Apparatus for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of leather and similar soft composites
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a clamp mechanism for holding material, an indenter for loading with possibility of measuring its displacement and recording information into a processor. A sensor is built into the indenter, said sensor being sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated by a sample upon change of deformation characteristics thereof. The clamp mechanism is in form of two coaxially placed cups with built-in heating elements with a controlled temperature range and a sensor for said temperature.
EFFECT: broader technological capabilities of the apparatus and high measurement accuracy.
The invention relates to test equipment and can be used for non-destructive testing of physical and mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites.
A device (P. Zybin, and other Materials leather goods. - M: Light industry, 1968, p.27-64) for uniaxial tension specimen, allowing to investigate the physico-mechanical properties of leather materials, in particular to determine deformation characteristics, deformation and strain of the specimen at fracture.
The disadvantage of this measurement method are the complexity and irrevocable loss of material associated with the use of destructive methods of measurement and, accordingly, with the impossibility of repeated studies of the same samples.
A device (AS the USSR №1711027 A1, G01N 3/08, 1990) to determine the elasticity and strength of the film and the textile material, which contains the clamping mechanism in the form of two coaxially mounted rings, the indenter and the sensor to move it.
A disadvantage of this device is also destructive method for the study of strength properties of materials.
A device (patent RF №2210753 C1, 7 G01N 3/00, 2003 - prototype) to determine the relaxation properties of leather and similar materials. The device includes a clamping mechanism, the indenter, system loading, the measurement of the displacement is s indenter, Converter information and the processor, which allows to investigate the strain-relaxation characteristics of the materials without their destruction.
The disadvantages of this device should be attributed to the limited technological capabilities associated with the inability of the study required range of deformation-relaxation characteristics of leather imitation materials in the required range of temperature effects on the sample, unpredictable error influence of thermal field of environmental research results, and determine the strength of the sample without failure.
Object of the invention is to expand the technological capabilities of the device and increase measurement accuracy by identifying the entire spectrum of the strain-relaxation characteristics of the skin and other soft composites in the required range of temperature effects with the definition of strength without destroying the sample.
This technical result is achieved in that the device for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites contains a clamping mechanism with two coaxially mounted rings for fixation of the material, the indenter for loading with the ability to measure their own travel and writing information to the processor, indentor embedded sensor, sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated in the sample due to a change in deformation characteristics, and coaxially mounted clamping rings in the form of two glasses is made with built-in heating elements with adjustable temperature range and the sensor to register.
Introduction in the device together distinctive items, you can ensure determination of physical-mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites in the extended range temperature effects with increased accuracy, to determine the strength without destroying the sample in an automated mode, while retaining all the capabilities of the prototype.
The essence of the device illustrated in figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 presents the structural-kinematic diagram of the device, figure 2 is a photograph of a General view of the device.
The device consists of an upper bearing Cup 1, the lower clamping Cup 2, control its position relative to the plunger 3 with a pair of screw-nut 4. The clamping mechanism consists of a lever 5, is rigidly connected with the eccentric 6. On the indenter 7 fixed spherical tip 8 with built-in it the acoustic emission sensor 9. On the upper part of the fixed electromagnet 10 for his return and fixation in the initial position, and the devil is ontactnig inductive sensor 11, which converts the movement of the indenter into an electrical signal. The indenter is associated with two shoulders lever 12, one end of which is fixed the load 13. The other end of the lever 12 movably fixed relative to the slide 14. The locking mechanism of the indenter consists of a latch 15, the stop 16 is connected adjustably by means of a rod 17 with the connecting rod 18 and a handle 19.
To enhance, transform, and information recording device includes an amplifier 20, a controller 21 and a processor 22.
In upper 1 and lower 2 clamping cups installed electric heaters (heating Elements) 23 with the sensor 24 and the temperature controller 25 to provide in the area of research of the set temperature.
The device operates as follows. The test sample 26 installed between the upper 1 and lower 2 cups and fix by turning the eccentric 6 lever 5. Adjusting the bottom of the Cup 2 is carried out by turning the nuts on the transmission of the screw-nut 4. Using the control unit 25 electric voltage is applied to the heating Elements 23, and thereby a temperature in the space between the sample and the glasses required for testing. The temperature registered by the sensor 24. When turning the knobs 19 and accordingly the scenes 18 moves the rod 17, and the stop 16 disengages from the latch 15. The indenter 7 descends under the action is receiving cargo 13, located on the two shoulders of the lever 12. The deformation of the sample, and the acoustic emission sensor 9 detects sound vibrations, and contactless inductive sensor 11 is the magnitude of the displacement of the indenter 7. Information about the parameters of acoustic emission and movement of hidetora through the controller 21 is transmitted to the processor 22. After completion of the program of investigation of physical-mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites the indenter 7 with the electromagnet 10 is returned to its original state, and its position during rotation of the arm 19 is fixed by a clamp 15 by means of the stop 16.
Determination of the strength of the test sample without its destruction at the expense forecasting for calibration spectra of acoustic emission, pre-set as the reference values for each individual type of skin and other soft composites.
The calculation formula for such measurements may be the distribution of arrest (the Use of acoustic emission method for the determination of the maximum deformations // Arrakoski, Ehaqeraeh, Apichai, Eusociality / Leather and footwear industry. No. 4. - 2008. - p.36-35):
where εIthe ultimate deformation of the test sample;
εFLthe ultimate deformation of the Etalon;
NThe t - total pulse count of acoustic emission during deformation of the Etalon;
NI- total pulse count of acoustic emission during deformation of the sample;
mIthat γI, mFLthat γFLthe distribution parameters for the test sample and the reference;
Nε- total pulse count of acoustic emission at a limiting strain of reference;
k - coefficient taking into account the ratio of the volume of the test sample and the reference.
The use of the proposed device will allow you to avoid the loss of natural leather and similar soft composites spent on carrying out physico-mechanical tests and, in particular, to determine the strength, and to reduce the loss of materials at the wrong appointment temperature parameters of technological operations.
The device for determination of physico-mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites containing a clamping mechanism for fixing material, the indenter for loading and measuring its displacement and writing information to the processor, characterized in that the indenter is fitted with a sensor that is sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated in the sample due to a change in deformation characteristics, and the clamping mechanism in the form of two coaxially mounted glasses are made with built-n is privateline elements with adjustable temperature range and the sensor.
SUBSTANCE: before testing in a heat chamber, samples of polymer materials are activated with UV radiation in the 248-365 nm wavelength range for 3-30 minutes with radiation power density of 1-15 mW/cm2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds is carried out while comparing the obtained chromatograms of gas samples collected from the heat chamber when testing samples of polymer materials with selected additives based on nanostructured bentonite powder and nanostructured bentonite powder intercalated with metal ions - magnesium (Mg2+ ), scandium (Sc3+), chromium (Cr3+), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), cobalt (Co2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), tin (Sn2+), cerium (Ce3+) or a mixture of bentonite powders intercalated with ions of said metals. The results of comparing chromatograms of gas samples are used to evaluate the effect of nanocomponents on the predicted sanitary-chemical properties of the designed polymer materials.
EFFECT: realisation of the present invention widens technological capabilities and increases reliability of results of evaluating the effect of modifying mineral nanocomponents on predicted sanitary-chemical properties based on release of volatile organic compounds from the designed polymer materials.
8 cl, 7 ex, 2 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: at the first stage the organoleptic analysis of tested samples is carried out. At the second stage the microscopic analysis of the material structure is carried out. At the third stage the chemical analysis of the tested samples is carried out by means of their treatment with an organic dissolvent selected from the group: butyl ether of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol at the ratio of sample-dissolvent equal to 1:(10-15) at the boiling temperature of the selected dissolvent for 20-30 minutes. If a sample has dissolved fully, the conclusion is made that is pertains to leather-like materials, and if a sample has not dissolved, it is identified as leather.
EFFECT: accurate and reliable recognition of leather from leather-like materials.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-activation of surfaces of an article and a film. The article then pressed to the surface of the film made from non-light-stabilised polyethylene and then exposed to UV radiation until a brittle layer forms.
EFFECT: formation of a coating on an article, which is adhesively bonded to the surface of the article.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing a specimen, irradiating the specimen with a predetermined spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, recording the interaction between the specimen and the electromagnetic radiation in a data packet and determining at least one characteristic parameter in the recorded data packet. Radiation intensity values assigned to different areas of the surface of the specimen, where said radiation interacts with said surface areas, are recorded in the data packet. The determined characteristic parameter describes air content in the specimen and/or resin content in the specimen. The assigned intensity values coinciding with a predetermined intensity range are added together to determine the air content and/or the resin content in the specimen. Analysis can also be performed to determine resin distribution and/or air distribution in the sample and homogeneity of distribution of assigned intensity values coinciding with the predetermined intensity range with respect to different areas of the surface.
EFFECT: possibility of analysing specific characteristic parameters.
6 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: when boiling collagen, linear dimensions of leather tissue are measured before and after collagen boiling. The structure-to-structure distance is determined using difference of the sample thickness after boiling and the rated thickness of the sample before boiling, which is produced as a product of the sample thickness before boiling and a coefficient of layers number defined as a quotient from division of a lengthy sample length into the length of the sample after boiling. Invention makes it possible to realise the specified method objective.
EFFECT: method improvement.
4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sorption of pharmacy drug derinate, representing sodium deoxyribonucleate in micropanel holes is carried out. After that analysed sample, which contains component C1q with unknown activity, is introduced into holes. Incubation is carried out and after washing and drying of panel into holes introduced are conjugate of enzyme with antibodies against component C1q and substrate of said enzyme. Activity of component C1q is calculated by amount of formed product of enzymatic reaction. Set contains flat-bottom micropanel with sorbed derinate, conjugate of enzyme with antibodies to human complement component C1q, substrate buffer and standard with known C1q activity.
EFFECT: method application makes it possible to increase reliability of determination C1q component with application as activator of available and stable preparation derinate.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling the surface of soot with a polymer and determining the polymer adsorption value of the soot, where the polymer used is rubber. Soot dispersion is mixed with a rubber solution. Sieve diametres of the soot aggregates are determined. The specific surface of the soot is determined and relative wear resistance of the rubber is calculated from the given relationship.
EFFECT: faster and high information content of analysis.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medicine, rescue facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to evaluation of protective properties of materials of facial parts of gas masks with respect to β,β'-dichlorethylsulfide by application of its simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide. Method includes application on one side of material of gas mask facial part of simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide drops with further analytic determination of the moment of accumulation in sample of limiting amount of simulator. Butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide in tested sample is caught by sorption substrate Quantitative determination of simulator is carried out with application of photocolorimetric method of analysis Limit of sensitivity of detecting butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide constitutes 1·10-3 mg/ml with inaccuracy not exceeding 15%.
EFFECT: technical result lies in possibility to carry out evaluation of protective properties of not only rubberised fabric, but also materials of facial parts of gas masks (rubbers) of various thickness, with increase of evaluation method safety
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of measuring a set of technological parametres of a chemical process taking place in a chemical reactor. The method of determining at least one technological parametre of a chemical process taking place in a reactor 2, involves passing a sample of the process medium of the chemical process into a lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36) and isolation of the said sample from the remaining process medium in the said reactor; circulation of the said sample in the said lateral circuit and its thermal processing therein to the required temperature; taking measurements of at least one technological parametre of the said sample, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and/or taking spectrometre measurements with provision for spectrometric data at the required temperature; controlling the chemical process based on the determined at least one technological parametre. The method is realised in a system which has an output 18 and an input 28; lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36), connected to the reactor 2 through output 18 and input 28, which enable passage of the sample of process medium from the said reactor 2 to the said lateral circuit and back to the said reactor; a device 30 for circulating the said sample; valves V1, V2, V4, V5 for isolating the said sample in the said lateral circuit from the remaining process medium in the said reactor 2; a device for thermal processing 46, 50, 52, V7 the said sample in the said lateral circuit to the required temperature; and a device for measuring 38 at least one technological parametre, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity; and/or apparatus for measuring spectrometric data at the required temperature in the said lateral circuit and apparatus for controlling the chemical process based on the measured technological parametres.
EFFECT: invention allows for taking a large number of measurements of different technological parametres, accurate measurement at temperatures different from temperature of the reactor, fast switching between measurements taken in inline and online modes, as well as prevention of clogging of equipment of the system.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to production of rubber-containing products, namely, to methods designed to control vulcanisation. Proposed method consists in correcting vulcanisation time depending upon that required for producing maximum modulus of rubber mix shear in vulcanising the specimens at flow metre and departure of rubber extension modulus in finished products from preset magnitudes. This allows processing disturbing effects on vulcanisation in compliance with tuber mix production and vulcanisation.
EFFECT: higher stability of mechanical characteristics of rubber-containing products.
SUBSTANCE: article is loaded in cycles from zero with gradually increasing amplitude until the onset of acoustic emission signals before the end of unloading; maximum loads of the cycles are recorded and the maximum nondestructive load of the article is determined, wherein loading is carried out with constant rate of deformation equal to the rate of deformation of the article in operating conditions; spontaneous reduction of the maximum load when loading is stopped is recorded; total deformation of the article under maximum load and residual deformation after unloading is measured and the value of total creep for a load which is equal to or less than the maximum nondestructive load is determined.
EFFECT: possibility of estimating resistance of an article during loading with simultaneous determination of the maximum nondestructive load and total creep.
SUBSTANCE: article is divided into n sectors consisting of not less than three acoustic transducers; the article is loaded; acoustic emission signals are picked up and parameters thereof are measured; the arrival time of signals at the acoustic transducers is recorded and coordinates of developing coordinates are determined based on said time; characterised by that the article is first loaded to 0.5 of working load and maximum activity of signals exceeding the threshold level Ut>Uh, (where Uh is the noise level) is determined and the rate of loading is given depending on said activity, after which loading at 10-15% higher than the working load is carried out, followed by loading to maximum working load with given rate of loading; acoustic emission signals of said loading steps are picked up; acoustic emission signals are clustered based on the signal cross-correlation coefficient and the remaining life of metal articles is determined using a given mathematical formula.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining remaining life.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: metal structure is loaded and the number of acoustic emission pulses and their amplitude is recorded. The parameter of the state of the material of the inspected metal structure YAE is determined and the value of the test parameter YR is calculated, and the value YAE is compared with YR to determine the hazard level of the source of acoustic emission pulses, wherein the metal structure is loaded at least twice, while raising the load and satisfying the condition P1≥Q, where Q is nominal allowable load of the metal structure. After each load, the test load is raised 100-200 mm from the ground using the metal structure and then held for ≥10 minutes. YAE, the coefficient of reduction of the endurance limit KEN.L, the endurance safety factor and the initial life are determined using corresponding mathematical expressions, after which the remaining life of the metal structure NREM is found and a decision is made regarding further use of the metal structure.
EFFECT: high accuracy of acoustic-emission inspection of complex metal structures.
SUBSTANCE: article is gradually loaded in the region of elastic deformation. The number of acoustic emission pulses and the value of the load are recorded during the loading process. Change in the dimensions of the article is measured. The relationship between stress in the material and time is determined. Distribution parameters of the structural-sensitive parameter in the volume of the material of the article is determined through approximation of the empirical relationship between the number of acoustic emission pulses and the time which is determined using a theoretical curve and the breaking strength of the material of the article is determined using the corresponding equation.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining the breaking strength of the material of an article.
FIELD: metal welding.
SUBSTANCE: method and device are intended for nondestructive testing of welded joints during welding by acoustic emission method. The method of acoustic emission control of the weld seal quality during welding is the registering activity and emission energy of the each cluster and setting activity limit values and signal energy limit values for welding process, after that keep acoustic signals registering and when second peak of the acoustic emission signal energy is appears and exceeds activity and cluster's signal energy limit values, this weld is rejected. The device is consists of 1…n blocks, each of which contains four channels consisting of series-connected acoustic transducer, pre-amplifier, filter, main transducer which output is connected with input of noninverted analog comparator and input of analog-digital converter of acoustic signal, and also contains analog-digital converter, operating storage, timer and multiplexer, control device, which output is connected with computer's central data processor by wire. For recording the activity of AE signal energy the main amplifier output is connected with analog signal detector, which output is connected with analog integrator of the channel; analog integrator's outputs are connected with according outputs of analogue summator, which output is connected with analog-digital converter of signal energy input, which digital output is connected with microprocessor's input.
EFFECT: increasing the reliability of control defects, decreasing the time of acoustic emission information handling, determination of the position and danger level of the weld seal during welding and cooling.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry; pipeline maintenance.
SUBSTANCE: maintenance is carried out via measurement sensors united in a system of various units which comprises: magnetic and acoustic inspection unit, inertial and profilometric unit, microseismograph and in-line mechanical damage repair unit. A combined analysis is carried out on the level of natural geophysical background and by means of building the amplitude curve of seismic, geo-deformation, geochemical and hydrophysical indices gradient. A microseismic signal amplitude map is built for of every frequency in the spatial frequency spectrum, then every map is bound to its corresponding depth by approximating the topographic profile in relation to the coastline and the underwater pipeline route. The load is assessed by correlating signals of all units. When the coordinates of leaks or in-line damage are plotted, the geographical coordinates of girth welds are taken as the basis. The gas sensors assess the methane concentration along the pipeline. If in-line corrosion is discovered, the damaged section is shut off and the damage is repaired through the use of in-line intelligent pig comprising a sensor, a control unit, a power unit and a damage repair unit which are all connected between each other with data couples and a jointing device with coupling elements.
EFFECT: expanded on-line diagnostics capabilities; increased diagnostics efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: acoustic emission signal parameters are received, recorded and assessed during movement of a railway wagon bogie. The acoustic signals are digitised. The spectrum of acoustic signals is analysed and said signals are processed, characterised by that transducers of acoustic emission system SDS1008 are mounted on clean fixed elements of the wagon bogie, having maximum degree of wear on the whole or on its separate components, on the "right" and "left" side with two on each side. The acoustic emission transducers are connected to preamplifiers lying near the transducers. The preamplifiers are connected to the system unit of the SDS1008 system and a portable computer. The railway wagon bogie is moved at different speeds and modes with different degree of loading the wagon on circular and straight railway sections which are "reference sections". Spectral parameters of the acoustic emission from the acoustic emission transducers are recorded. The obtained data are considered "reference" data. The analysed railway wagon bogie is moved on the same modes on "reference sections". Parameters of acoustic emission with the analysed bogie are recorded. The obtained results are analysed and compared with "reference" data and the degree of wear of the analysed railway wagon bogie on the whole or its separate components is determined from the analysis and comparison results.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining accurate information on the degree of wear of a railway wagon bogie or its separate components.
8 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: acoustic emission signal parameters are received, recorded and assessed during movement of a railway wagon bogie. The acoustic signals are digitised. The spectrum of the acoustic signals is analysed and said signals are processed. Transducers of acoustic emission system SDS1008 are mounted on clean fixed elements of the wagon bogie, which does not have wearing on the whole or on its separate components and is the "reference", on the "right" and "left" side with two on each side. The acoustic emission transducers are connected to preamplifiers lying near the transducers. The preamplifiers are connected to the system unit of the SDS1008 system and a portable computer. The railway wagon bogie is moved at different speeds and modes with different degree of loading the wagon on circular and straight railway sections which are "reference sections", having standard generalised indicators of the state of the track. Spectral parameters of the acoustic emission from the acoustic emission transducers are recorded. The obtained data are considered "reference" for each section of the railway track. The wagon with the "reference bogie" is moved on the railway tracks under analysis. Spectral parameters of the acoustic emission on the analysed sections of the railway track are recorded. The obtained data are analysed and compared with "reference" data and the state of the railway track is determined from the analysis and comparison results.
EFFECT: possibility of fast and reliable assessment of the state of the railway track.
SUBSTANCE: object acoustic properties are pre-examined and primary transducers are installed. Acoustic-emission hardware serviceability is checked to calibrate channels. Controlled object is loaded to test pressure to register acoustic emission signals exceeding preset thresholds to determine signal parameters to allow determining coordinates of developing defects therefrom and deciding on their danger. Note here that in loading reservoir additionally measured is mean square signal amplitude in equal time intervals for all primary transducers for which thresholds are set for every next time interval and through defects are defined.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity of through defect detection.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: two sources which imitate acoustic emission signals (calibration signals) are placed at a known distance S from each other on the analysed technical device or sample of the analysed material. Said signals are received with receiving apparatus with parallel data digitisation. The calibrated signals undergo wavelet decomposition. Wavelet decomposition scaling coefficients which correspond to frequency components F1 and F2 are selected (F1 and F2 lie in the spectrum range of the recorded acoustic frequency conversions, F2≥2∗F1). Maxima of the mutual correlation function R which will correspond to time delay between the analysed series of wavelet coefficients are determined. For each of the pairs of wavelet coefficients of frequency coefficients F1 and F2 the delay of propagation of the frequency component F1 relative component F2 is calculated using the formula: Δtk=Δt1-Δt2, where Δt1 and Δt2 is delay between the analysed wavelet coefficients of the pair of calibration signals for frequency components F1 and F2, respectively. The analysed technical device or sample of analysed material is loaded. Acoustic emission signals are recorded. The recorded acoustic emission signals undergo wavelet decomposition, after which the location of acoustic emission sources is determined via defined mathematical processing of the data obtained from the wavelet decomposition.
EFFECT: possibility of determining distance to an acoustic emission signal source using one acoustic emission signal receiver.
FIELD: acoustic control methods.
SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring parameters of acoustic emission of control samples from examined metal during loading thereof. Control samples are subjected to prior one-axis load, following heating to 600°C, during which parameters of acoustic emission are measured: pulse count speed , pulse/sec, energy collection speed , mW2/sec and signals length collection speed , ms/sec, and relation of these from temperature is built, last peak of acoustic emission activity is determined from dependence = f (T), in maximum point of this peak complex parameter K = /2 is calculated, then control samples are loaded to given load and exposed during this load with determining of time till destruction tR, correlation curve "complex parameter K - time till destruction tR" is built, which is used to determine time till destruction of researched material, by measuring same parameters of acoustic emission for it under similar conditions to control samples, during heating of it to same temperature, and by calculating complex parameter K in similar fashion.
EFFECT: higher productiveness.