Hollow building block
SUBSTANCE: hollow building block, which has two side and two end walls, and at least one link parallel to end walls, which separates the block cavity. Its hollowness makes from 20% to 60%, and it is made of a mixture, which contains cement, swollen perlite sand, a solid filler with hardness of at least 1.25 and water with the following content of components, wt %: cement of grade 400 or 500 - 38-42%; swollen perlite sand of fraction 0.63…5 - 12-15%; solid filler of fraction 0…5 or 0…10 - 32-38%, water - 14-17%.
EFFECT: invention provides for strength without loss of heat insulation and weight characteristics of perlite concrete, reduced load at structures during cast-in-place concrete house building.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to construction materials, in particular structural thermal insulation products, and can be used in the manufacture of wall or prostenochnyj hollow blocks.
Known construction element, which may have voids (hollow building block), which has a regular geometric shape in the form of a spatial polyhedron, and the composition of its construction parts in a mixture wt.% consists of volcanic ash 5-32, perlite sand 0-32, limestone 45-75, Portland cement-400 - 10, water - the rest (Russian Federation Patent for the invention №2173374, IPC E04C 1/00, E04C 1/40, E04C 1/41, C04B 28/00, C04B 28/04, publ. 10.09.2001).
However, the known hollow building block due to the fact that the basis of it is clay that has conductivity and physico-chemical indicators lower than the perlite, it is heavier, its surface is not ideal, i.e. the sealing of the shortcomings of the walls requires a significant plastering before putty.
The technical problem of the invention is to improve a hollow building block, which has two side and two end walls and at least one parallel to the side walls of the jumper, which divides the cavity of the block by performing block with voidness from 20% to 60% and making it out of the mixture, which contains cement, in peceny perlite sand, solid filler with hardness not less than 1,25 fraction 0...5 or 0...10, in particular screenings of building materials such as granite, basalt, limestone, etc. fractions of 0...5, or waste steel production non-ferrous metals, namely granulated slag ferronickel production, fraction of 0...5 or 0...10, and water with the following composition in wt.%: cement grade 400 or 500 - 38...42, expanded perlite sand fraction 0,63...5 - 12...15, a solid filler - 32...38, water - 14...17.
Manufacture of hollow building block it is from such a mixture provides strength without loss of thermal insulation and weight characteristics of the perlite-concrete. This enables to produce hollow articles with a volume of voids from 20% to 60%, assists in receiving high-quality surface.
Hollow building block has two side and two end walls and at least one parallel to the side walls of the jumper, which divides the cavity of the block, its voidness (volume of voids) is from 20% to 60%, and it is made from a mixture which contains cement, expanded perlite sand, particulate filler with hardness not less than 1,25 fraction 0...5 or 0...10, in particular screenings of building materials such as granite, basalt, limestone, etc. fractions of 0...5, or waste steel production non-ferrous metals, namely Gran is profiled the ferronickel slag production, fraction 0...5 or 0...10, and water with the following composition in wt.%: cement grade 400 or 500 - 38...42, expanded perlite sand fraction 0,63...5 - 12...15, a solid filler - 32...38, water - 14...17.
In mass (weight) nominal 1 m3the mixture has the following composition: cement - 185-195 kg perlite - 60-60 kg; solid filler - 156-176 kg; water - 100-110 kg In volume 1 par value in m3the mixture has the composition: cement - 0.24 to 0.29 to m3the perlite - 0,52-0,64 m3solid , filler - 0,28-0,35 m3water - 0,10-0,11 m3; i.e. the basis for volumetric index - perlite - 52-68%. The mixture provides strength without loss of thermal insulation and weight characteristics of the perlite-concrete.
In figure 1, 2 - flashy dvukhmotorny building block, respectively views in plan and side view.
Dvukhmotorny building block has two side walls 1, two end walls 2 and parallel to the side walls 2 jumper 3; voidness (volume of voids 4) unit ranges from 20% to 60%; the block is manufactured from a mixture, which contains cement, expanded perlite sand, particulate filler, namely screenings of building materials such as granite, limestone, etc., fraction 0...5 and waste steel production non-ferrous metals, namely granulated slag ferronickel production, fraction of 0...5 or 0...10 and water with the following composition in wt.%: cement grade 400 Il is 500 - 38...42, expanded perlite sand fraction 0,63...5 - 12...15, a solid filler - 32...38, water - 14...17.
Hollow building blocks are made by mixing the components of the mixture loaded into the press-form, further pressing and drying.
Made of the proposed mixture dvuhmestnye perlite blocks (wall, pristenochnye), voidness (volume of voids) which ranges from 20% to 60%, certified according to DSTU BW-7-94, DSTU BW-7-95 and GOST 21520-89 as hollow.
According to test reports, the actual characteristics of the products exceed the requirements of GOST, DSTU: the average density of the unit in a dry condition according to DSTU BW-7-94, BW-18-95 - 600 kg/ m3and test results - 402 kg/m3tested by the method GOST 12730.1-85; the deviation from straightness of edges and the flatness of the faces according to DSTU BW-7-94, BW-18-95 - not more than 6 mm, according to test results - 1 mm), tested according to the methods GOST 26433.1-89; strength of blocks in compression (wait 28 days) according to GOST 8462-85 not less kgf/sq M-25, according to test results - M-26; thermal conductivity of materials by the method according to GOST 12852.5-77 - is 0.102.
The net effect of all these parameters is the following: blocks of regular geometric shape, which gives the opportunity to lay the walls and piers are no disadvantages on the plane and length. The surface of the b blocks have small pores, which allows you to use coating without surface preparation. The surface has such training, in which the plastering for sealing defects of the walls is smaller, the surface immediately spalletta. The insulating material in the first place, lightweight, environmentally safe.
The conditional weight of a cube of material is 410-450 kg, a reduction of the loads on the structure when the monolithic frame construction. For modern gas-aerated concrete products, the average is 490-620 kg
The blocks are used as a filler in a high-rise building, without incurring the load, wall - as fencing, pristenochnye - as or intra interroom partitions. The blocks are easily cut cutting range for size reduction (if necessary), and to route the transaction. Blocks laid in cement mortar or adhesive cement.
The blocks have dimensions (mm): wall - 400×195×140, pristenochnye - 500×195×140. The possible release of sizes, which depends on the matrix and wishes of customers.
1. Hollow building block, which has two side and two end walls, characterized in that it has at least one parallel to the side walls of the jumper, which divides the cavity of the block, its voidness is from 20% to 60%, and it is made from a mixture which contains cement, in peceny perlite sand,
solid filler with hardness not less than 1.25 and water with the following composition, wt.%:
|cement grade 400 or 500||38...42|
|expanded perlite sand fraction 0,63...5||12...15|
|solid filler fraction 0...5 or 0...10||32...38|
2. Hollow building block according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made from a mix, which as a solid filler includes screenings of building materials such as granite, basalt, limestone, etc. fractions of 0 to 5.
3. Hollow building block according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made from a mix, which as a solid filler contains waste from steel production non-ferrous metals, namely granulated slag ferronickel production, fraction of 0...5 or 0...10.
SUBSTANCE: duplicating material to make tiled building blocks comprises webs of cellular and porous layers, which are thermally fixed to resist flaking from 0.01 to 0.19 kN/m, the cellular layer has surface density from 40 to 168 g/cm2 and comprises smooth anti-sorption threadlike elements, the porous material has apparent density from 10 to 50 kg/m3, and the duplicated material has thickness from 1.0 to 3.0 mm.
EFFECT: higher quality of produced blocks due to prevention of mortar leakage to visible surface of blocks.
8 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: tape is designed to fill seams between construction slabs. It contains a non-woven base, containing fibres, selected from a group made of natural cellulose fibres, synthetic polymer fibres, glass fibres and their combinations. At the same time the nonwoven base has the following properties, determined according to ASTM C474-05: relative swelling in cross direction is below approximately 1.3%; relative swelling in longitudinal direction is below approximately 0.2% and breaking strength in cross direction is at least approximately 2625 N/m. Besides, a method is proposed for finishing treatment of a seam between slabs, including the following: (1) application of a tape for filling seams onto a seam between slabs by submersion of a tape for seam filling into the first layer of the composition for filling seams; (ii) application of the second layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (ii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the composition for seam filling applied at the stage (i), have dried substantially, and if required, (iii) application of the third, filling or final layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (iii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the second layer have substantially dried.
EFFECT: improved quality of the tape due to high strength and reduction of swelling during moistening at simultaneous acceleration of seams filling.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: building element consists of the main part and an additional part, where the main part of the building element is in the form of two or more walls, connected to each other along the whole length with the middle crosspieces, and the additional part is made in the form of a middle element that has one or several bars joined or not joined to each other with middle crosspieces, besides, in case when the middle element is in the form of joined bars, the main part of the building element has walls that are shortened at the top and at the bottom relative to the extreme walls, or one of two walls is shortened as much as the second one is extended, besides, the width of the shortened wall complies with width of the middle crosspiece between these walls, besides, both in the walls and in the middle crosspieces of the main element there are through vertical openings for the possibility to connect building elements between each other.
EFFECT: increased speed of laying, saving of time and costs for erection of structures.
2 cl, 37 dwg
SUBSTANCE: body of a block is formed with a matrix based on light-transparent, shock-resistant, heat-resistant and moisture-resistant material. Inside the body there is a light diode cluster. The light-transparent matrix of the body is made as spatially matt, or at least one external side of the body is made as matt. The inner volume of the body is made in the form of an optical prism limited with reflecting and/or refracting planes.
EFFECT: improved optical properties of the block.
8 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light heat-insulation building unit arranged in internal and external walls of a building and formed from bubble synthetic resin, comprises a connecting ledge on the upper side, so that when it is laid, no cavity is formed, a connecting slot in the basement of the unit corresponding to the connecting ledge, and also a protruding section and a section of the slot arranged on the front and rear surfaces of the unit. At the same it is equipped with an auxiliary unit having the same shape as the heat insulation unit, which is cut as "L" on a segment of the upper section of its one surface, and has a ledge of cylindrical shape on the upper section of the cut element, and is joined to one side of the heat insulation unit. Also versions of the units are described.
EFFECT: development of units that make it possible to complete treatment of building walls by attachment of a finishing material to a unit, reduction of costs, simplified process of unit formation.
13 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block comprises a decorative layer, a central layer arranged between an inner and outer structural layers made of ceramsite-concrete mix. The mix to make the central layer contains the following components, per 1 m3 of the mix: ceramsite gravel of 8÷22 mm fraction with apparent density of 350÷450 kg/m3 in volume of 1 m3; portland cement 130÷440 kg, polyvinyl acetate glue in volume of 1.3÷4.7 l, water in volume of 115÷125 l. The method is characterised to manufacture the multilayer building block.
EFFECT: increased strength of the block and simplified method of its manufacturing.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare mix for cellular silicate building elements includes mixing of jointly ground lime and siliceous components with water and heat insulation glass foam or ground soundproof glass foam or mixture of these glass foams in any ratio, glass foam having been previously impregnated with lime suspension to saturation, containing 10 wt % of solid substance Ca(OH)2 and 0.5 - 7.0 wt % of hydroxide of univalent alkaline metal, ground to grain size of 3.0…30.0 mm, addition of aluminium powder. Building element in the form of tile or blocks or wall panels on the basis of silicate aerated concrete of autoclave hardening is produced from mixture prepared by method specified above is moulded in the form of an element, and has been through hydrothermal treatment in autoclave.
EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical facilities to produce strengthened building elements with high heat and sound conductivity from silicate aerated concrete of autoclave hardening.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: building hostblock includes plastic shell, shape of which makes it possible to fully fill three-dimensional space, and filler, which tightly fills the shell. Walls of the latter are arranged with ledges and slots to connect to adjacent units when erecting structures, crosswise in the form of crosses connected to each other along axis of block and arranged symmetrically to faces of bed. Plastic shell with thickness of 0.2-0.6 mm with ledges on upper bed and slots on lower bed makes it possible to form coupling of angular joints and with rigidity that preserves block alignment after introduction of filler by increasing thickness of shell from edges of side planes of shell to their centres. It is made by +250°C heating of plastic stock from preform of 50 g and blowing under pressure of 15 atmospheres (1.5 MPa) into die mould in the form of book allowing misalignment of two joining parts of die mould 0.1 mm, providing for tightness by hand tool of assembler without application of fastening material of block walls as a result of two ledges and slots for connection, accuracy of geometric dimensions of block, thickness of shell, fluidity of plastic.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of assemblers and reduced material intensity.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: panels comprise base material and surface material, at the same time surface material is not attached to front surface of base material, but is fixed only to edge section of back surface of base material. However, surface material covers front surface of base material and edge section of back surface of base material. At the same time base material comprises structure with noise-suppression grooves, which are open on front surface of base material and have diametre from 1 to 20 mm, interval from 10 to 50 mm and depth from 15 to 30 mm. Method for manufacturing of panel for internal walls includes the following stages. At first base material is provided with structure with noise-suppression grooves, which are open on front surface of base material and have diametre from 1 to 20 mm, interval from 10 to 50 mm and depth from 15 to 30 mm. Then base material is bent. Afterwards surface material is attached and fixed to one side of edge section of back surface of bent base material, and front surface of base material is covered with surface material, simultaneously providing for tension of surface material, and finally surface material is fixed to other side of edge section of back surface of base material.
EFFECT: higher noise suppression.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: block with adiabatic gap includes the first gap for the mortar arranged on the upper side of the block along it between the upper edges; the second gap for the mortar arranged at least at one vertical lateral side of the block along it. The gap for the mortar and pin arranged in the second gap for the mortar, which starts from the upper corner edge of the second gap for the mortar and is extended towards the lower edge of the second gap for the mortar, and which is arranged so that it is possible to insert a spray tube of a polyurethane gun in it. The gap for the pin body arranged at the section near the crossing of the first gap for the mortar and the gap for the mortar and the pin, which is intended to locate the body of the connection pin inserted into the gap for the mortar and pin.
EFFECT: reduced prime cost of construction.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building members, particularly building stones.
SUBSTANCE: building stone includes membrane walls with heat-reflecting screen and microscopic venting orifices and member sealing air slot along perimeter. Building stone is composed of regularly alternating caps connected one to another with cement mortar. Each cap is made as membrane wall with single-sided framing member extending along periphery thereof. Framing member is stamped as a single whole with membrane wall. Joining surface of framing member end is parallel to membrane wall plane. Building stone end with opened slot is closed with membrane wall formed without framing member. Membrane wall is of 10-30 mm thickness, framing member width is 12-30 mm.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.
EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly retainer form to erect walls of cast-in-place frame residential or industrial building.
SUBSTANCE: retained form set comprises outer and inner blocks formed of thermoplastic composite material and plate-like bridges to connect outer and inner blocks one to another. Each outer and inner block has vertical dovetail extension formed on one end surface and mating dovetail groove created in another end surface thereof. Facing surfaces of outer and inner blocks are provided with vertical rows of dovetail grooves and extensions extending for the full block height. Inner surface of each inner and outer block has cavities opened from tops thereof and defined by inner and outer side walls correspondingly. Cavities have depths equal to at least plate-like bridge thickness. The plate-like bridges have orifices for receiving vertical extension created from cavity side. Extension height exceeds cavity depth. Opposite, lower, surface of each block is provided with blind holes coaxial to above orifices. Blind holes have depths exceeding extension heights. Longitudinal facets are formed on outer block faces arranged in upper block parts. Longitudinal extension is created in lower block parts and adapted to enclose joint plane by another, lower, block. Building wall erection method with the use of above retained form set is also disclosed.
EFFECT: possibility to erect wall of any texture, color and finishing.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for well wall erection with the use of retained form during residential and public building construction.
SUBSTANCE: concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Through orifice is made in bed. Orifice length in longitudinal stone direction exceeds double thickness of header wall. Opposite header faces are provided with through grooves or openings. In accordance with the second embodiment the concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Two or more through orifices are made in bed and transversal diaphragms are arranged in inner hole between the orifices. Opposite header faces and diaphragms are provided with through grooves or openings.
EFFECT: increased reliability, strength and integrality of bond between retained form and hardened concrete.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly building units used for building wall erection.
SUBSTANCE: building unit is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with length/width ratio of 1:2 and comprises stretcher, header and bed faces. Upper face is provided with rectangular extensions, lower face is provided with corresponding depressions. Lock connection members, namely dovetail extensions and dovetail depressions are formed on the faces. Mechanical solid concrete or polymeric concrete coating is created on front face. Dovetail depressions similar to that of the lock connection members are created on inner face. Some units have decorative coating formed on one face and on front face of each unit. Two steel L-shaped anchors are built in the unit.
EFFECT: increased assemblage simplicity and quality, reduced time of building envelope assemblage, reduced binding agent consumption, increased heat insulation properties of building envelope, increased building appearance and extended range of technological capabilities.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of hollow block filling.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building blocks adapted to erect walls of low buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: building block comprises engagement means and is made as monolithic body having cavity opened into block surface. The engagement body is made as tubular member. Central part of tubular member has length enough for tubular member grasping by user's hand or by engagement means of vehicle. The tubular member passes through above cavity and is parallel to block base. Remainder part of tubular member is built in block body, tubular member ends passes through one side surfaces of the block and are closed. Tubular member is made of transparent material and filled with liquid containing air bubble submersed in liquid. Tubular member may be filled with non-freezable liquid and surface thereof may be provided with marks. Tubular member ends passing through side surface may have nipples.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with simplified production.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.
SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.
17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to erect wall frames and inner walls, door assemblies, suspended ceilings, grids, fences and so on.
SUBSTANCE: building block is formed of wood and is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with tie members made as projections and grooves. Projections and grooves are created in edges to be connected. Side edges of the block are provided with alternating ridges and valleys. Ridge height hr is 0.5-1.5 mm. Block width bb is greater than groove width bg by 0.3-1.7 mm. Ridges and valleys may be parallel to longitudinal block axis, transversal to longitudinal block axis or extend at an angle thereto. Ridge may have triangular or trapezoid cross-section.
EFFECT: possibility to compensate inaccuracies of modular wooden building block fabrication.
7 cl, 6 dwg