Device for evaluation of soil aggregate composition

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device for evaluation of aggregate composition of the soil consists of water tank with a drain hole, a base frame and an electric motor, where on the base frame a platform rotated with the electric motor is mounted, on which the water tank with sections different on volume is installed. The upper section is smaller than the lower section. The bottom of the lower section is removable and is fixed with snaps. At the bottom there are circular protrusions.

EFFECT: use of this device will enable to simplify the conducting of analysis of soil aggregate composition with minimal destruction of aggregates.

1 dwg

 

The present invention relates to agricultural production, in particular to the assessment of soil structure, its aggregate structure.

In agricultural production for the cultivation of field crops uses a variety of soil: black earth, sod-podzol, alkali and so on, which are characterized by a certain level of potential and effective soil fertility. Among the factors that determine the quality of the soil for cultivation of cultivated plants, with emphasis placed on the structure of soil, aggregate composition. On structureless soils, dominated by particles of 0.1-0.25 mm, growing plants is difficult. In these soils there is no free space for accumulation of moisture and air. Soil fertility is characterized by the optimal aggregate composition, where the particle size of 2-3 mm are 40-45%.

Assessment of soil on its structural composition is carried out in various ways, in particular dry and wet sieving. The most accurate characterization of the structural composition of the soil is carried out using wet sieving.

To characterize the structural composition of selected soil samples with undisturbed structure. Samples are brought to air-dried and sieved through a column of sieves with holes 10-7-5-3-2-1-0,5 - and 0.25 mm. To determine what doprocess patterns are the average sample from each fraction after dry sieving the sample, numerically equal to half percent of its content. Selected average sample is poured in a quart glass cylinder and leave it for 10 minutes the Cylinder several times overturn and overturn on a set of sieves, standing in the tub with water. Analyzed the soil evenly distributed on the upper sieve. Moved the soil sieved in water, slowly raising and lowering a set of sieves. Remaining on the sieve aggregates are washed away by the stream of water in a porcelain Cup, the excess water is drained, and the units brought up to air-dry state.

This method of estimating aggregate soil structure allows to determine the presence of water stable aggregates in the soil, to calculate their percentage and to evaluate potential soil fertility. However, the definition of the structure of soil, aggregate composition by the method of wet sieving requires a lot of manual labor and time that hinders the wide application of this method to evaluate soil quality for growing crops.

The closest solution to the technical essence and the achieved effect may be the device Immanuela (Bagishbekov. Workshop on agriculture. - M., 1987. - P.37). The device consists of a reinforced podstavka stand with motor and socket. In the socket insert cylinders, the top of which is closed by a screw lid and bottom have a proboscis with a rubber stopper. In C Landry put a set of sieves with holes 7-5-1-0,5 and 0.25 mm. The cylinders sit with rods and motor result in oscillatory motion.

The device allows the separation of soil structural aggregates in aqueous medium and thereby to estimate the soil on its aggregate composition. However, the use of sieves to separate soil aggregates complicates the analysis, it is necessary to select units from each sieve. Wet sieving using a sieve there is destruction of the aggregates that during the oscillatory movements of the slide to sit and crushed. This reduces the actual content of coarse aggregates and increases the fine fraction.

The aim of the invention is a device that allows you to analyze the aggregate composition of the soil with a minimum expenditure of manual labor and eliminate the destruction of aggregates.

This objective is achieved in that the device for estimating aggregate soil composition includes a water tank with a drain hole, a frame and a motor, where on the frame is mounted a rotating motor space, which is equipped with a water tank with various sized sections, the upper section is less than the lower section and the bottom of the lower section are removable, fixed latches and at the bottom there is a circular ledges.

Figure 1 (schematically depicts the device is to assess the aggregate composition of the soil, which includes a tank 1 with water drain hole 2, a frame 3 and the motor 4, where the frame 3 is mounted a rotating motor 4 Playground 5, which has a capacity of 1 for water with different volume sections 6 and 7, the upper section 7 is less than the lower section 6 and the bottom 8 bottom sections are removable secured by latches 9 and at the bottom there is a circular protrusions 10.

The device operates as follows. In a glass vessel, pour water and pour the analyzed soil samples. After complete swelling of the soil and remove air excess water is drained. The tank 1 is filled with water with the amount of water and soil in a glass jar and placed on a rotating platform 5. Include the electric motor 4. The number of revolutions is selected taking into account particle size distribution of the soil. For heavy soils the number of revolutions more, up to 100 R/min, the sample of soil was poured into the upper section 7. Structural units of the soil is evenly distributed throughout the volume and gradually included in the bottom section 6, where depending on the mass and volume are distributed between the circular protrusions 10. Large aggregates, having a greater mass due to centrifugal force, it will drop further from the centre, units smaller than 0.25 mm will remain in the center. After separation of the soil sample on macroaggregate electrode the motor 4 is switched off, the latch 9 is removed, remove the bottom 8 and wash away with each of the circular recesses between the protrusions 10 of the soil aggregates. Washed away the soil sample is advocated, excess water is drained, and the soil dried and calculate the percentage content of the fractions in the soil. For example, the sample mass 50 g is divided into 4 groups: 10 and 7 mm - 10 g, 5 and 2 mm - 20 g, 1 and 0.5 mm 23 g and less than 0.25 mm - 7, This soil structural composition acceptable for cultivation of field crops.

The application of the present invention will simplify the analysis of the aggregate composition of the soil with minimal destruction of the aggregates.

Device for estimating aggregate soil composition, comprising a water tank with a drain hole, a frame and a motor, characterized in that on the frame is mounted a rotating motor space, which is equipped with a water tank with various sized sections, the upper section is less than the lower section and the bottom of the lower section are removable, fixed latches and at the bottom there is a circular protrusions.



 

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