, input 1 and input 2. Each read signal includes the input pulse 901 and 902, respectively. Here, the output characteristic is modulated in accordance with the read signals from the two sensors. The amplitude modulation on the time step denoted as δ, and in this example it is associated with a time delay dt between the detected signals of the sensors 1 and 2. The modulated output signal can be for example a continuous series of pulses, as shown in Fig.7, modulation, which is applied to one or more parameters (e.g., pulse amplitude, pulse width or pulse frequency). The magnitude and sign of δ in this example depend on dt, as shown in the two sketches Figs and Fig.9D. In the first case (Figs) for small positive dt modulation strictly positive and falls for more positive values of dt; small negative dt modulation is strictly negative, becoming less negative to more negative values of dt. The second example (Fig.9D) shows an alternative dependence of the modulation from dt; she is close to zero for small values of dt and has a strictly positive (negative) value of the Colo specific negative (positive) values of dt and decreases again to zero for large negative and positive values of dt. Ultimately modulation, which is trained biomimetic prosthesis will depend on what kind of neurological function should be replaced.

In the main function performed by the processor 310 and 810, for the most part, will be examined on the basis of experimental data and therefore is not necessarily predictable in advance.

From the present disclosure specialists in the art will be apparent other modifications. Such modifications may include other properties that are already known in the design, manufacture and use of neurological prosthetic devices and which can be used instead of or in addition to the properties already described here. Although claims have been formulated in this application to particular combinations of properties, it should be understood that the scope of the disclosure of the present application also includes any new property or new combination of properties disclosed here either directly or indirectly, or any generalization of this, regardless of whether it reduces any or all of the same technical problems as performed in the present invention. Applicants are therefore advised that these properties can be formulated new claims for consideration of this application or of any further application, the production of the Oh from this.

Used here, the words "including", "include" or "includes" should not be construed as excluding additional elements. Used herein, the singular should not be construed as excluding the presence of many elements.

1. Neuromimetic device, including:
at least first and second inputs (317, 318), performed with the opportunity to receive nerve signals from the first input (317) made with the ability to receive signals, afferent to the suspicious region (307), and the second input (318) is configured to receive signals from the nerve region (308)that is different from the suspicious area;
at least one output (316)made with the possibility
radiating nervous compatible signals, efferent to the suspicious region; and
at least one signal processing unit that contains the channel (309, 310, 311) direct link, located between the first inlet and outlet, and a channel (312) modulation performed with the opportunity to receive signals from the second input and to provide a modulating signal in the channel of direct communication,
moreover, the communication includes:
the first sensor (309)made with the possibility to receive the first signals coming from the first afferent nerve region (306), the proposed healthy;
the processor (310)made with the possibility of learning and imitations the functions suspicious region (307), which is the second nerve region; and
generator (311) incentives made with the possibility to apply signals to the third efferent nerve region (308), the proposed healthy.

2. The device of claim 1, wherein the second input (318) is configured to receive signals from the nerve region (308), efferent to the suspicious region (307).

3. The device of claim 1, wherein the communication includes at least one processor to perform operations, the operations include:
controlling (401) of the signals received from the first and second inputs during the first period of time;
training (407) processor during the first period of time to perform processing functions to produce the signals received from the second input in response to signals received from the first input; detecting (402)that the suspicious area became dysfunctional after the first period of time;
execute (403) memorized processing functions during the second period of time;
controlling (404) of the signals received from the first and second inputs during the second period of time; and
change (406) processing functions during the second time period in response to determining (405)that the signals received at the second input are not consistent with the signals memorized in the course of the learning process.

4. The device of claim 3, until omnitele comprising, at least one third input (330) for receiving signals generated externally (315), to the patient's body, and thus the detection is carried out in response to signals received on the third input.

5. The device of claim 1, wherein the communication includes the node generator incentives connected to the output.

6. The device of claim 1, wherein the second input is configured to receive signals, efferent to the exit, and when this modulation includes feedback, implemented in response to these efferent signals.

7. The device of claim 1, additionally comprising at least one third input (330) for receiving signals generated externally (315), to the patient's body.

8. The device of claim 1, wherein the channel modulation includes a second sensor (312)made with the ability to receive signals from the fourth region, efferent to the generator output (311) incentives, and to apply a modulating signal to the processor (310).

9. The device of claim 1, in which:
suspicious area (807) reported danaperino (813, 823, 824, 825) with the first and third neural areas (806, 808);
the first sensor (809) is additionally configured to receive second signals, efferent to the suspicious area, but afferent to the exit (816) node (811) generator incentives; and
the device additionally includes a channel (821) feedback from host(811) generator incentives to the zone, afferent to the first input to the first sensor.

10. The device of claim 1, in which it is assumed that the suspicious area (807) reported danaperino (813, 823, 824, 825) with the adjacent tissue, and the device additionally includes:
the first connection (820) with the first sensor (809) from the area between the suspicious region and the output node of the generator incentives; and
a second connection (821) with the first nerve region (806) from the node generator incentives.

11. The method of replacing the functioning suspicious of nervous tissue, the method includes the steps are:
implanted neuromimetic device, where the device includes at least one output (316)made with the possibility to radiate nervous compatible signals, efferent to the suspicious region (307), at least the first (317) and second (318) inputs made with the possibility to receive nerve signals from the first input (317) made with the ability to receive signals, afferent to the suspicious region (307), and the second input is configured to receive signals, efferent to the output (316), and at least one signal processing unit contains the channel (309, 310, 311) direct link, connecting the first input and output, and the channel (312) feedback, made with the ability to receive signals from the second input and to provide the feedback signal with the connection in the communication, moreover, the communication includes:
the first sensor (309)made with the possibility to receive the first signals coming from the first afferent nerve region (306), the proposed healthy;
the processor (310)made with the possibility of training and simulation functions suspicious region (307), which is the second nerve region; and
generator (311) incentives made with the possibility to apply signals to the third efferent nerve region (308), the proposed healthy;
emit (403) at least one incentive-based processing functions;
control (404) signals received from the first and second inputs;
compare (405) samples of the signals received on the first and second inputs; and
adapt (406) sample radiation on the basis of the comparison result.

12. The method of claim 11, further comprising stages, which are:
accept (401) signals received from the first and second inputs during the first period of time;
teach (407) processing options during the first period of time to ensure that the signals received at the second input (318), in response to signals received at the first input (317);
find (402)that the suspicious area became dysfunctional after the first period of time; and performing stages of radiation (403), controlling (404), comparison (405) and adaptation (406) during the second period is Yes time.



 

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21 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves using Stimul-1 apparatus. Movements applied in manual muscular testing are administered concurrently with current passed through. Initial postures are selected with injured muscle force, measured as a result of manual muscular test, taken into account. 4 points estimation being obtained, movement in articulation is carried out with gravitation force and weighting collar load of 500 g being overcome in standing sitting and lying position. 3 points high estimation being the case, movements are carried out without gravitation force being overcome in sitting position to train lower extremity articulations. 2 points high estimation being obtained, movements are carried out under easier conditions without gravitation force loading in lying initial position. 1 point being the estimation, patient strains muscle in isometric mode in lying initial position.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment; involving earlier idle muscle fibers in work.

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves setting electrode on epicardial surface of the right ventricle in making operation. Programmed right ventricle electrostimulation is carried out by means of the electrode. Superficial electrocardiogram is continuously recorded in process of stimulation. Ectopic ventricular activity being observed during electrostimulation, potential ventricular arrhythmia occurrence is predicted in postoperative period.

EFFECT: high reliability of prognosis with no arrhythmia indications in anamnesis.

3 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing motor activity points of injured dorsal muscles to pulsating extremely high frequency noise radiation in bandwidth of 52-78 GHz, duration of 1 mcs, mean power flow intensity of 0.85 mcW/cm2. Their tonus is to be determined in advance. Tonus being initially high, the daily treatment session is 5-8 min long. Tonus being initially low, the daily treatment session is 2-4 min long. The total treatment course is 8-15 procedures long.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment; reduced pain feeling intensity; stable treatment effect.

1 dwg, 7 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying thermomagnetic self-excitation inductance treatment of 1.2-2 Tesla units in subcortical nuclei projection with effective frequencies detected from increased amplitude of somatosensory and motor invoked potential and dophamine level growth in blood or liquor, reduced basic rhythm disorganization on electroencephalogram before and after applying thermomagnetic self-excitation inductance treatment. Synchronized median nerve electrostimulation with rectangular pulses is concurrently carried out with current intensity equal to 12-18 A and pulse duration of 0.1-0.l3 ms in trains of 3-5 s duration and 6-10 s long pauses with pulse succession frequency equal to 50 Hz daily during 15-30 min. The total treatment course is 10-20 days long.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment.

Electrode device // 2252793

FIELD: medical equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used in multichannel in electrical neuron-adaptive stimulators. Electrode device has joint for connecting multichannel neuron-adaptive stimulator and flat multiwired flexible cable. Each wire of cable is connected with corresponding contact of joint for switching stimulator in. Mounting shoes provided with fixing bushings are installed along the whole length of flexible cable. Electrodes are inserted into fixing bushings. Each contact of mounting shoe is connected with corresponding contact of joint via wire of flat multiwired flexible cable. Fixing metal bushing is connected contact of mounting shoe through conductor. Connection is made in such a way that number of contact corresponds to number of mounting shoe, to number of wire of multiwired flexible cable and to number of contact of joint.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of electro-therapeutic influence when treating prolonged pathological areas.

2 dwg

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves placing negative and positive electrode on skin surface in the innervation area of the second and the third trigeminus branch. An additional negative electrode is applied in the innervation area of auriculotemporal trigeminus branch. The electrodes are fed with pulsating electric current in predefined sequence. Current intensity is controlled in stimulation process in a way that patient feels intensive sensation with no pain. Device has DC supply source connected to unit for generating pulsating electric current having three outlet leads for connecting electrodes, modulator having regulator unit, transformer, switch and microprocessor.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of anesthesia in treating teeth.

15 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: medicine, therapy, cardiology.

SUBSTANCE: at hypertension I stage a patient should be prescribed several courses of transcranial electrostimulation at interval of 1-2 mo per 5-7 seanses , current power being 0.5-0.8 mA. At hypertension II and III stages one should prescribe transcranial eletrostimulation along medicinal therapy, and, also, several courses at interval of 2-3 mo and current power being 0.8-1.2 mA. The innovation enables to remove side effects, shorten the period of in-patient therapy and reduce the dosage of hypotensive preparation.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.

2 cl, 2 ex, 4 tbl

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