Method of determining polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves reaction of reactants followed by analysis of the obtained products. According to the invention, the reactant used is a colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles in water. After reaction, the obtained product (gold nanoparticles and aggregates thereof) are concentrated on foamed polyurethane and the concentrate is analysed.

EFFECT: high reliability and simple analysis.

3 cl, 5 ex

 

The invention relates to a method of determining the guanidine hydrochloride (Biopag, part of the disinfectants) using the processes of aggregation of gold nanoparticles for water analysis of different types.

There is a method of determining Biopag by capillary electrophoresis with spectrophotometric detection at 200 nm. The method allows to determine the guanidine hydrochloride in the presence of diamine and guanidine hydrochloride with a limit of detection at the level of 2 µg/ml [Rudnev AV Definition of guanidine by method of capillary electrophoresis. / Avirutnan, Aggera // Ukr. Analyte. Chemistry. - 2006. - T. No. 10 - S-1089]. However, the sensitivity of this method is insufficient, because in drinking waters Biopag need to be defined at the level of 0.1 µg/ml in Addition, the implementation of this method involves the use of expensive equipment.

The known method potentiometric determination Biopag and some other polycation using ion-selective electrodes with a membrane that includes the designated polycation and various organic and inorganic counterions. The method allows to achieve good selectivity definition [Milenko FA Potentiometric sensors for determination of water-soluble pole is ektralite. / Fascelina, Everobody, Avimelech // Ukr. Analyte. Chemistry. - 2008. - T. No. 6 - S-650]. However, the sensitivity of the described method (lower limit of the designated contents at the level of 5 µg/ml) is still insufficient to control the content Biopag in the waters.

The known method of determination of cationic surfactants that can be attributed Biopag, using the processes of aggregation of gold nanoparticles in solution. As defined components were cationic surfactants, representing alkyltrimethylammonium bromides. As the reagent used gold nanoparticles obtained nitrate method. Detection was carried out visually by color change of the solutions. [Kuong C.-L. Semi-quantitative determination of cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions using gold nanoparticles as reporter probes. / C-L.Kuong, W.-Y.Chen, Y.-C.Chen // Anal. Bioanal. Chem. - 2007. - V.387. - P.2091-2099]. However, the method is suitable only for the semiquantitative determination of cationic surfactants and does not allow quantitative analysis. The disadvantage of this method is the inability to achieve high sensitivity due to natural limitations of the human eye perception discoloration dilute aqueous solutions.

The closest analogue to the present invention is a method of determining Biopag by electrophoretic his associates with e the zine. At pH>5 eosin forms with Biopag ion associates absorption at 540 nm. To solubilize the mixture was added sintana [Kranhold SO the Definition of N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)dodecylamine, cationic surfactants, guanidine in disinfectants. / Chuckreynolds, Casestack // Disinfection. - 2004. No. 1. - Page 31-33]. The method is suitable for determining Biopag in disinfectants. However, the lower boundary of the designated contents of the method is at the level of 1 µg/ml, which is sufficient to identify Biopag at MPC in the waters.

The technical task of the invention is to develop a simple, safe and cheap way to determine the guanidine hydrochloride (Biopag) for control of its content in waters of different types.

The task was solved by the present invention. In the method of determining the guanidine hydrochloride including its interaction with the reagents and subsequent analysis of the products obtained according to the invention, the reagent is used as a colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles in water, and after the interaction of the product, including the gold nanoparticles and their aggregates, concentrate on the polyurethane foam and analyze concentrate.

The analysis of the concentrate is carried out preferably using spectropho the meter directly in the polyurethane foam matrix.

The registration signal is preferably carried out using mini-spectrophotometer - calibrator monitors Eye-One (AI van).

Thus, to solve the technical problem we propose a method that uses the process of aggregation of gold nanoparticles obtained citrate method, under the influence of Biopag with subsequent sorption products on the polyurethane foam and the analytic signal in the matrix of the foam using a mini-spectrophotometer - calibrator monitors Eye-One Pro. The method allows to determine the Biopag in the concentration range of 0.05-0.2 µg/ml, the relative standard deviation is 0.05 (0.1 ág/ml). The correctness of the tested during the analysis of different water type: water, mineral water swimming pools, as well as the analysis of the disinfectant "BioR-1".

Example 1 construction of the calibration curve

To construct the calibration curve in the vessels to shake containing 0.2 ml of 0.25 M EDTA and 0.5 ml of 0.1 M NaOH was injected from 0.05 to 0.2 ml of 5 mg/ml aqueous solution Biopag drove deionized water to 3.5 ml and was added to 1.5 ml of a solution of gold nanoparticles (88 μg/ml), obtained by citrate method. The solution was intensively stirred, and then immediately was administered 1 tablet polyurethane foam (diameter ~16 mm, height of ~5 mm, m=0.02 g)was prozimale them with a glass rod for the Alenia air bubbles and shook vessels on a mechanical shaker for 15 minutes Then the tablets were removed, dried with filter paper and measured diffuse reflection at 530 nm by using a spectrophotometer - calibrator monitors Eye-One Pro.

Example 2 use of mini-spectrophotometer - calibrator monitors Eye-One Pro for measuring diffuse reflection PUF samples with gold nanoparticles

For measurements mini-spectrophotometer Eye-One Pro was connected to the USB port of your computer, the Windows environment has launched an accompanying mini-spectrophotometer program Eye-One Share and carried out the calibration device on a white substrate, which is included in the standard package. After that was measured samples, and the obtained data in an array of diffuse reflection coefficients for different wavelengths exported to Excel. For each diffuse reflectance obtained by using Eye-One Pro, hoped the corresponding value functions Kubelka-Munch F, which linearly depends on the content of nanoparticles in the phase of the foam and is associated with diffuse reflectance as follows:

where R is the diffuse reflectance.

The advantages of the proposed device in this embodiment, use of, in comparison with traditionally used spectrophotometre and spectrometers diffuse reflection are cheapness, availability, simply is and the work and compactness.

Example 3 determine Biopag in the sample of tap water or swimming pool water

Tap water was purified from chlorine sedimentation during the day. After that it was introduced additive standard solution Biopag to a final concentration of 0.23 mg/ml Solution thoroughly mixed. An aliquot of the obtained artificial sample with a volume of 2.2 ml) was added into a solution containing 0.2 ml of 0.25 M EDTA and 0.5 ml of 0.1 M NaOH, and stirred. Next came how and when building the calibration dependence (example 1). Thus, it was found that participants in the real quantities in the waters of this type ions of calcium, magnesium, chloride and sulfate do not affect the correctness of the Biopag the proposed method.

Example 4 determination Biopag in the mineral water

Mineral water was purified from the excess of carbon dioxide by the method of sedimentation during the day. Next was done as described in example 3. It is shown that present in the mineral water in a 1000-fold quantities in relation to Biopag bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate ions, and potassium ions and sodium do not affect the correctness of the Biopag the proposed method.

Example 5 determination Biopag in dezinfitsiruyuschim drug "BioR-1"

An aliquot of 0.5 ml of the drug "BioR-1" was transferred into a volumetric flask of 100 ml, Dov is Dili flask up to the mark with deionized water and was stirred solution. An aliquot of 0.5 ml of the obtained solution was transferred into another volumetric flask 100 ml, made up to the mark with deionized water and was stirred solution. An aliquot of 0.1 ml of the thus obtained solution was injected into the flask shaking containing 0.2 ml of 0.25 M EDTA and 0.5 ml of 0.1 M NaOH, the content was stirred. Next was done as described in example 1. The correctness of the content Biopag in preparation "BioR-1" proposed method is verified by comparison with the published data.

1. The method of determining the guanidine hydrochloride including its interaction with the reagents and subsequent analysis of the products obtained, characterized in that the reagent is used as a colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles in water, and after the interaction of the product, including the gold nanoparticles and their aggregates, concentrate on the polyurethane foam and analyze concentrate.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the analysis of the concentrate is carried out with a spectrophotometer directly in the polyurethane foam matrix.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the check signal is performed using a mini-spectrophotometer - calibrator monitors AI van.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining bioactivity of soil, water, wastes and preparations based on humic substances. To this end, seeds are pre-soaked for a day in a solution of the analysed substance. The seeds are then let to germinate at 25°C for 3 days on a substrate mounted on a vertical transparent plastic container. The container is a base and a rectangular cover of equal size, which are placed in parallel and joined to each other on the entire perimeter by "button" type fasteners. The container allows for installation of a removable central horizontal partition wall for holding the substrate. Before germination, the substrate is moistened, a filter is placed on the substrate and seeds are placed on said filter in a single row along the line of the central horizontal partition wall at a distance of 1 cm from it. After germination, the root length of the sprouts is determined relative control. If the root length in the test samples is shorter than that of control samples by 20% or more, the analysed substance has a toxic effect, if the root length exceeds the control length, the analysed substance has a stimulating effect, in the rest of the cases, the analysed substance has no bioactivity or is weakly toxic.

EFFECT: method enables to conduct serial investigations, is characterised by simplicity and rapidness, seeds are exposed in a short period of time and there is no mechanical damage when determining root length.

3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: described is a method of determining methylphenols in aqueous media, involving chemical modification thereof into acetates, extraction concentration and gas-chromatographic detection, where at the first chemical modification step, the modifier reactant used is iodine in amount of 0.005-0.015% in the presence of ammonium acetate and ammonia in amount of 0.3-1.0% of the weight of the water sample; acylation is carried out in a medium of an organic solvent, and an electron capture detector is used for detection.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of analysis.

7 ex, 2 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: chloroanilines are modified into bromine derivatives and extraction concentration and gas-chromatographic detection is carried out. The additional modifier reactant used is trifluoroacetic anhydride in amount of 3-15% of the mass of the extract. Bromine derivatives of chloroanilines are obtained before the extraction concentration step in aqueous medium, in the presence of potassium bromide in amount of 0.5-2.5% of the mass of the water sample.

EFFECT: invention enables to lower the detection limit, increase selectivity of chromatographic separation, reduce the number of steps and duration of the analytical cycle of detecting chloroanilines in water.

3 dwg, 3 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: samples undergo crystal structure analysis after drying at temperature 25°C. Changes in the structural state of water are indicated by differences between crystallographic images of dried droplets before and after physical action, which depend on content of liquid-crystal associates.

EFFECT: fast detection of qualitative changes in liquid water under the effect of different factors.

2 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: equipment system includes measuring devices connected to a computer. In the system, consisting of one or more sensors, an amplifier, an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) and a computer, each sensor is a tensoresistor sensor mounted on a horizontal base inside a protective housing and having the end of a flexible elastic sensor plate protruding from the housing, said plate being meant for connection with the top valve of the tested mollusc. The output of each sensor is connected to the input of the amplifier consisting of a zero balancing device, an analogue signal amplifier and a signal shift device connected in series. Each sensor is connected to the bridge circuit of the zero balancing device. The output of the amplifier is connected to the input of a 10 bit ADC whose output is connected to the input of an interfacing device which transmits a digital signal to the input of the computer having special software.

EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of detection as well as simple design.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: isolated during bacteriologic analysis of quality of water for various purposes pathogenic bacteria, additionally potentially pathogenic bacteria with their further identification and normalised indicators of water quality estimation are taken into considereation with further implementation of process of generalisation into a single assessement of microbial risk thresholds, which is performed by calculating first weighted coefficients by formula: An=(P1·V1+P2·V2+…+Pn·Vn). After that, the data obtained are used to calculate integral index by each sanitary and hygienic factor by formula: Estimation of risk by three-level classifier is considered high if values of Rfac are from 0.4 to 1.0 including 0.4 and 1.0, medium if values of Rfac are from 0.2 to 0.4 and low if values of Rfac are from 0 to 0.2, including 0. Estimation of risk by five-level classifier is considered to be very high if values of Rfac are from 0.6 to 1.0, including 0.6 and 1.0, high if values of Rfac are from 0.4 to 0.6, including 0.4, medium if values of Rfac are from 0.2 to 0.4, including 0.2, low or acceptable if values of Rfac are from 0.15 to 0.2, including 0.15 and very low if values of Rfac are from 0 to 0.15. After that the obtained results are used to calculate generalised index of risk of sexually transmitted bacterial intestinal infections CA by formula by three-level classifier it is considered high if values of CA are from 0.4 to 1.0, including 0.4 and 1.0, medium if values of CA are from 0.2 to 0.4, and low if values of CA are from 0 to 0.2, including 0. Estimation of risk by five-level classifier is considered very high if values of CA are from 0.6 to 1.0, high if values of CA are from 0.4 to 0.6, including 0.4, medium if values of CA are from 0.2 to 0.4, including 0.2, low or acceptable if values of CA are from 0.15 to 0.2, including 0.15 and very low if values of CA are from 0 to 0,15.

EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce or prevent morbidity associated with bacterial semination of water.

1 ex, 8 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: bacteriological analysis of water by normalised indicators is performed with determination of pathogenic bacteria, additionally during water analysis determined are potentially pathogenic bacteria and their pathogenic and virulent properties, obtained data are used to estimate probability of infectious process development in people by formula: Hpatogen=(C•(100-Pt)•V•v/r)•T. After that, calculated is integral index of probability of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way with direct release of causative agents isolated and identified during microbiological analysis of water by formula: After that, risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is carried out, it is considered to be acceptable if its value does not exceed 1x10-5, and microbial risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is considered to be low. If its value is from 1x10-5 and lower, microbial risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is considered to be high. If its value constitutes more than 1x10-5, risk of water contamination with pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora is estimated at population level by formula: Rp=Rv•100000.

EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce or prevent development of intestinal diseases and makes it possible to predict probability of BII development with direct release of bacterial causative agents from water for various purposes, taking into account their species composition and biological properties.

1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves collecting samples directly in the region of functioning of the pond and in the control zone, and then determining content of chemical compounds in the samples and determining main quantitative indicators of components of the aquatic ecosystem based on said content. Quantitative indicators of the biota - number and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos - are also determined in the samples from the control zone and the region of functioning of the pond. The ratio of the quantitative indicators of the biota in the pond region to those in the control zone is then calculated. A reference table of ranges of the calculated chemical indicators of the ratios of components of the aquatic ecosystem is then created while adding rows with ratios of quantitative indicators of the biota into the table. By comparing the calculated ratios with ranges of identical ratios in the reference table, the effect of the pond on the state of the aquatic ecosystem is then determined.

EFFECT: high reliability of results.

1 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: during realisation of the method the test objects are soaked in tested solutions, parameters of test objects survivability are registered, and using them, threshold concentrations of tested pesticide toxicity are calculated, besides, pathomorphological modifications are registered in test objects, the average percentage of malformations is calculated, and the threshold concentration of teratogenic impact is established as the pesticide concentration with minimum teratogenic impact at test objects, and extent of pesticides toxicity is estimated on the basis of the threshold concentration coefficient, which is calculated using the formula Knemb - coefficient of threshold concentrations of pesticides toxicity taking into account their teratogenicity, LC16 - limit concentration of pesticides toxicity causing death of 16% embryos, EterC16 - threshold concentration of teratogenic effect of pesticides. At the same time if values of the coefficient Knemb >10, the class of pesticides hazard is established as I, i.e. extremely hazardous, 5-10 - the class of pesticides hazard is set as II, i.e. highly hazardous, 1-5 - the class of pesticides hazard is established as III, i.e. hazardous, <1 - the class of pesticides hazard is IV, i.e. moderately hazardous. Test objects are embryos of sturgeons.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and validity of assessment.

2 cl, 1 ex, 6 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: enteroviruses are concentrated by introduction into an analysed water sample of a magnetic sorbent microparticles coated with polymeric silicon dioxide with amino poropyl groups in proportions 1:1000-3000 of water sample volume. It is incubated at constant stirring for 1-2 hours. The sorbent is collected with a magnet, a supernatant is removed, and a sorbent-enterovirus complex is produced. Enteroviruses are eluted by 0.5M NaCl and 0.05M Tris (pH-10.5) solution. Enteroviruses are identified by immunochemical, cultural and molecular methods.

EFFECT: high degree of virus concentration in the eluate, decreased amount of the eluating solution.

2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method for preparing a composition containing colloidal nanosilver or nanogold involves incubation of probiotic bacteria specified in Lactobacillus fermentum species with an aqueous solution containing at least 4 mM of silver nitrate or auric chloride. The composition containing colloidal nanosilver is prepared by contact of said bacteria at 5-45°C and the aqueous solution containing mixed silver nitrate, ammonium and/or ammonia salt, as well as alkali metal hydroxide. The composition containing colloidal nanogold is prepared by contact of said bacteria at 5-45°C and the aqueous solution containing mixed auric chloride and alkali metal hydroxide.

EFFECT: prepared compositions are used as an antimicrobial agent or an algicidal agent.

17 cl, 4 dwg, 5 tbl, 16 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: universal thick-layer anticorrosion paint system includes an aqueous aryl-containing dispersion with a crosslinking agent, target additives, an instant corrosion inhibitor, a water-soluble organic corrosion inhibitor, an anticorrosion pigment and other pigments, nanodispersed silicon dioxide, plate-like and active filler and water. Corrosion inhibitors and the anticorrosion pigment are capable of forming nanosized protective layers on a metal surface under a paint film. The nanodispersed silicon oxide provides thick-layered application of the paint coat. In order to seal the paint coat structure and increase enhance its water-repellent properties, nanodispersed fluoroplastic is additionally used in the paint system.

EFFECT: longevity of the paint coat, increase in cost effectiveness of paint and repair works owing to fewer layers and increase in thickness of the coating, increase in inter-repair period of metal structures to 28 years.

1 tbl, 10 ex

Rubber compositions // 2460744

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains filler as well as (i) at least one rubber which contains an unsaturated olefin fragment and (ii) less than 2 parts/100 parts rubber and preferably more than 0.1 parts/100 parts particles of functionalised nanosized zinc oxide. Said particles are particles of nanosized zinc oxide with a coating agent. The composition is obtained by mixing said components, preferably with addition of a primary vulcanisation accelerator in total amount of 0.5-4 parts/100 parts rubber. The composition is used as or in a component of tyres, belts and hoses.

EFFECT: method ensures significant reduction in content of zinc oxide in a rubber composition without negative effect on the subsequent solidification and vulcanisation process and enables to avoid the use of additional vulcanisation accelerators.

23 cl, 5 dwg, 5 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: novel aminofullerenes, which are biocompatible with and enhance mechanical properties of plastic, have general formula , where X is a negative change (-), (-Cl), (-NO2), (-ONO2), (-H), a linear or branched alkyl (CmH2m+1; m=1-20), alkenyl (CmH2m-1 m=2-20) or alkynyl radical (CmH2m-3; m=2-20), O-R, S-R, where R is a hydrogen atom, or a linear or branched said alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl radical, or -S(CH2)nCOOH, -S(CH2)nCOOR*, -S(CH2)nCONR1R2, where n=1-20. NR1R2 is selected from a group comprising residues: amine, aliphatic alcohols, ethers, thiols, acids and esters thereof or amides, wherein R*, R1, R2, R1 and R2 are the same as R.

EFFECT: aminofullerenes of said general formula are obtained by reacting chlorofullerene and an amine in the presence of a base.

2 cl, 11 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely experimental medicine, surgery and aims at treating purulent wound in experiment. A method involves a pre-toilet, application of a dressing containing an iron nanoparticle suspension in the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and a copper nanoparticle suspension in the concentration of 0.001 mg/ml in 0.9% normal saline prepared by plasma flow of temperature 5000-6000 K. Copper nanoparticle dispersion makes 30 nm, while iron nanoparticle dispersion is 70 nm.

EFFECT: along with simplified and cheaper treatment of purulent wounds, eliminated toxic action of the nanoparticles the method reduces time of elimination of contaminating agent substantially, provides wound sterility, faster wound regeneration and complete repair.

2 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to chemical-pharmaceutical industry and represents nanoparticles containing a biodegradable polymer, cyclodextrin or their derivative and a biologically active molecule wherein said biodegradable polymer is a polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM/MA) copolymer; and said biologically active molecule is a substance representing a substrate of P-glycoprotein enzyme.

EFFECT: invention provides higher bioavailability of lipophilic oral drugs or those being the substrate of P-glycoprotein enzyme.

9 cl, 7 ex, 9 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: superconducting composite material based on high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) compounds contains powder of synthetic bismuthic HTS compounds (having structure 2212, 2223), and nanosized (from 20 to 100 nm) boron nitride particles uniformly distributed in the volume of the composite material in amount of 0.05-0.5 wt %.

EFFECT: obtaining novel superconducting composite materials based on HTS compounds with high current-carrying capability in both a zero magnetic field and high-strength external magnetic fields.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: transistor based on a semiconductor compound comprises a semiconductor plate, a channel and a contact layers, ohmic contacts of a source and a drain, made on the basis of a thin-film compound of Ge and Cu, and a gate, where thin films of barrier-forming metal, a diffusion barrier and a conductor are installed in layers on a semiconductor plate. The gate conductor material is a thin-film compound of Ge and Cu with thickness of 10-1,000 nm, with mass content of Ge in the range of 20-45%.

EFFECT: higher thermal stability of gate parameters, lower value of reduced contact resistance of ohmic contacts of a source and a drain.

6 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

Heater // 2459158

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed heater consists of housing, rotor located in it and provided with screw delivery grooves and return grooves, the direction of which is opposite to delivery ones, and made on the rotor; in addition, housing on internal surface is equipped with three-phase winding and has electric current supply wires to three-phase winding. Rotor is rigidly connected by means of a seal to housing and made from non-magnetic material: copper, bronze, brass, aluminium or silumin, has central hole for air ventilation, and cavity between internal surface of housing and external surface of rotor is filled with transformer oil to which there introduced are nanoparticles of carbonyl iron with the size of 10 to 15 nanometres in quantity of 3-16 volume percents of transformer oil volume and covered with surface active substance and oleinic acid.

EFFECT: creation of the device capable of intense warming of heat carrier with rotating magnetic field.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: fire-protective coating, containing liquid glass as a base, further contains aluminium nanooxide with the following ratio of ingredients in wt %: anisometric nanosized filler 4-5; liquid glass - the balance. The anisometric nanosized filler used is aluminium nanooxide with size of inorganic layers of the order of 220-300 nm in length and 1-5 nm in thickness.

EFFECT: improved fire-protective properties of wood while preserving operational and decorative properties.

2 cl

Magnetic materials // 2244971

FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.

SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.

EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.

4 cl, 8 dwg

Up!