Method of obtaining parallax panoramagram and vario-image
SUBSTANCE: optical raster is used, which posterior surface coincides with the focal plane of the optical elements of the raster. The spatial separation of images belonging to the group of images that form the parallax panoramagram or vario-image is carried out by sequential ablation of sites of posterior surface of the optical raster, on which in turn the images are printed belonging to the group of images that form the parallax panoramagram or vario-image.
EFFECT: exclusion of the dependence between the maximum number of images, from which panoramagram or vario-image is formed and resolution capability of a particular type of printing.
7 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the field of printing and may be used, in particular, flat, high, deep, and digital web printing for the manufacture of printed products with effects of volume animation.
A method of obtaining the parallax-panoramagram, which use optical raster. The back surface of the optical raster coincides with the focal plane of the lenticular lens and the photosensitive layer of the photographic material. Spatial separation and registration of images forming the parallax-panoramagram, carry on the back surface of the optical raster by projection printing through the optical raster for each image, the parallax-panoramagram from its center of projection, which subsequently will be the eye of the observer, considering the stereoscopic image (Nahlus. Stereoscopy. M.: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1962). In this technical solution is proposed photographic projection printing images forming the parallax-panoramagram. This circumstance limits the industrial production parallax-panoramagram in connection with the high cost and low productivity of the photographic process. In addition, projecting images through the optical raster causes additional distortions registered is otosurgery, which ultimately affects the quality of the parallax-panoramagram.
With the proposed solution, this method coincides with the facts of the optical raster, the rear surface of which coincides with the focal plane of the lenticular lens, the images generated on the back surface of the optical raster forming the parallax-panoramagram, and use the above optical raster spatial separation of the images on the back surface of the optical raster by forming radiation from a given surveillance center and passing the radiation through the optical raster.
Also known is a method of obtaining the parallax-panoramagram, varioiozobrazhennya, namely, that use optical raster, in which the rear surface coincides with the focal plane of the lenticular lens, make color photo forms and printed form image representing a combination of spatially separated image forming parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya, conduct quality assessment parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya by combining film and optical raster on the prepress stage, positioning the printing plate in the printing apparatus according to the results of a preflight preparation and carry out printing for printing on the a surface raster (US 5967032, publ. 19.10.99). The advantage of this method is the possible role of printing and industrial production parallax-panoramagram, varioiozobrazhennya film optical rasters.
The disadvantages of this method include: increased demands on resolution printing; lower product quality when the deviation of the step sequence of elements of a raster that is associated with, for example, inaccuracy of manufacture, the deformation of the raster in the printing process; the need for accurate positioning of the printed image relative to the optical raster elements when printing. These shortcomings are due to the fact that the image forming parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya, typing at the same time as a combination of spatially separated images, calculated and obtained at the prepress stage.
With the proposed solution, this method coincides on the following essential features: optical raster, the rear surface of which coincides with the focal plane of the lenticular lens; platemaking, printing printing on the back surface of the optical raster image forming parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya.
On the essential features of the latter method is most similar to the proposed CSP is trained and selected as a prototype.
The proposed method for obtaining the parallax-panoramagram, varioiozobrazhennya is that use optical raster, in which the rear surface coincides with the focal plane of the lenticular lens. Spatial separation of the images included in the group of images that form a parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya, carried out by sequential ablation areas of the rear surface of the optical raster, which in turn print the images included in the group of images that form a parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya.
The proposed method differs from the prototype in that the spatial separation of the images is carried out by sequential printing of each image included in the image forming parallax-panoramagram, varioiozobrazhennya, and by ablation of the relevant parts of the rear surface of the raster before printing each image.
This difference eliminates the dependence between the maximum number of images that forms the parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya, and resolution of a particular type of print, as in this technical solution, this correlation is due to resolution of the ablation process.
In the development of the method the proposed method, in which ablation of the rear surface of the optical raster carried out by exposure of the laser beam transmitted through the optical raster scanning surface is performed by the deflection of the laser beam and moving the optical raster. The implementation of this solution improves the quality of the parallax-panoramagram, varioiozobrazhennya by improving the alignment of the printed images with the structure of the raster. For example, does not affect the quality parallax-panoramagram, varioiozobrazhennya deviation of the step sequence of the optical raster elements, which inevitably occurs at the stage of manufacture of the raster, and in the printing process due to the deformation of the raster, especially when using thin-film images. In addition, there is no need in the printing process to maintain accurate alignment of prints with the structure of the raster, as required alignment is provided by the ablation process.
In the development of the proposed method for applying a masking coating on the back surface of the optical raster. This solution allows the choice of material, directly interacting with radiation, to select an optimal mode of ablation (evaporation). In the development of this solution proposes a method by which a protective masking coating is applied by vacuum deposition. Vacuum nab the representation provides a uniform application of the masking coating of small thickness and, accordingly, high quality ablation.
In the development method is proposed a method in which the masking coating is made of a material with anti-adhesive properties with respect to printed ink or masking coating is applied with a release layer. When implementing this method, the surface areas not subjected to ablation, will remain free from paint. Otherwise deteriorates the quality of the ablation by increasing the thickness of the evaporated layer, starting from the second fingerprint.
The essence of the proposed method is illustrated in figure 1, 2, 3.
List of figures and their short description
Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of roll printing machine with a device for laser ablation rear surface raster film. The laser light 2 optical system 3 is directed to a bitmap film 1. Optical raster elements focus the radiation 2 on the rear surface raster film 1. Then the film goes into the device 4 in which the print images. The printing of the next image from the image forming parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya, conduct after reinstalling the roll into feeding position and reconfigure optical system 3. Changing the configuration of the optical system 3 is determined by the angle printed depicts the I in the parallax-panoramagram or variosonnar.
Figure 2 shows a cross-section raster film and the process of laser beams, explaining ablation, where: 5) and 5' - position of the laser light source defined by the angle a separate image from the image forming parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya, 6 - optical raster, 7 - masking coating, 8 - paint layer.
Figure 3 shows the optical diagram illustrating the principle of the formation of laser radiation on the surface of the raster, where 9 - laser; 10 - deflector; 11 - mirror; 12, 13 - cylindrical lenses; 6 - raster. The deflector 10 is used to scan a laser spot within the area of one of the optical raster element and thereby enables operational control the size of the ablation zone. From the position of the cylindrical lens 12 depend on the coordinates of the zone of ablation in the cross section of the image (see figure 2). The cylindrical lens 13 focuses the radiation on the raster 6, providing the minimum area of the laser spot and, accordingly, the maximum power density of the radiation.
Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention
Consider an example that confirms the possibility of realization of the invention in which the formation of laser radiation on the surface of the raster is performed by the optical system scheme is shown in figure 3. In the Bor this optical system provides an implementation of the necessary requirements:
- possibility of raster elements simultaneously focusing radiation having a minimum variation of power density in each laser spot on the back surface of the raster;
- obtaining the maximum power density in the zones of ablation;
- the possibility of operational control the size of the ablation zone (for example, with deflector).
We assume that the masking coating obtained by spraying the metal in vacuum. We define the power of laser radiation with wavelength λ=1.06 µm required for evaporation, for example, films of chromium and aluminum with a thickness of 0.1 μm. Laser processing of thin-film coatings on dielectric substrates is widely used in industry. We will use the known formula (see Veiko V.P. Laser processing film elements. - Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1986):
where q is the power density of the radiation needed for the evaporation of thin films;
T is the boiling point;
C - heat capacity;
h is the thickness of the coating;
p is the density of the material;
And is the absorption coefficient;
τ is the effective time of radiation exposure.
Effective radiation exposure τ1when the deflector can be calculated from the print speed V (speed raster film in the printing machine and the size of the laser spot 1in the direction of movement of the film:
The size of the laser spot d1in the direction of movement of the film depends on the focal lengths f1cylindrical system 13 (Fig 3), the focal plane which coincides with the rear surface of the cylindrical raster 6:
where γ is the divergence of a laser beam;
f1- focal length optical system 13.
When the deflector laser spot oscillate in the transverse direction raster film with an amplitude corresponding to the size of the ablation zone. In this case, the effective time of radiation exposure τ2decreases relatively time efficient impact with non-baffle:
where d2- the size of the laser spot in the plane of the cross-section image (figure 2);
l - the width of the zone of ablation.
The value of d1mainly is determined by the divergence of a laser beam due to the rather large focal length of the system 13. The value of d2largely depends on diffraction and optical aberrations, as the impact of divergence of laser radiation is insignificant due to the small value of the focal length of the optical raster elements (focal length of the optical raster elements must be equal to the thickness of the e raster).
Evaluate time effective radiation exposure with a working vent, using the actual values of the following parameters. Print speed on modern roll machines is ~180 m/min, the divergence of the laser radiation γ~10-3glad d2~2.5 µm, l~5 µm, f1~300 mm Substituting these values in the formulas presented, will provide effective radiation exposure τ2~0.5·10-4sec.
Estimate the power density of the radiation q for the evaporation mask coatings of chromium and aluminum. Taking the data for chromium (T=2642°C; C=460 j/kg·K; h=0,1·10-6m; ρ=7,1·103kg/m3And=0,43) and aluminum (T=2447°C; C=920 j/kg·K; h=0,1·10-6m; ρ=2,7·103kg/m3, A=0,07) when τ2=0.5·10-4sec, we get qCr~40 W/mm2, qAl~174 W/mm2.
The required power of the laser R we define the expression:
where S is the area of the laser spot within a single raster element;
N is the number of pixels covered by the radiation.
Taking the value S=d1·d2~0.75·10-3mm2step sequence of raster elements of ~50 μm (thickness of raster ~100 μm) and the width of the bitmap film ~100 mm, with N~2000, will provide the required radiation power, which for masking coating of chromium will be PCr~60 W, and the mask p is offset from aluminum P Al~260 watts. These values are quite real to the laser radiation, for example, using laser type Nd YAG diode or lamp-pumped.
Depending on the technical capabilities of the printing images forming the parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya can be carried out by any known methods such as offset printing, flexography, gravure printing) on a standard printing equipment.
1. The method of obtaining the parallax-panoramagram, varioiozobrazhennya, namely, that use optical raster, in which the rear surface coincides with the focal plane of the optical raster elements, carry out spatial separation of the images included in the group of images that form a parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya, and print these images on the back surface of the raster, wherein the spatial separation of the images obtained by sequential ablation areas of the rear surface of the optical raster, which perform alternate printing images included in the group of images that form a parallax-panoramagram or varioiozobrazhennya.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the ablation of the rear surface of the optical raster is carried out by exposure of the laser beam transmitted through the optical raster.
3. the procedure according to claim 1 and 2, characterized in that the control process of ablation is carried out by the deflection units of the laser beam and moving the optical raster.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that on the rear surface of the optical raster put a continuous pre-masking coating.
5. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the protective masking coating is applied by vacuum deposition.
6. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the masking coating is made of a material with anti-adhesive properties with respect to printed colors.
7. The method according to claim 4, characterized in that the masking coating is applied with a release layer.
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to information display based on shooting performed beforehand. The method of displaying the original three-dimensional scene based on results of capturing images in a two-dimensional projection is based on displaying the captured objects taking into account information on the image and depth relative each image point. Reconstruction of the three-dimensional scene is carried out based on one or more snapshots obtained in the sharpness range (SR) of a lens focused on the captured object with defined depth of a sharply displayed space (DSDS), wherein one or more captured images or part thereof is placed in the given SR, after which by digital image processing, the object captured with high sharpness is separated from the image background having different sharpness based on comparing at least two snapshots with different DSDS, and based on information on focal distance and parameters of capturing devices, a depth map is constructed through which the three-dimensional scene is reconstructed, wherein the first object is captured with minimum DSDS, and the background image is formed using a separate snapshot with value of DSDS, wherein the object separated from the background image is formed based on another background image or the background image is replaced based on an artificial three-dimensional model.
EFFECT: high accuracy and speed of displaying a three-dimensional scene, high accuracy of constructing a depth map of a three-dimensional scene, as well as saving resources.
10 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of multi-layered films with optical effects, and also decorative products, covered in multi-layered film.
SUBSTANCE: multi-layered film for manufacture of decorated product, which contains a base decorated by multi-layered film with curved sections of surface, represents IMD-film or film, usable for deep stretching, which is made with possible deformation during manufacture of decorated product to match the curvature of base of decorated product. The IMD-film or deep stretching-compatible film contains a transparent structural layer with spatial structure which creates a visually perceptible effect and a deflecting layer, positioned in direction of viewing under the structural layer. The decorated product, in particular, Handy-cover or Handy-window, contains a base with curved sections of surface and at least one decorative element, positioned in the area of one or several curvatures of base surface. The decorative element is composed of multi-layered film, which during manufacture of the base is deformed to match one or several curvatures.
EFFECT: possible creation of stable image without distortions, on sections, where the base has curvatures of surface.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to metal-working industry, particularly, to working rail head by laser. Laser beam is located at angles to axis of symmetry of machined rail, feed direction and beam rotational axis. Note here that laser power is fed in pulses with duration governed by angle of laser beam contact with processed material and laser beam rotation speed.
EFFECT: shaping rail head by concave shaping line formed in laser beam rotation.