SUBSTANCE: aseismic pile comprises a cylindrical fabricated structure made of reinforced concrete placed into a sand concrete hollow reinforced cylinder, on the bottom of which there is granite sand, with a layer of around one metre. The space between the reinforced cylindrical structure and the sand concrete reinforced cylinder is filled with sand for the height of the hollow cylinder.
EFFECT: invention provides for foundation reliability, reinforcement, preventing building damage in case of considerable earth oscillations under seismically dangerous conditions, lower material intensity.
The present invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to devices used to strengthen the Foundation of buildings and structures, to prevent their destruction, in seismically hazardous regions.
Known for bored pile, made of concrete and metal, which is obtained by drilling a well to a considerable depth to bedrock (1-2).
The disadvantage of this pile is its small footprint, and in consequence, it is not a reliable building with tremors, since the displacements at the base of the buildings having the reaction, able to destroy the pile and pull out from the base.
In addition, this type of piles requires special expenses as in their manufacture uses a significant amount of concrete and metal.
Known floating pile representing a design in the form of poccoobraznuu frame using metal wedges, not fortified at a certain depth, which is like a "floating support" of the building, which takes the pressure holds the Foundation, preventing its destruction (3-4).
Production and installation of this design is a costly and complicated installation procedure takes a significant amount of metal required for of the otopleniya metal frame in the form of wedges.
With tremors use of floating piles does not exclude the possibility of the "extraction"as such constructions are never fixed, therefore, in its form and characteristics of these settings may not be a reliable means of strengthening the Foundation of the building.
The task of the invention is to strengthen the Foundation of high-rise buildings, public buildings, large volume and low-rise constructions complex objects for military purposes, using the proposed design will prevent the destruction of buildings even when significant fluctuations of the earth in seismically dangerous areas.
The problem is solved by creating seismic piles, consisting of reinforced concrete structures installed on a sand cushion.
Seismic pile shown in the drawing, where the positions indicated:
1 - reinforced concrete cylindrical structure;
2 - well;
3 - peskobetonnuyu reinforced hollow cylinder;
4 - granite sand.
Seismic pile consists of a reinforced concrete cylindrical structure (1), installed in peskobetonnuyu reinforced hollow cylinder (3), the bottom of which is filled granite sand (4).
Further, the technology of manufacturing and installation of seismic isolation piles is as follows.
Original is Ino drill hole (2) with a diameter of 1.8 m to 2 m, a depth of 10 to 12 meters of the Bottom and walls of the wells (2) are reinforced knitted armatures in the borehole (2) is installed casing cavity between the drilled bore (2) and casing rough concrete under pressure sand blasting machine sand-cement mass, the thickness of the walls of the borehole by convenience. Casing pipe is removed.
The result is peskobetonnuyu reinforced hollow cylinder (3). At the bottom of the obtained cylinder (3) poured granite sand (GOST 8736-93) (4) the layer height from 800 to 1000 mm (by calculation).
In peskobetonnuyu reinforced hollow cylinder (3) on the educated "sandy" install reinforced concrete cylindrical structure (1) with a gap of 200 mm, made in the factory, made of reinforced concrete with spectability, increasing brand and giprostoymost concrete. Empty cavity (gap) between the received pescarmona reinforced hollow cylinder (3) and the reinforced concrete structure (1) are filled granite sand (GOST 8736-93) (4) to the height of the hollow cylinder.
The proposed seismic pile helps to strengthen the Foundation to prevent the destruction of buildings even when significant fluctuations of the earth in seismically hazardous conditions.
Sand is an ideal material that gives the zero draft of the building. In the case of a tremor due to the special structure of seismic isolation is Vai and properties of granite sand, which has a compression strength of more than 40 MPa, frost resistance (up to F200), permeability (up to W-4), resistance to abrasion and aggressive environments, the proposed design will act as a giant shock absorber, the earth's vibrations will put out the Foundation of the building and the possibility of the damage will be minimized.
The estimated depth at which the drilling piles, designed to cut the piles when push 8-9 points on the Richter scale, from 10÷12 m (at underground impetus there is a high probability cutoff piles installed below).
Installation of seismic isolation piles is to optimally safe depth, which implies significant savings, because there is no need of drilling wells to a greater depth (the base of the cone piles can be increased by calculation to the required diameter).
Application of the proposed seismic piles do not require additional costs, as the maximum level of security of the building is achieved through the use of a much smaller number of piles in comparison with the most commonly used pile.
Application of the proposed seismic piles to strengthen the Foundation of buildings, mostly high-rise, is the most optimal, as in the case of tremor concrete structure will perform kachikatsky the absorber, preventing the destruction of the building and minimizing the devastating effects.
Given the minimum level of costs in the manufacturing and installation, reliability and a clear advantage over other types of piles, the use of this pile in seismically hazardous regions is the most important.
Sources of information
1. SNiP 2.02.03-85 "Pile foundations".
2. SNiP 11-7-81 "Construction in seismic regions". - Part II, chap 7.
3. Handbook on seismic mikroraionirovanii. Ed. Overawe. M.: Nauka, 1988.
4. JV 50-101-2004. "Design and construction of bases and foundations of buildings and structures".
Seismic pile, comprising a cylindrical design, manufactured in the factory and are made of reinforced concrete, placed in peskobetonnuyu reinforced hollow cylinder, the bottom of which is filled granite sand layer about one metre, and the space between the reinforced concrete cylindrical structure and pescarmona reinforced cylinder is filled with sand to a height of the hollow cylinder.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction and may be used to erect piled foundations in weak and heaving soilds. Application of the device is especially efficient to erect cast-in-place piles for light wooden, frame buildings, transmitting small loads to foundations and exposed to deformations from seasonal freezing of heaving soils. The device comprises a casing pipe, a core arranged in the form of a pipe, closed with plates at the upper and lower sides, besides, chains are attached to the lower plate. Chains are placed into a tight shell made of waste materials (plastic, cardboard, veneer, etc.). In the upper and lower plates there are holes, through which a reinforcement rod stretches, which also passes via a shell with chains. In the lower part of the shell the reinforcement rod is fixed with an orifice, and in the upper part - with a nut. Between the casing pipe and the well wall there is an anti-heaving material (bitumen mastic, organosilicon compounds, polymer films, sarking, sand and gravel mix).
EFFECT: device makes it possible to increase the bearing capacity of a pile and prevents exposure of building and structure foundations to soil heaving forces.
SUBSTANCE: shell pipe is made of hollow metal or reinforced concrete cylinders joined by means of electric welding or bolt joints. In order to increase bearing capacity and improve process capabilities, there is a diaphragm installed into inner cavity of pile, providing for formation of compacted zone of soil under spike, controlling depth of its submersion and specified bearing capacity. Diaphragm is made in the form of truncated cone oriented towards pile head and with hole in its upper part.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity, reduction in material consumption and labour costs.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to pile design. Reinforced concrete driven pile of circular section contains sharpened bottom end having shape of rotation paraboloid truncated in focal plane, lower to truncation plane, paraboloid changes into spherical belt, at the very end spherical belt transits into cone. Formula provides the second version of reinforced concrete driven pile making.
EFFECT: improved shape of pile tip, with the purpose of more complete usage of impact or vibration energy and reduction of time needed for pile submersion in ground.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular, to technical facilities for erection of pile foundation erected from bored piles. Lost cap for erection of bored pile in the form of cone-shaped body is made of two parts, upper part of which represents truncated cone, and lower part is formed by bearing rod fixed in cantilever manner from the side of lower base along its symmetry axis with rippers in the form of radially installed plates.
EFFECT: reduction of head resistance and easier intrusion of guide tube in earth.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect foundation bases in permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: method for tubular pile driving in permafrost ground involves drilling hole; installing pile in the hole and leaving it as it is inside the hole up to thermal permafrost ground regime recovery. To install pile in the ground inventive insert having diameter smaller than hole diameter in lowered in hole along central hole axis. Space between the insert and hole wall is filled with loose ground. Then the pile having inner diameter practically equal to outer diameter of the insert and opened lower end is driven in the loose ground. After that the insert is removed from hole. Other variants of pile driving are also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased building and assembly job efficiency due to decreased time of pile freezing in permafrost ground and improved load-bearing capacity of piles.
11 cl, 8 ex, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly foundation and retaining wall erection with the use of injection piles.
SUBSTANCE: injection pile comprises concrete shaft formed directly in well and comprising reinforcing cage made as metal injection pipe lowered in well to refusal and spaced from well wall. The injection pipe is provided with lower perforated section having side injection orifices arranged in several layers beginning from lower injection pipe end. Well diameter is not more than 3d, where d is outer injection pipe diameter. Perforated section length is more than 3d, but less than L and is equal to (0.2-0.7)L, where L is well depth. Retaining wall is built on pile foundation comprising injection piles. The retaining wall includes reinforcing cage made as metal pipe having upper part used as head. The retaining wall is composed of concrete blocks laid in several rows one upon another. Blocks of lower row form retaining wall base. At least upper block installed on lower one has through orifice, which is vertically aligned with mounting orifice formed in lower block. Common cavity defined by above orifices is reinforced and concreted.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced cost of pile foundation and retaining wall construction.
21 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to create bored piles in cased wells during building and building structure foundation erection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating ground surrounding place of pile erection and heating concrete mix with induction heater. The concrete mix is vibratory treated in pulsed mode at the beginning of heating operation by applying electromagnetic field generated by induction heater to metal reinforcement bars, wherein high-frequency current of induction heater is subjected to low-frequency modulation. At concrete mix setting beginning the pulsed mode is changed into high-voltage one. Device for above method realization comprises induction heater comprising steel pipe put on asbestos-cement pile casing pipe and winding made of copper coiled bus linked with high-frequency power source. The winding is connected to metal pipe. Diametrical longitudinal orifices are made in the steel pipe. The power source comprises circuit providing high-frequency current modulation with low frequency.
EFFECT: possibility of simultaneous heat and vibration application to concrete mix, reduced cost of the device along with reduced number of working tools, simplified control, provision of concrete shrinkage and compaction under heating, which is performed by single device.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect cast-in-place pile having large diameter in collapsible ground layer of large thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling pilot hole; installing casing pipe connected to puncher; punching the well ground by dropping load on the puncher through casing pipe to reach design point and enlarging the casing pipe; arranging reinforcement case in the pipe; filling the well with concrete mix as casing pipe moves upward; compacting the concrete mix. In the case of pile with 300-1500 mm diameter forming and in the case of collapsible ground layer thickness up to 18 m or 18-50 m ratio between pilot hole depth and collapsible ground thickness is 1:(4.5-6) and 1:(1.5-5). The puncher has reinforced concrete tip and head made of tube with outer diameter equal to inner diameter of pilot hole. Welded to the head are centering rings. The tip has ring to engage thereof with technological control rod provided with thread, washer with retainers and nut on opposite end thereof. Ratio of height H of upper head part provided with centering rings to length of casing pipe to be installed in the head is 1:(20-30). Ratio between outer puncher diameter D and outer diameter d at tapered part ℓ thereof is equal to 1:0.8. Length ratio between cylindrical head part L and cylindrical tapered part ℓ is equal to 1:0.6. Angles γ of head and head transition area leading to tapered part ℓ are equal to 30°. Difference between outer puncher diameter D to outer casing pipe T diameter is 90-100 mm.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and decreased material consumption.
FIELD: foundation building.
SUBSTANCE: pile has body made as shell filled with concrete and formed as members having trough-shaped cross-sections and extending in longitudinal direction. Members have side walls abutting the central wall and extending at obtuse angles from it. The shell has frame. Central walls of frame members are of ellipsoid shape and filled with concrete.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and reliability.
FIELD: building, particularly pile foundation erection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling hole; installing injection pipe in the hole bottom center; installing reinforcement case; injecting cement-and-sand grout through the injection pipe below lower pile end for ground compaction and widened part arrangement; concreting the pile. To create widened part of the pile and to compact ground after concrete hardening cement-and-sand grout is fed under pressure into sealed bag formed of elastic water impermeable material and connected to lower end of ejection pipe so that cement-and-sand grout expands the bag up to reaching necessary bag volume.
EFFECT: increased economy of pile forming, increased ability of clay ground compaction at pile base.
4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: earthquake-proof pipe comprises a reinforced concrete structure. It comprises a cone-shaped base with a galvanised shell from sheet steel, is placed into a sand-concrete reinforced cylinder with a cone-shaped end, on the bottom of which there is granite sand, with a layer of around one metre. The space between a reinforced concrete pile and side parts of the cone-shaped shell are filled with sand for the height of the hollow cylinder.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable foundation, strengthening of a foundation preventing building damage during significant ground vibrations in seismically dangerous conditions, lower material intensity.
SUBSTANCE: quakeproof support of a building comprises a pile, support links and movable links, damping elements, fixing elements. The pile is made as formed, telescopic and hollow from inside, links and damping elements arranged inside the pile may move relative to each other and relative to the pile body in vertical and horizontal planes at the invariable vertical and horizontal position of the central support link - a plunger, which is rigidly connected to the building foundation, resting against quakeproof supports that are arranged along the foundation perimetre and under the building foundation bottom. In the formed telescopic pile at its end part there are two cylindrical seats of different diametre and different depth. At the bottom of the upper seat there is a polymer antifriction coating of circular shape in plan, on top of which there is a set of horizontally damping elements made of pressed wire spirals that are tightly pressed to each other in circumferential, radial and vertical directions, the external edge of which is provided along the circumference, the diametre of which is equal to the diametre of the upper seat, and the inner edge of which is also made along the circumference. Inside this set of horizontally damping elements there is a support movable sleeve tightly installed and resting against the polymer antifriction coating. At the bottom of the support sleeve there is a through cylindrical hole, inside the support sleeve there is a set of vertically damping elements made of pressed wire spirals that are tightly pressed to each other in circumferential, radial and vertical directions and tightly pressed to the bottom of the support sleeve, the external edge of which is provided along the circumference, the diametre of which is equal to the inner diametre of the sleeve, and the inner edge of which is made along the circumference. Inside this set there is a support plunger tightly installed, being rigidly connected to the building foundation, in the upper end part of the support plunger there is a dead seat, where an orifice is installed, being rigidly connected to the support elements of the building foundation. On the upper end part of the support sleeve there is a sealing sleeve tightly installed with seals, creating a cavity between surfaces of the support plunger and vertically damping elements. At the end surface of the telescopic pile there is a limiting circular orifice, and at the external cylindrical surface of the telescopic pile there are fixing ribs of channel-like shape rigidly installed with an even pitch along the circumference.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of the device by increasing its damping properties in the vertical and horizontal planes, increased strength and durability.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pendulum sliding support (1) is designed to separate soil (2) of the base from a structure (3), for instance, in case of base soil (2) movements caused by an earthquake or as an alternative for traditional deformed supports. The support (1) comprises the first support sliding plate (5) with the first concave sliding surface (5'), a support block (4), being in a sliding contact with the first surface (5'), and also the second support plate (6) with the second concave surface (6'), which contacts with the support block (4). The first sliding surface (5') provides at least in one position a stable position of the support block (4) balance, in which it returns independently after deviation caused by exposure to external forces. Antifriction material (9a, 9b) contains plastic with elastic-plastic compensating properties and with low friction coefficient, at the same time plastic has compensating properties, which make it possible to compensate for deviation of 0.5 mm from the specified plane of the specified sliding surface (5').
EFFECT: increased durability, strength and provision of most accurate return of a sliding element into balance position.
33 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: quakeproof building includes upper floors, a support board with slots, a foundation and intermediate elements. The foundation is arranged as a platform that is made of upper and lower boards with cavities, inside of which there are intermediate elements of a ball-like shape. The boards are installed relative to each other with a gap, and cavities have parallel horizontal surfaces in transverse and longitudinal directions with half-spheric ends. Shock absorbers are installed between a support board and a platform. Upper floors of the building are equipped with guy cables fixed in vertical supports, where ceilings are based, and the upper foundation slab is equipped with ledges arranged coaxially with the support board slots.
EFFECT: increased reliability and earthquake resistance of the building in case of considerable seismic exposure and reduction of material intensity and labour intensiveness of its erection.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: support of quakeproof structure comprises support parts, one of which is arranged with the possibility of fixation on a support board of a structure, and the other one - on a foundation, besides, support parts are connected to each other by means of a pendular traction rod. Each support part comprises a crossbar, where stands are fixed, free ends of which are arranged with the possibility of fixation on the support board of the structure or on the foundation, besides, each crossbar is located between the stands of the other specified support part. In the central part of the crossbar there is a hole, through which a pendular traction rod is pulled, being a double cardan Hooke joint. Outputs of the latter are hingedly connected each to an appropriate crossbar, with the possibility of rotation relative to the vertical axis.
EFFECT: higher technical and operational characteristics of a support with minimisation of horizontal loading of a protected structure.
9 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aseismic pad comprises the lower and upper parts in the form of stiff frames and an intermediate element, in the form of a flexible suspension. The flexible suspension is arranged with a piston, which is installed in the chamber with an elastic element and is configured so that the lower part of the pad with the foundation move during an earthquake relative to the upper part of the support, ensuring building protection against horizontal and vertical seismic impacts.
EFFECT: increased seismic stability of buildings and efficiency of capital investments in seismic areas, provision of seismic protection against horizontal and vertical seismic impacts simultaneously.
SUBSTANCE: building structure for protection of objects of civil and industrial construction against damage in case of sliding in unstable soils comprises horizontal and vertical parts of structure, connected to each other. Horizontal parts of structure are arranged by method of horizontal directional drilling in stable soils and are filled with concrete reinforced with metal frame, limiting sliding area and joined to each other by means of external sections of building structure through vertical wells filled with concrete reinforced with metal frame, to form a spacer grid.
EFFECT: increased reliability of construction and integrity of objects in unstable soils.
SUBSTANCE: seismic insulator of buildings consists of foundation. Foundation is arranged in the form of reinforced concrete board with sides, where grooves are provided for bearing structures of building, filled with granite sand by height of one metre.
EFFECT: reliable safety of structures, reduced material intensity, improved reliability of structure.
SUBSTANCE: in pit of appropriate depth, fragment of foundation and elements of seismic insulation made of loose materials are arranged, comprising seismic-insulation cushion under foundation and filling of pit pockets. Limit values of foundation vibration speed amplitudes, specified in process of design and permissible by conditions of its strength preservation, are determined. Explosion parametres are designed to obtain average amplitudes of foundation vibration speeds at the level equal to the limit values, for this purpose the expression VL=Vxyz=11.776X is used, with R2=0.815, where VL is vector speed of vibrations of average amplitudes of components (x,y,z) (Vxyz) of speeds transmitted by foundation soil through a layer of loose material of foundation, - reduced mass of charge, kg, R2 - coefficient of pairwise correlation, r - distance from explosion epicentre to the area of vibrations registration, m, h - depth of charge centre in well, m, QΣst - mass of charge in stage of explosion, kg, Knpc - coefficient that takes into account geological and relief conditions, varies from 1.0 to 3.0. On completion of explosive works, level of seismic action suppression is assessed, and if value of this characteristic is less than 2.7 points, thickness of cushion is increased, and/or composition of its material is chosen. Trials are repeated until amplitudes of foundation vibration speeds comply with conditions of its strength preservation.
EFFECT: improved reliability of building, structure seismic protection with reduction of capital and operational costs.
SUBSTANCE: seismic-insulating foundation consists of lower and upper parts and intermediate element, in the form of chamber filled with balls in viscous oil medium. Chamber is arranged with valves, which make it possible for the lower part of foundation and connected lower surface of chamber during earthquake to move both horizontally and vertically relative to upper part of chamber and connected upper part of foundation, providing for simultaneous protection of the building against horizontal and vertical seismic shocks.
EFFECT: improved seismic resistance of buildings and reduction of material intensity.
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting pile-plate foundations for industrial buildings and structures, for instance for main buildings of heat power plants.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging drilled cast-in-place pile, grouting plate grillage and installing antivibration mounts. Anchorage reinforcement is placed in pile heads and arranged along marked building axes. Anchorage reinforcement is then grouted and resilient antivibration mounts are installed at pile heads. Resilient antivibration mounts are fixed in plane on anchorage reinforcement with the use of fasteners so that antivibration mounts may perform restricted movement. Installed on antivibration mounts is rigid metal foundation frame of upper building in which anchoring reinforcement for securing skeleton of building to be erected is installed. Reinforcement rods and supply lines are inserted in process orifices formed in foundation frame beams and frame is grouted to form panel grillage.
EFFECT: reduced work content, increased simplicity and speed of bearing grillage frame erection; improved building stability.
9 cl, 5 dwg