Method of reducing operating loss of irrigation water in rice cultivation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular the cultivation of rice. Since the beginning of the growing season of rice the water supply is carried out from the distributor to the rice fields. Then, an outflow of seepage water is performed from the rice fields into the waste channels and seepage water is re-used. Weeds are mowed to the water level in the discharge canal of the irrigation system during the transition of plants from one vegetation phase to another.

EFFECT: invention enables to reduce water losses for evaporation and transpiration of irrigation water from discharge canals.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, particularly the cultivation of rice.

There is a method of irrigation of rice in which reuse discharged from the surface of cheques water (avts USSR 1115665, CL 01 And G 25/02, 1984). In this way local distributors and card sprinklers are used at the same time and by dumping, which is achieved by using control structures. Mobile pumping station located at the beginning of the precinct of the sprinkler supplies water to the dispenser with further dilution of its net irrigation water and its supply to the sprinklers. Drainage network consisting of card drains and district collectors, drains prefiltermessage water from checks.

The disadvantages of this method are the following provisions: for desalination drainage and wastewater collector fueled by clean irrigation water, which results in an increase in the drawdown of the network and, as a consequence, in the soil of the check start to flow anaerobic processes, negatively affecting the development of plant rice; significant capital and energy costs, as drain-waste-water serves for irrigation pumping stations.

There is a method of rice cultivation (.RU No. 2138946, A01G 16/00, AV 79/02. A01G 9/00, A01C 7/00, 24.06.1998). In this way prefiltermessage of checks in the card discharge channels water return back to cheques pic what edstam offline vodopodyomnaya.

The disadvantages of this method are the large energy and economic costs of the seepage recovery in check by auxiliary vodopodyomnaya.

There is a method of rice cultivation (.RU No. 2218751, A01G 16/00, A01G 25/00, 20.12.2003), including the supply of water from the dispenser on the rice fields, the outflow seepage from checks in the card discharge channels, re-use water filtration for checks flooding through vodopodyomnaya and application of nitrogen fertilizers and herbicides.

The disadvantages of this method are the need for herbicides and large energy and economic costs of the seepage recovery in check by vodopodyomnaya, resulting in lower quality grain rice and environmental security in the rice irrigation system.

The technical result of the invention is the reduction of water losses due to evaporation and transpiration irrigation water from drainage channels and reduce irrigation requirements by reducing water loss by filtration with rice cheque, savings on waste pumping stations and vodopodyomnaya, the amelioration of soils and ecology of rice fields by reducing sufoziya and removal of nutrients from the soil, reducing the cost and increases the of rice yield.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of reducing operational losses of irrigation water for growing rice, including the supply of water from the dispenser on the rice fields, the outflow seepage from checks in the discharge channels, re-use water filtration for checks flooding since the beginning of the growing season of rice, according to the invention during the growing period of rice is mowing of weeds until the water level in the discharge channel of the rice irrigation system in the transition of rice plants from one phase of vegetation to another.

The novelty of the claimed invention due to the reduction of losses of irrigation water from canals for filtration from the rice paddies, evaporation and transpiration from release channels, the energy savings on waste pumping stations and vodopodyomnaya due to mowing of weeds to the level of water in drainage channels during the growing period of rice.

Performed during the growing period of rice mowing weeds in drainage channels to the level of the water helps reduce percolation losses of irrigation water from rice cheque to reduce losses by transpiration and beveled in the discharge channel stalks of weeds, floating on the water surface, reduce irrigation water losses to evaporation and the possibility of development is in the discharge channel of the lower weeds - algae by reducing heating of the water in the discharge channel, which contributes to the saving of irrigation water and electricity waste pumping stations and vodopodyomnaya, to improve the environmental situation in the rice irrigation system and increasing the yield of rice.

The method is as follows.

Since the beginning of the growing season of rice is used to supply water from the dispenser on the rice fields, accompanied by the outflow seepage from checks in the discharge channels and re-using them for checks flooding. When crossing the rice plants from one phase of the growing season to another is the accumulation of weeds until the water level in the discharge channel.

An example of the method.

Testing method of reducing operational losses of irrigation water in rice cultivation was carried out in Krasnodar Krai farms them. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district and the "Star" of the Abinsk district. In the spring, from the beginning of the rice growing season, water was channelled from the dispenser on the rice fields. When crossing the rice plants from one phase of vegetation to another was carried out mowing of weeds until the water level in the discharge channel.

As a result of application of this method to reduce operational losses of irrigation water for growing rice was obtained a 15% increase in yield of the rice farm them. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district and 12% in the farm "Star" Abinsk district. The cost of produced grains of rice fell by 4% in the kolkhoz. Lenin and 6% in the farm "Star". Electricity consumption at waste pumping stations during the growing season of rice decreased by 15-20%. Loss of irrigation water from the drainage channels on the evaporation decreased in the range of 50-60%, and transpiration is 80-90%. The proposed method allowed to reduce the irrigation requirement by 40-45% and to improve the environmental safety of the rice irrigation system due to the amelioration of soils of rice fields (table 1).

Table 1
Change ameliorative condition of soils in the rice paddies
Room/methodDepth selection, cmN-NO3N-NH4P2O5K3OHumus, %
The farm "Star" Abinsk district
114(1)/by the way0-51,880,567,52,45
5-10to 1.860,5412,17,4
114(2)/control0-51,210,4711,17,42,38
5-101,180,4410,37,2
115(1)/by the way0-51.891,1411,75,52,68
5-101,891,1111,55,0
115 (2)/control0-51,560,7711,55,32,61
5-10the 1.44 0,6911,24,6
The collective farm. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district
11/by way0-52,020,6610,85,02,20
5-101,980,6510,7a 4.9
53/control0-51,940,6113,17,22.14
5-10to 1.860,5512,56,7
55/by way0-52,141,2212,16,12,11
5-102,111,2212,35,8
56/control0-5of 2.210,9912,36,32,02
5-102,140,9411,85,6

The way to reduce operational losses of irrigation water for growing rice, including the supply of water from the dispenser on the rice fields, the outflow seepage from checks in the discharge channels, re-use water filtration for checks flooding since the beginning of the growing season of rice, characterized in that during the growing period of rice is mowing of weeds until the water level in the discharge channel of the rice irrigation system in the transition of rice plants from one phase of vegetation to another.



 

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