Apparatus for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of leather and similar soft composites

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a clamp mechanism for holding material, an indenter for loading with possibility of measuring its displacement and recording information into a processor. A sensor is built into the indenter, said sensor being sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated by a sample upon change of deformation characteristics thereof. The clamp mechanism is in form of two coaxially placed cups with built-in heating elements with a controlled temperature range and a sensor for said temperature.

EFFECT: broader technological capabilities of the apparatus and high measurement accuracy.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to test equipment and can be used for non-destructive testing of physical and mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites.

A device (P. Zybin, and other Materials leather goods. - M: Light industry, 1968, p.27-64) for uniaxial tension specimen, allowing to investigate the physico-mechanical properties of leather materials, in particular to determine deformation characteristics, deformation and strain of the specimen at fracture.

The disadvantage of this measurement method are the complexity and irrevocable loss of material associated with the use of destructive methods of measurement and, accordingly, with the impossibility of repeated studies of the same samples.

A device (AS the USSR №1711027 A1, G01N 3/08, 1990) to determine the elasticity and strength of the film and the textile material, which contains the clamping mechanism in the form of two coaxially mounted rings, the indenter and the sensor to move it.

A disadvantage of this device is also destructive method for the study of strength properties of materials.

A device (patent RF №2210753 C1, 7 G01N 3/00, 2003 - prototype) to determine the relaxation properties of leather and similar materials. The device includes a clamping mechanism, the indenter, system loading, the measurement of the displacement is s indenter, Converter information and the processor, which allows to investigate the strain-relaxation characteristics of the materials without their destruction.

The disadvantages of this device should be attributed to the limited technological capabilities associated with the inability of the study required range of deformation-relaxation characteristics of leather imitation materials in the required range of temperature effects on the sample, unpredictable error influence of thermal field of environmental research results, and determine the strength of the sample without failure.

Object of the invention is to expand the technological capabilities of the device and increase measurement accuracy by identifying the entire spectrum of the strain-relaxation characteristics of the skin and other soft composites in the required range of temperature effects with the definition of strength without destroying the sample.

This technical result is achieved in that the device for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites contains a clamping mechanism with two coaxially mounted rings for fixation of the material, the indenter for loading with the ability to measure their own travel and writing information to the processor, indentor embedded sensor, sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated in the sample due to a change in deformation characteristics, and coaxially mounted clamping rings in the form of two glasses is made with built-in heating elements with adjustable temperature range and the sensor to register.

Introduction in the device together distinctive items, you can ensure determination of physical-mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites in the extended range temperature effects with increased accuracy, to determine the strength without destroying the sample in an automated mode, while retaining all the capabilities of the prototype.

The essence of the device illustrated in figures 1 and 2. Figure 1 presents the structural-kinematic diagram of the device, figure 2 is a photograph of a General view of the device.

The device consists of an upper bearing Cup 1, the lower clamping Cup 2, control its position relative to the plunger 3 with a pair of screw-nut 4. The clamping mechanism consists of a lever 5, is rigidly connected with the eccentric 6. On the indenter 7 fixed spherical tip 8 with built-in it the acoustic emission sensor 9. On the upper part of the fixed electromagnet 10 for his return and fixation in the initial position, and the devil is ontactnig inductive sensor 11, which converts the movement of the indenter into an electrical signal. The indenter is associated with two shoulders lever 12, one end of which is fixed the load 13. The other end of the lever 12 movably fixed relative to the slide 14. The locking mechanism of the indenter consists of a latch 15, the stop 16 is connected adjustably by means of a rod 17 with the connecting rod 18 and a handle 19.

To enhance, transform, and information recording device includes an amplifier 20, a controller 21 and a processor 22.

In upper 1 and lower 2 clamping cups installed electric heaters (heating Elements) 23 with the sensor 24 and the temperature controller 25 to provide in the area of research of the set temperature.

The device operates as follows. The test sample 26 installed between the upper 1 and lower 2 cups and fix by turning the eccentric 6 lever 5. Adjusting the bottom of the Cup 2 is carried out by turning the nuts on the transmission of the screw-nut 4. Using the control unit 25 electric voltage is applied to the heating Elements 23, and thereby a temperature in the space between the sample and the glasses required for testing. The temperature registered by the sensor 24. When turning the knobs 19 and accordingly the scenes 18 moves the rod 17, and the stop 16 disengages from the latch 15. The indenter 7 descends under the action is receiving cargo 13, located on the two shoulders of the lever 12. The deformation of the sample, and the acoustic emission sensor 9 detects sound vibrations, and contactless inductive sensor 11 is the magnitude of the displacement of the indenter 7. Information about the parameters of acoustic emission and movement of hidetora through the controller 21 is transmitted to the processor 22. After completion of the program of investigation of physical-mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites the indenter 7 with the electromagnet 10 is returned to its original state, and its position during rotation of the arm 19 is fixed by a clamp 15 by means of the stop 16.

Determination of the strength of the test sample without its destruction at the expense forecasting for calibration spectra of acoustic emission, pre-set as the reference values for each individual type of skin and other soft composites.

The calculation formula for such measurements may be the distribution of arrest (the Use of acoustic emission method for the determination of the maximum deformations // Arrakoski, Ehaqeraeh, Apichai, Eusociality / Leather and footwear industry. No. 4. - 2008. - p.36-35):

where εIthe ultimate deformation of the test sample;

εFLthe ultimate deformation of the Etalon;

NThe t - total pulse count of acoustic emission during deformation of the Etalon;

NI- total pulse count of acoustic emission during deformation of the sample;

mIthat γI, mFLthat γFLthe distribution parameters for the test sample and the reference;

Nε- total pulse count of acoustic emission at a limiting strain of reference;

k - coefficient taking into account the ratio of the volume of the test sample and the reference.

The use of the proposed device will allow you to avoid the loss of natural leather and similar soft composites spent on carrying out physico-mechanical tests and, in particular, to determine the strength, and to reduce the loss of materials at the wrong appointment temperature parameters of technological operations.

The device for determination of physico-mechanical characteristics of skin and other soft composites containing a clamping mechanism for fixing material, the indenter for loading and measuring its displacement and writing information to the processor, characterized in that the indenter is fitted with a sensor that is sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated in the sample due to a change in deformation characteristics, and the clamping mechanism in the form of two coaxially mounted glasses are made with built-n is privateline elements with adjustable temperature range and the sensor.



 

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2 dwg

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