Method for restoration of disturbed lands in overmoistened areas (bogs)
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.
EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular the restoration of degraded land in the wetlands areas (swamps).
The early development and construction of wetlands under the oil fields and development of hydrocarbon fields is preceded by aggradation of sand in these areas by means of dredging in the stacks. After impact water this sand is used for construction of bulk drilling sites, dumping road formation, because of the low bearing capacity of peat, without dumping the sand makes it impossible to place them rigs, i.e. it is necessary to carry out preparatory work. These works include landfilling (mound) sand site identified under the development of the field (construction of bypass roads and sites for residential town, accessories drilling facility and the drilling rig). The height of the filled layer varies from 0.5 m to 1.5 m After drilling, well completion and putting it into commercial operation shall perform the disassembly of the drilling rig and auxiliary equipment. The area under the bypass road, a residential town and area of the dismantling of the drilling equipment must be rehabilitated. Also subject to land reclamation, out of piles of sand guide is Onamia.
GOST 17.5.1.01-83 provides two stages of rehabilitation: technical and biological.
The most commonly used technology for the restoration of disturbed lands is in the preliminary removal of topsoil from designated for mining, construction and other work, its temporary storage and subsequent use when applied to the exhaust disturbed lands.
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of or low power fertile soil, suitable for restoration of disturbed land, and the use for reclamation of peat, requires the organization of its production, construction of access roads, development of peat career and for follow-up remediation.
Known method of revegetation, based on the sowing of perennial grasses on disturbed areas.
The disadvantage of this method is that sown seed plants, manufactured, which are not adapted to acidic, boggy soils with excessive moisture.
The aim of the invention is the cheaper way to restore disturbed lands, to promote natural revegetation of disturbed lands, especially wetland areas, and use the forces of nature itself.
This object is achieved in that on the broken oil is Omikami and development of hydrocarbon deposits lands on excessively wet areas (swamps) improving the hydrological regime due to removal of redundant for germination of plants, a layer of sand to the surface of the peat or leaving over him 1-15 cm layer of sand, which does not prevent the settlement and development of local wild plants. Thus, the conditions under which biological stage performs the nature itself.
Figure 1 shows the well pad, formed after dumping sand containing wellhead equipment wells in the area 1 and area 2 - the area under the bypass road, a residential town and area dismantling of drilling equipment, which is subject to recovery (reclamation).
The method is as follows. Exhaust section that was produced by landfilling or aggradation of sand by means of dredging and want to restore is divided into alternating sections of prioritizing the removal of the sand - 3 (figure 2) and plots of the second stage - 4 (figure 2), the road passages.
Originally fence sand is made from sections 3-5 excavator (figure 3), during the turn arrows at 90° to the left and to the right from the axis of sections 4 (2), i.e. the area perpendicular to the motion of the excavator and dump trucks.
Removal of sand carried by dump trucks 6. Width of lot 3 is approximately equal to two lengths of the boom of the excavator. The path of the truck is shown by arrows 7 (figure 3).
Then make the removal of sand, its preparing the ku in trucks 6 (figure 4) sections 4 - former road passages. This excavator 5 (figure 4) is in reverse to rotate the boom of the excavator 5 180° for loading sand into trucks 6.
The thickness of the sand from 0.5 to 1.5 meters limits the emergence and growth of plants in this area due to poor water and nutrient regimes, and the residual sand layer thickness of 1-15 cm above the peat cover allows nutrients from the peat to be available to plants, i.e. improves hydrological and nutrient regimes rekultiviruemye territory.
Injection of local wild plants such as cotton grass, sedge, rush, horsetail, willow and others. Disturbed areas are gradually overgrown by plants, and the area of the projective cover of disturbed land plants is increasing every year. Favorable moisture conditions stimulate the broadening of the territory of the plant.
Technical or other economic efficiency:
1. There is no need for biological reclamation of disturbed lands.
2. Reduced the cost of full rehabilitation of the land.
3. Restored wetlands land with low bearing capacity.
The way to restore a broken oil fields and development of hydrocarbon deposits lands on wetlands is erritory - swamps, based on stimulation of the processes of natural vegetation, including a full or partial withdrawal is pre-printed on the swamp of the sand layer to a residual layer above the surface of the swamp 1-15 see
SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in removal of water from a drop, giving the specified position to the drop bottom, laying of a water-impermeable geomembrane onto this bottom and covering of a geomembrane and a beach with a protective layer from natural soil. The geomembrane edge is installed above the rated water level in the pond, created in the drop with atmospheric precipitation and put into economic turnover. In plan beyond the geomembrane the protective layer in its base comprises an antifiltration layer coupled with a geomembrane.
EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.
5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.
EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground water with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals with fractions of various size, layer by layer with further compaction of each layer, laying of drainage layer with construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, topographic mapping of the whole pit is performed, and as per its results there made is planning with extraction of sections representing geological natural monument and sections subject to further filling. At that, filling with construction waste is performed while cuts of deposits representing geological natural monument are kept free, and possibility of access to them, monitoring them and arranging the museum of the Earth is provided. The rest sections of the pit according to the planning are broken into zones and filled; at that, overburden rocks are laid on the drainage layer. Hill is formed in one of the zones with its further terracing. Burial places are built on terraces. Columbarium and crematorium rooms are built in the rest zones. Foundation bases of the above buildings are arranged in the following sequence: first, overburden rocks laid on drainage layer are levelled, and piles are driven to the design depth from planning level of the pit. Then, buffer pad from sand of average grain size is made without compaction and binding concrete is provided above buffer pad. Zones are separated from each other by means of artificially created three-dimensional soil shapes, and tracks and access ways are covered with natural or artificial stone.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.
SUBSTANCE: recovery method of mined-out pits involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground waters with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals, laying of drainage layer of construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, first, planning is performed and cuts of deposits of average coal age are determined. Filling with construction waste is performed while those cuts of deposits of average coal age are kept free, and access is provided to them in order to monitor them and to arrange the museum of the Earth. Then, in the centre of the pit, on the drainage layer there laid are overburden rocks; at that, a hill is formed; after that, when the hill height reaches average absolute level, terracing of hill slopes is performed by means of a bulldozer; and section is pre-broken and furrows indicating the boundaries of the future terraces, tracks and access ways are ploughed. Bed of each terrace is formed with reverse cross slope to two gradients; at that, width of terrace bed is not less than seven metres. For each terrace, starting from lower tier of terraces, along the whole perimetre of the pit, there built are embankment plate or stone walls and they are bound with cement mortar. Drainage system is routed and burial places are built on terraces.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work owing to excluding the necessity of extraction of large volumes of soil for creation of fertile layer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selective mining, movement and storage in separate soil wastes; at that, soil groups are laid periodically to the waste height of 2.5 m, at flattening of 25-35° waste boards. At that, lower part of the group which is 15-20 cm thick - low-fertile overburden rocks; middle part of the group which is 10-12 cm thick is laid with natural looser with fraction size of not more than 10 mm and upper part of the group is filled with organic fertiliser.
EFFECT: reduction of bioproductivity of clay soils and improvement of protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, movement and storage of the soil layer and overburden rocks, mining of the open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes close in their composition to natural minerals, laying of the draining layer from construction wastes, with thickness of at least 0.6 m and fraction size of 150-200 mm. After filling of the pit with construction wastes, terracing is carried out using a bulldoser, at the same time at first the site is laid out, and furrows that mark borders of future terraces, paths and access roads are tilled. Then the bed of each terrace is formed serially with the bulldoser with a reverse cross inclination up to two degrees, along the entire perimetre of the pit. Bed width at each terrace is arranged as at least equal to seven metres. Then retaining walls are arranged from plates or stones and are bound with cement mortar. The drainage system is laid, and places are arranged on the terraces for burial of the deceased.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to reclamation of worked-out pits. The method includes backfilling of worked-out space up to the upper underground water level by construction waste close to minerals by composition, and setting drainage layer. After the pit is filled with construction waste, terracing is carried out using a bulldozer. Furthermore, at first the area is divided and ribs are plowed, the ribs indicate the borders of future terraces. The bed of each terrace is formed by a bulldozer with reverse crossfall up to 2 degrees. Support walls are erected along the whole perimeter of the pit and drainage system is installed, while decorative plants, lawns and gardens are organized.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensity of worked-out pits reclamation, soil is protected from wind and water erosion.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: flattening of quarry sides is done bottom-up by means of their filling by application of stronger rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry. Filling may be carried out up to various vertical elevations at the board of the quarry depending on mine technical conditions of deposit bedding.
EFFECT: accelerated process of damaged lands recovery by increasing stability of flattened boards of the quarry to erosion processes, by arrangement of water reservoirs in the mined area with parameters favourable for recovery of their biological productivity.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation above the filled compartment of recultivation body from wastes with external surface of the specified convex shape and necessary for water flow and increase of the compartment capacity, and coating of external surface of recultivation body with layer of earth. At least lower part of recultivation body is formed in tiers, each of which is inwashed under protection of enclosing element installed along the tier perimetre by means of distributed outlet of pulp from pulp line so that sediment pond is formed in central part of tier and beach, which is specified on the basis of safety condition of width near the enclosing element providing the specified shape of external surface of recultivation body within the limits of the tier height. On wastes of beach zone of the compartment or tier of recultivation body there made is at least one water intake chamber in the form of the channel formed with dams and connecting the water intake facility to sediment pond. During tier-by-tier formation of recultivation body the dam crests of channels are maintained above water level in sediment pond, and water is supplied from channel by means of water intake facility to the water conduit of the water supply system of waste hydraulic transport. Length of channel section, which changes at inwash of wastes, from inlet threshold formed with wastes to water receiver of water intake facility 1k is brought into line with the following condition: Lchannel≥(hs-ht)/iunderwater, where hs - the specified water depth before water receiver of water intake facility; ht - water depth at inlet threshold of the channel; iunderwater - average slope of the projection of underwater inwash of wastes.
EFFECT: simplifying the erection of water intake facility, its operation and inwash of sediment pond with wastes at final stage of recultivation, increasing the storage unit volume and improving the quality of water clarification before water intake facility.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method includes application of mineral fertilisers into the soil, drill sowing of the main spring nurse forage crop, followed by complementary seeding of intermediate forage crop, for example, spring rape, repeated mowing of herbage for animal feed. And after each mowing the stubble is combed and sprayed with insecticides. Sowing of the main spring nurse forage crop is carried out with seeds of sorghum crops, such as Sudan grass or forage millet with low seeding rate up to 50% and 75% respectively. Before sowing, as a mineral fertiliser, a controlled-release carbamide-formaldehyde fertiliser is applied in the soil containing 0.1-0.3 moles of formaldehyde per 1 mol of carbamide. The fertiliser is applied to the soil at the rate of 60-90 kg of active ingredient per 1 ha.
EFFECT: method enables to intensify the growth of plants due to preplant application of controlled-release carbamide-formaldehyde fertiliser and to increase the number of cuttings.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil cultivation. The process includes primary tillage to a depth of topsoil without soil overturning and surface tillage. In the autumn before the main processing a post-harvest surface accumulating loosening in stubble is carried out. After the main autumn non-recourse dehumidifying loosening to a depth of topsoil, deep moisture-collecting chisel tillage is carried out. In the spring the surface moisture-covering loosening is carried out to a depth of seeding. Next, the moisture saving mulching leveled secondary tillage is carried out with the creation of compacted seed bed and combing the weeds in the early stage of their development. In subsequent years, depending on the degree of drought and soil conditions only the main absorbent loosening can be carried out to a depth of topsoil and spring moisture saving secondary mulching leveled tillage with creation of compacted seed bed, and combing the weeds.
EFFECT: method enables to collect maximally, retain moisture in the root zone of the soil and to ensure optimal heat-moisture regime of the seeding layer with limited use of herbicides in the most extreme weather conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes an autumn tillage by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and wintering intercrops, their harvesting and planting rice. After harvesting of winter crops and wintering intercrops a general planning of checks planes with simultaneous repair of water-inlet and water-outlet irrigation network, restoring check rollers and roads. Then, on the checks surface a maximum layer of water is created and supported until the end of the irrigation season. Thereat the soil is maintained in a condition of maximum water capacity for the entire winter period, after which the density of the plow layer reaches 1.05-1.1 t/m3.
EFFECT: method enables to save energy capacity and reduce the labour intensity of melioration measures carried out; it does not require a spring presowing processing and agro-technical measures; to improve the quality of control of weeds, to increase yields, to reduce the cost of produced grain of rice, to improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to growing technology of feed for animals. The method of growing of feed mixture includes sowing of components of the mixture, cultivation and harvesting. Sowing of fodder mixture, performed, at least from a two-component mixture of grains, in combinations of such crops as oats, peas, barley, vetch, wheat, is carried out in an earlier spring timing than with sowing of single-crop cultures by 10-15 days. The sowing is carried out using the normative amount of mineral fertiliser applied into the soil. Sowing of grain mixture components is carried out in stripes, in each of which each individual culture is planted in a row, or is carried out with a mixture with a mixed distribution of components, planted in the soil. The harvesting is carried out at the end of wax ripeness period of barley and milk ripeness stage of wheat and oats.
EFFECT: production of feed mixture adaptive to varying weather conditions, with a high content of mineral nutrients corresponding to the zootechnical standards.
3 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of cultivation of agricultural crops. The method involves loosening the topsoil and subsoil layers, cutting slits with molehills. The upper part of the slits cut is mulched with crushed plant residues of the predecessor culture. Slits are cut to a depth of at 0.05-0.10 m higher than the topsoil thickness. The molehills are cut in the middle part of the slits in the topsoil layer. The straw remaining after harvesting on the field surface is combed out from the stubble and moved to the slit space. Into the soil, in the zone of operating width of soil-tilling implement, herbicides are applied locally.
EFFECT: increased productivity due to more efficient storage and preservation of soil moisture, as well as creation of conditions conducive to improvement of soil fertility.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used in processing of soil with plowing units. The method includes a consistent separation from the soil layers monolith of the upper and middle layers, their circulation and laying with a change in mutual position vertically, and also loosening the soil of the lower level. Laying of the soil stratum of the upper layer is carried out on top of the loosened soil stratum of the lower layer. After laying of the soil stratum of the upper layer, at the same time the soil of middle and lower layers are loosened, and then are separated, wrapped, and the soil stratum of the middle layer is laid on top of the previous soil stratum of the upper soil layer.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce energy costs for tillage due to eliminating of compaction effect on soil of the lower level of blades of plow bodies plowshares during separation of the soil stratum of the middle layer, and thereat forming a compacted soil layer, as well as its subsequent loosening; increases productivity of the device and reduces fuel consumption on soil tillage.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of cultivation of girasol, and can be used on medium and heavy-textured soils. The method includes autumn pre-sowing tillage, fertilising, cutting beds, planting tubers. Planting of tubers can be carried out in autumn or spring. Then the spring and summer inter-row processing is carried-out, as well as mowing of stalks for fodder, and harvesting the tubers. Pre-sowing tillage is carried out by cutting the beds of width of 150-180 cm with enclosures of width-fold of the bed, 9.0 (18.0) or 10.8 (21.6) m. Intervals between enclosures are 3.0 or 3.6 m. Planting is carried out in beds, the distance between rows is 45-90 cm. They are cultivated with ridge cultivator. In case of necessity the herbage is mowed for fodder; the stems height is 60-70 cm. Before harvesting a second mowing of herbage is carried out by mower with collecting and transporting it to the hopper of the vehicle.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the growing conditions of girasol and to reduce damage of tubers during harvesting.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to agronomy and can be used for reducing the soil toxicity. Leguminous herbs are mowed down at the flowering stage. Mowed off green mass is sprayed with an aqueous solution of sodium selenate at a concentration of 0.1-0.2%, and then a layer of alanite is applied within 2-3 cm. Then all the biomass is ploughed.
EFFECT: soil toxicity is reduced, and its fertility is improved.
SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting of water-retaining step slots with a slot cutter with placement of displaced soil in slot sides. The volume of upper step of the slot and density of its walls are increased by vibration impact along the entire height of the wall with frequency of 10-20 s-1 per running metre of the slot length. An outfit comprises an energy device connected by traction rods of a hydraulic suspension system with brackets of a slot cutter frame, support wheels, actuators for slot cutting. Each actuator for slot cutting is arranged in the form of a stand with a cutting edge on the front part and a chisel at the lower section. Stands have deformers of slot walls driven by a power takeoff shaft of the energy device. Each deformer of upper step slot walls installed behind the actuator for slot cutting is arranged in the form of a driven shaft having a regular polygon shape of its cross section. There is a hollow body installed on the driven shaft as capable of dismantling, having a shape of an ellipse or a circle in the section. The Axis of the hollow body symmetry is displaced from the axis of the driven shaft rotation.
EFFECT: technology and structural design will make it possible to increase efficiency of using natural and manmade precipitation by permanent feeding crops and pasture grasses.
4 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes chisel treatment of soil with formation of a ridgy furrow bottom and crop sowing above grooves in the furrow bottom - in the next but one groove in the first year of sowing. At the same time in the second year sowing is carried out above spare grooves of the furrow bottom in the first year. The width between traces after treatment of soil is equal to the half of distances between rows. A spaced tilled crop is corn or sunflower.
EFFECT: method provides for higher efficiency of irrigated and dry lands, reduced number of heavy equipment passages when cultivating tilled crops and saving of resources.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, basic tillage of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves calculating required power of individual and string-type cumulative charges; providing field marking and forming holes in soil; placing cumulative charges in holes; sequentially blowing charges so that after explosion soil is transferred from one strip onto adjacent strip; leveling field surface by means of any known farm machine.
EFFECT: increased quality and effectiveness of plowing soil.