Method for restoration of disturbed lands in overmoistened areas (bogs)

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.

EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular the restoration of degraded land in the wetlands areas (swamps).

The early development and construction of wetlands under the oil fields and development of hydrocarbon fields is preceded by aggradation of sand in these areas by means of dredging in the stacks. After impact water this sand is used for construction of bulk drilling sites, dumping road formation, because of the low bearing capacity of peat, without dumping the sand makes it impossible to place them rigs, i.e. it is necessary to carry out preparatory work. These works include landfilling (mound) sand site identified under the development of the field (construction of bypass roads and sites for residential town, accessories drilling facility and the drilling rig). The height of the filled layer varies from 0.5 m to 1.5 m After drilling, well completion and putting it into commercial operation shall perform the disassembly of the drilling rig and auxiliary equipment. The area under the bypass road, a residential town and area of the dismantling of the drilling equipment must be rehabilitated. Also subject to land reclamation, out of piles of sand guide is Onamia.

GOST 17.5.1.01-83 provides two stages of rehabilitation: technical and biological.

The most commonly used technology for the restoration of disturbed lands is in the preliminary removal of topsoil from designated for mining, construction and other work, its temporary storage and subsequent use when applied to the exhaust disturbed lands.

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of or low power fertile soil, suitable for restoration of disturbed land, and the use for reclamation of peat, requires the organization of its production, construction of access roads, development of peat career and for follow-up remediation.

Known method of revegetation, based on the sowing of perennial grasses on disturbed areas.

The disadvantage of this method is that sown seed plants, manufactured, which are not adapted to acidic, boggy soils with excessive moisture.

The aim of the invention is the cheaper way to restore disturbed lands, to promote natural revegetation of disturbed lands, especially wetland areas, and use the forces of nature itself.

This object is achieved in that on the broken oil is Omikami and development of hydrocarbon deposits lands on excessively wet areas (swamps) improving the hydrological regime due to removal of redundant for germination of plants, a layer of sand to the surface of the peat or leaving over him 1-15 cm layer of sand, which does not prevent the settlement and development of local wild plants. Thus, the conditions under which biological stage performs the nature itself.

Figure 1 shows the well pad, formed after dumping sand containing wellhead equipment wells in the area 1 and area 2 - the area under the bypass road, a residential town and area dismantling of drilling equipment, which is subject to recovery (reclamation).

The method is as follows. Exhaust section that was produced by landfilling or aggradation of sand by means of dredging and want to restore is divided into alternating sections of prioritizing the removal of the sand - 3 (figure 2) and plots of the second stage - 4 (figure 2), the road passages.

Originally fence sand is made from sections 3-5 excavator (figure 3), during the turn arrows at 90° to the left and to the right from the axis of sections 4 (2), i.e. the area perpendicular to the motion of the excavator and dump trucks.

Removal of sand carried by dump trucks 6. Width of lot 3 is approximately equal to two lengths of the boom of the excavator. The path of the truck is shown by arrows 7 (figure 3).

Then make the removal of sand, its preparing the ku in trucks 6 (figure 4) sections 4 - former road passages. This excavator 5 (figure 4) is in reverse to rotate the boom of the excavator 5 180° for loading sand into trucks 6.

The thickness of the sand from 0.5 to 1.5 meters limits the emergence and growth of plants in this area due to poor water and nutrient regimes, and the residual sand layer thickness of 1-15 cm above the peat cover allows nutrients from the peat to be available to plants, i.e. improves hydrological and nutrient regimes rekultiviruemye territory.

Injection of local wild plants such as cotton grass, sedge, rush, horsetail, willow and others. Disturbed areas are gradually overgrown by plants, and the area of the projective cover of disturbed land plants is increasing every year. Favorable moisture conditions stimulate the broadening of the territory of the plant.

Technical or other economic efficiency:

1. There is no need for biological reclamation of disturbed lands.

2. Reduced the cost of full rehabilitation of the land.

3. Restored wetlands land with low bearing capacity.

The way to restore a broken oil fields and development of hydrocarbon deposits lands on wetlands is erritory - swamps, based on stimulation of the processes of natural vegetation, including a full or partial withdrawal is pre-printed on the swamp of the sand layer to a residual layer above the surface of the swamp 1-15 see



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.

1 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.

5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.

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FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work owing to excluding the necessity of extraction of large volumes of soil for creation of fertile layer.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: reduction of bioproductivity of clay soils and improvement of protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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1 dwg

FIELD: environment protection.

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FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: flattening of quarry sides is done bottom-up by means of their filling by application of stronger rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry. Filling may be carried out up to various vertical elevations at the board of the quarry depending on mine technical conditions of deposit bedding.

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4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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10 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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3 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of cultivation of agricultural crops. The method involves loosening the topsoil and subsoil layers, cutting slits with molehills. The upper part of the slits cut is mulched with crushed plant residues of the predecessor culture. Slits are cut to a depth of at 0.05-0.10 m higher than the topsoil thickness. The molehills are cut in the middle part of the slits in the topsoil layer. The straw remaining after harvesting on the field surface is combed out from the stubble and moved to the slit space. Into the soil, in the zone of operating width of soil-tilling implement, herbicides are applied locally.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of cultivation of girasol, and can be used on medium and heavy-textured soils. The method includes autumn pre-sowing tillage, fertilising, cutting beds, planting tubers. Planting of tubers can be carried out in autumn or spring. Then the spring and summer inter-row processing is carried-out, as well as mowing of stalks for fodder, and harvesting the tubers. Pre-sowing tillage is carried out by cutting the beds of width of 150-180 cm with enclosures of width-fold of the bed, 9.0 (18.0) or 10.8 (21.6) m. Intervals between enclosures are 3.0 or 3.6 m. Planting is carried out in beds, the distance between rows is 45-90 cm. They are cultivated with ridge cultivator. In case of necessity the herbage is mowed for fodder; the stems height is 60-70 cm. Before harvesting a second mowing of herbage is carried out by mower with collecting and transporting it to the hopper of the vehicle.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the growing conditions of girasol and to reduce damage of tubers during harvesting.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to agronomy and can be used for reducing the soil toxicity. Leguminous herbs are mowed down at the flowering stage. Mowed off green mass is sprayed with an aqueous solution of sodium selenate at a concentration of 0.1-0.2%, and then a layer of alanite is applied within 2-3 cm. Then all the biomass is ploughed.

EFFECT: soil toxicity is reduced, and its fertility is improved.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting of water-retaining step slots with a slot cutter with placement of displaced soil in slot sides. The volume of upper step of the slot and density of its walls are increased by vibration impact along the entire height of the wall with frequency of 10-20 s-1 per running metre of the slot length. An outfit comprises an energy device connected by traction rods of a hydraulic suspension system with brackets of a slot cutter frame, support wheels, actuators for slot cutting. Each actuator for slot cutting is arranged in the form of a stand with a cutting edge on the front part and a chisel at the lower section. Stands have deformers of slot walls driven by a power takeoff shaft of the energy device. Each deformer of upper step slot walls installed behind the actuator for slot cutting is arranged in the form of a driven shaft having a regular polygon shape of its cross section. There is a hollow body installed on the driven shaft as capable of dismantling, having a shape of an ellipse or a circle in the section. The Axis of the hollow body symmetry is displaced from the axis of the driven shaft rotation.

EFFECT: technology and structural design will make it possible to increase efficiency of using natural and manmade precipitation by permanent feeding crops and pasture grasses.

4 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes chisel treatment of soil with formation of a ridgy furrow bottom and crop sowing above grooves in the furrow bottom - in the next but one groove in the first year of sowing. At the same time in the second year sowing is carried out above spare grooves of the furrow bottom in the first year. The width between traces after treatment of soil is equal to the half of distances between rows. A spaced tilled crop is corn or sunflower.

EFFECT: method provides for higher efficiency of irrigated and dry lands, reduced number of heavy equipment passages when cultivating tilled crops and saving of resources.

2 cl, 4 dwg

Soil plowing method // 2243637

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, basic tillage of soil.

SUBSTANCE: method involves calculating required power of individual and string-type cumulative charges; providing field marking and forming holes in soil; placing cumulative charges in holes; sequentially blowing charges so that after explosion soil is transferred from one strip onto adjacent strip; leveling field surface by means of any known farm machine.

EFFECT: increased quality and effectiveness of plowing soil.

2 dwg

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