Device for evaluation of soil aggregate composition
SUBSTANCE: device for evaluation of aggregate composition of the soil consists of water tank with a drain hole, a base frame and an electric motor, where on the base frame a platform rotated with the electric motor is mounted, on which the water tank with sections different on volume is installed. The upper section is smaller than the lower section. The bottom of the lower section is removable and is fixed with snaps. At the bottom there are circular protrusions.
EFFECT: use of this device will enable to simplify the conducting of analysis of soil aggregate composition with minimal destruction of aggregates.
The present invention relates to agricultural production, in particular to the assessment of soil structure, its aggregate structure.
In agricultural production for the cultivation of field crops uses a variety of soil: black earth, sod-podzol, alkali and so on, which are characterized by a certain level of potential and effective soil fertility. Among the factors that determine the quality of the soil for cultivation of cultivated plants, with emphasis placed on the structure of soil, aggregate composition. On structureless soils, dominated by particles of 0.1-0.25 mm, growing plants is difficult. In these soils there is no free space for accumulation of moisture and air. Soil fertility is characterized by the optimal aggregate composition, where the particle size of 2-3 mm are 40-45%.
Assessment of soil on its structural composition is carried out in various ways, in particular dry and wet sieving. The most accurate characterization of the structural composition of the soil is carried out using wet sieving.
To characterize the structural composition of selected soil samples with undisturbed structure. Samples are brought to air-dried and sieved through a column of sieves with holes 10-7-5-3-2-1-0,5 - and 0.25 mm. To determine what doprocess patterns are the average sample from each fraction after dry sieving the sample, numerically equal to half percent of its content. Selected average sample is poured in a quart glass cylinder and leave it for 10 minutes the Cylinder several times overturn and overturn on a set of sieves, standing in the tub with water. Analyzed the soil evenly distributed on the upper sieve. Moved the soil sieved in water, slowly raising and lowering a set of sieves. Remaining on the sieve aggregates are washed away by the stream of water in a porcelain Cup, the excess water is drained, and the units brought up to air-dry state.
This method of estimating aggregate soil structure allows to determine the presence of water stable aggregates in the soil, to calculate their percentage and to evaluate potential soil fertility. However, the definition of the structure of soil, aggregate composition by the method of wet sieving requires a lot of manual labor and time that hinders the wide application of this method to evaluate soil quality for growing crops.
The closest solution to the technical essence and the achieved effect may be the device Immanuela (Bagishbekov. Workshop on agriculture. - M., 1987. - P.37). The device consists of a reinforced podstavka stand with motor and socket. In the socket insert cylinders, the top of which is closed by a screw lid and bottom have a proboscis with a rubber stopper. In C Landry put a set of sieves with holes 7-5-1-0,5 and 0.25 mm. The cylinders sit with rods and motor result in oscillatory motion.
The device allows the separation of soil structural aggregates in aqueous medium and thereby to estimate the soil on its aggregate composition. However, the use of sieves to separate soil aggregates complicates the analysis, it is necessary to select units from each sieve. Wet sieving using a sieve there is destruction of the aggregates that during the oscillatory movements of the slide to sit and crushed. This reduces the actual content of coarse aggregates and increases the fine fraction.
The aim of the invention is a device that allows you to analyze the aggregate composition of the soil with a minimum expenditure of manual labor and eliminate the destruction of aggregates.
This objective is achieved in that the device for estimating aggregate soil composition includes a water tank with a drain hole, a frame and a motor, where on the frame is mounted a rotating motor space, which is equipped with a water tank with various sized sections, the upper section is less than the lower section and the bottom of the lower section are removable, fixed latches and at the bottom there is a circular ledges.
Figure 1 (schematically depicts the device is to assess the aggregate composition of the soil, which includes a tank 1 with water drain hole 2, a frame 3 and the motor 4, where the frame 3 is mounted a rotating motor 4 Playground 5, which has a capacity of 1 for water with different volume sections 6 and 7, the upper section 7 is less than the lower section 6 and the bottom 8 bottom sections are removable secured by latches 9 and at the bottom there is a circular protrusions 10.
The device operates as follows. In a glass vessel, pour water and pour the analyzed soil samples. After complete swelling of the soil and remove air excess water is drained. The tank 1 is filled with water with the amount of water and soil in a glass jar and placed on a rotating platform 5. Include the electric motor 4. The number of revolutions is selected taking into account particle size distribution of the soil. For heavy soils the number of revolutions more, up to 100 R/min, the sample of soil was poured into the upper section 7. Structural units of the soil is evenly distributed throughout the volume and gradually included in the bottom section 6, where depending on the mass and volume are distributed between the circular protrusions 10. Large aggregates, having a greater mass due to centrifugal force, it will drop further from the centre, units smaller than 0.25 mm will remain in the center. After separation of the soil sample on macroaggregate electrode the motor 4 is switched off, the latch 9 is removed, remove the bottom 8 and wash away with each of the circular recesses between the protrusions 10 of the soil aggregates. Washed away the soil sample is advocated, excess water is drained, and the soil dried and calculate the percentage content of the fractions in the soil. For example, the sample mass 50 g is divided into 4 groups: 10 and 7 mm - 10 g, 5 and 2 mm - 20 g, 1 and 0.5 mm 23 g and less than 0.25 mm - 7, This soil structural composition acceptable for cultivation of field crops.
The application of the present invention will simplify the analysis of the aggregate composition of the soil with minimal destruction of the aggregates.
Device for estimating aggregate soil composition, comprising a water tank with a drain hole, a frame and a motor, characterized in that on the frame is mounted a rotating motor space, which is equipped with a water tank with various sized sections, the upper section is less than the lower section and the bottom of the lower section are removable, fixed latches and at the bottom there is a circular protrusions.
SUBSTANCE: shearing stand includes a ferrule with an extractor ring for holding a soil sample, a counterweight device, a drive mechanism and the surface of a tilting table placed under the ferrule. According to the invention, the drive mechanism for moving the ferrule is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod mounted on the surface of the tilting table, connected through a strain gauge dynamometer to the ferrule; the loading mechanism is in form of a swivelling two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, whose chamber is connected by hydraulic lines through an adjustable choke; the table tilting mechanism is in form of a two-way hydraulic cylinder with a one-way rod, having a manometer in the head end, wherein the traction hydraulic cylinder and the tilting hydraulic cylinder of the table are connected through hydraulic distribution valves by hydraulic lines to a power supply and drainage.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating the action of intensifiers on shearing stress of materials and soil on the shearing surface while varying the angle of interaction of the soil and the shearing surface.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining bioactivity of soil, water, wastes and preparations based on humic substances. To this end, seeds are pre-soaked for a day in a solution of the analysed substance. The seeds are then let to germinate at 25°C for 3 days on a substrate mounted on a vertical transparent plastic container. The container is a base and a rectangular cover of equal size, which are placed in parallel and joined to each other on the entire perimeter by "button" type fasteners. The container allows for installation of a removable central horizontal partition wall for holding the substrate. Before germination, the substrate is moistened, a filter is placed on the substrate and seeds are placed on said filter in a single row along the line of the central horizontal partition wall at a distance of 1 cm from it. After germination, the root length of the sprouts is determined relative control. If the root length in the test samples is shorter than that of control samples by 20% or more, the analysed substance has a toxic effect, if the root length exceeds the control length, the analysed substance has a stimulating effect, in the rest of the cases, the analysed substance has no bioactivity or is weakly toxic.
EFFECT: method enables to conduct serial investigations, is characterised by simplicity and rapidness, seeds are exposed in a short period of time and there is no mechanical damage when determining root length.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring relative shear resistance of an elementary layer inside granular material moving together with a bogie under the action of a falling weight. The granular material is divided into two parts by a horizontal plate on the level of said elementary layer. The top part is put into a box which is connected by a thread to the recording device of a dynamometer, and the bottom part is moved relative the top part on a bogie. The shear resistance force is measured and continuously recorded on paper in a function of the shear path, and the weight of the empty box is considered as additional height of the granular material.
EFFECT: ensuring high accuracy of measuring shear resistance force of granular material without violating its structure and conditions in which it lies.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare a monolith of mineral soils to identify a filtration coefficient includes picking of the monolith with a cutting sampling ring with subsequent filling of a filler between the inner wall of the ring and the outer vertical surface of the monolith. Prior to filling of the filler the diameter of the soil monolith is reduced by a value of doubled width of a cylindrical ring slot complying with thickness of a peripheral area of the monolith with soil properties damaged during picking of the monolith, but not less than 3 mm, by cutting of a cylindrical ring slot in the monolith between the inner surface of the ring and the outer vertical surface of the monolith. The filler used is a melted waterproof material with low melting temperature, for instance, mineral wax, besides, when identifying a filtration coefficient of mineral soils on monoliths the filtration area is accepted as complying with the soil monolith diameter D0 determined on the basis of the relation.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of filtration ratio identification, provision of accuracy of monolith preparation for filtration tests.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises hollow taped-cylinder tip arranged toward motion and closed by rubber plug at its rear to be adjusted relative to sleeve. Said tip is arranged inside said plug. Said sleeve is rigidly secured to case bottom and has horizontal slot to receive retainer of aforesaid tip. Note here that smoothly rounded stop is arranged behind said retainer to displace in support rigidly attached to device case. Dog is secured to said support whereto articulated is elastic string or steel wire connected, in its turn, to moving and spring-loaded support with writting rod. Table is arranged under the latter. Paper reeled on drive drum may move toward said table. Second drum is arranged rigidly on said table. Fixed support is secured to said table and is articulated with moving support that rests on two ball supports.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and adequacy of measurements.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises manual press with specimen arranged thereon and prepared by filling metal pattern with cylindrical opening with premade clay paste, and stiff top and bottom dies. Said pattern is made up of thin-wall cylinder with larger-diameter bottom. Said dies represent shot cups with perforated bottoms. Bottom die bottom has ring-shaped ledge. Pattern is furnished with smaller inner diameter ring passed there through to rest upon said die bottom ring-shaped ledge to rotate thereabout in cycles to align calibrated 3.2 mm-dia hole made in ring wall with similar hole made in pattern wall for periodical formation of bundle of clay paste to be controlled. Manual press is made up nut and screw, nut representing central threaded opening in crossbar. Elongated screw is furnished with lever on upper end and centering skid on lower end aligned with recess formed on top die bottom inner surface.
EFFECT: reduced labour input, faster determination of elastic limit, reliable and stable data.
3 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes an autumn surface and spring combined treatment by giving the inhomogeneous structure to the arable layer. To reduce the impact of adverse weather conditions on the yield of crops, the inhomogeneous structure is formed simultaneously with the sowing in the layer below the level of seeding by creation of alternate sites having the density favourable for the plants, respectively, in case of the lack and excess of rainfall and the difference between the density of adjacent sites at 0.2-0.3 g/cm3. The value of density for sites designed for the lack of rainfall is 1.3-1.4 g/cm3, for the sites designed for excess of rainfall is 1.0-1.1 g/cm3. In case of an equality of natural soil density corresponding to the density of one of two types of the formed sites it is allowed to use a combination of "treated area - untreated area". Sizes of sites are selected according to the agro-physical soil properties and the average annual weather conditions in the region.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of grain by 6-19% due to the greater adaptability of the field to the weather conditions.
SUBSTANCE: essence of the method of determining the amount of change in thickness of the layer of peat on the reclaimed lands includes the device for cutting, measurement of thickness of the soil layer and calculation. At that, the thickness of the compacted layer of shells of diatoms is measured, and according to the results of measurement the amount of change in thickness of the layer of peat is calculated. The calculation is performed on the dependence of Hsrab=a·h, where Hsrab - is the value of change in thickness of the layer of peat, cm; a - is a coefficient; h - is thickness of the compacted layer, shells of diatoms, in cm.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensity of works.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a body, a soil container, a contact plate and a measuring mechanism. The soil container has a mesh bottom, at the top the vessel has the contact plate with a stem connected to the measuring mechanism; the vessel is arranged inside the body on projections. The body bottom is detachable and is attached with latches; a moisture-releasing or moisture- absorbing material is placed between the body bottom and the mesh bottom of the soil container.
EFFECT: device allows to determine the intensity of soil swelling under various humidification conditions and to forecast versions of basic soil treatment.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining water permeability of soil has a vessel with a scale having a cover at the bottom, and a cylinder having a support ring, which is placed on the top edge. The cover of the vessel has a discharge pipe at the end of which there is a cut with width of 1-2 mm, which enables to keep the given layer of water in the cylinder.
EFFECT: invention increases accuracy of determining water permeability of soil by soil erosion and simplifying the process.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method used for determining of phosphorous fertilizer demands in the course of growing of cereals and leguminous crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing annual agrochemical investigation of soil arable layer; determining labile phosphorus content and availability of phosphorus to plant for forming of planned yields by providing chemical analyses for capability of soil to mobilization of labile phosphorus by using potassium phosphate solution, as well as by calculating doses of used phosphorous fertilizer from respective formula, with annual agrochemical investigation being provided in arable layer at 0-20 cm depth; additionally determining content of labile phosphorus delivered into soil in the course of mineralization of soil organic substance and plant remains of preceding crop.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, increased precision in diagnosis and regulation of phosphorous feeding of plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,
where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.
EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.
EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.
EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.
EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.