Method of obtaining thin-film copper-germanium joint

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining a thin-film copper-germanium joint involves successive deposition of Ge and Cu layers on the surface of a plate and forming a thin-film copper-germanium joint which is carried out over a time t≥0.5 minutes in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at temperature T=20-120°C and hydrogen atom flux density on the surface of the plate equal to 1013-1016 at.cm-2 s-1.

EFFECT: lower temperature and shorter time for obtaining a thin-film copper-germanium joint.

7 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technology of microelectronics, in particular to a technology for thin film metal compounds, in particular to the creation of the barrier metallization contacts, metallization level and inter-element wiring and the metallization of the back side of the plates.

Thin-film copper-germanium compounds, in particular, Cu3Ge have low layer resistance commensurate with the resistance of the copper film, in addition, in contrast to copper, have a high resistance to oxidation in air, and low chemical and diffusion activity.

A method of obtaining a semiconductor device (US patent No. 3765956, IPC SW 21/02, publ. 16.11.1973,), in which the metallization is used as a compound of copper with germanium obtained through the melting of raw materials.

The disadvantage of this method is that the formation of copper-germanium compounds produced through the liquid phase, which significantly narrows the scope of application of the method. In addition, the resulting compound does not have a stoichiometric composition Cu3Ge and, therefore, does not have the lowest layer resistance.

A method of obtaining a thin-film copper-germanium compounds Cu3Ge (US patent No. 5330592, IPC SS 1/00, publ. 19.07. 1994), in which the surface of the semiconductor ü plate methods magnetron sputtering, electron beam evaporation or thermal evaporation in vacuum to produce the sequential deposition of layers of Ge, then Au or Ga, or a mixture of Au and Ga, and then a layer of Cu. Thus the total thickness of the layers is in the range of 150-200 nm, and the concentration content of Au or Ga, or a mixture of Au and Ga in layers is in the range from 1%to 15%. Then the plate is cast heat-treated at a temperature of T=150-500°C for t=15-180 minutes

The disadvantage of this method is the use of high temperatures and prolonged heat treatment.

A method of obtaining a thin-film copper-germanium connection (patent EP 472804 B1, IPC H01L 21/3205, publ. 30.07.1997,), essentially the most close to the proposed technical solution chosen for the prototype. How is that on the plate surface produce sequential deposition of layers of Ge and Cu at room temperature. Then the plate is subjected to heat treatment at a temperature of T=150-200°C for t=20-30 minutes. As a result of such processing on the surface of the plate is formed a layer of copper-germanium compounds Cu3Ge, having a low value layer resistance.

The disadvantages of this method include the need to perform processing at a high temperature for a long period of time that does not allow you to use ways is in the manufacture of semiconductor devices and monolithic integrated circuits by the method of inverse lithography.

The main technical objective of the proposed method is to reduce the temperature and time of receiving the thin-film copper-germanium compounds.

This object is achieved in that in a method of producing thin-film copper-germanium compounds, comprising the sequential deposition of layers of Ge and Cu on the surface of the plate and forming a thin-film copper-germanium compounds according to the proposed solution, the formation of thin-film copper-germanium compounds can be performed during time t≥0.5 minutes, in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a temperature of T=20-120°C, and the flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate equal to 1013-1016ATM-2with-1.

In the particular case, the formation of thin-film copper-germanium compounds in the atmosphere of atomic hydrogen is produced in a single vacuum cycle sequential deposition of layers of Ge and Cu.

In the particular case, the plate is made on the basis of GaAs or on the basis of epitaxial GaAs heterostructures with n-layers on the surface.

In the particular case, on the surface of the plate is pre-formed layers and/or topological elements.

In the particular case, on the surface of the plate pre-form the resistive mask.

In the particular case, on the plate surface precipitate of at least the e two alternating layers of Ge and Cu with a thickness, specifies the Ge concentration in the Cu equal to 15-40%.

In the particular case, impose additional Au and/or Ga content concentration equal to 1-15%.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the level of technology has allowed to establish that the analogs are characterized by the sets of characteristics is identical for all features of the proposed method are missing.

Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the invention has shown that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art.

Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known effect provided essential features of the invention transformations on the achievement of the technical result. Therefore, the invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".

Figure 1 shows the electron microscopic picture of the surface of the GaAs plate with unformed thin-film copper-germanium compound; figure 2 - the surface of the GaAs plate formed with thin-film copper-germanium compound, obtained according to the method prototype; figure 3 - the surface of the GaAs plate formed with thin-film copper-germanium compound, obtained according to the claimed method./p>

4 shows electron microscopic picture of the cross section of the GaAs plate with unformed thin-film copper-germanium compound; figure 5 - cross section of the GaAs plate formed with thin-film copper-germanium compound, obtained according to the method prototype; figure 6 - cross section of the GaAs plate formed with thin-film copper-germanium compound, obtained according to the claimed method.

Implementation of the proposed method using a wafer of GaAs is as follows. The plate surface is cleaned in an aqueous solution of H2SO4or HCl with subsequent rinsing in deionized water and drying. Then using methods of electron-beam and/or thermal evaporation in vacuum at a residual pressure of less than 5×10-6Torr on the surface of the plate to produce the deposition of layers of Ge and Cu total thickness of 100-500 nm with the concentration of the germanium concentration equal to 15-40%. Then the plate was processed in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a temperature of T=20-120°C and flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate equal to 1013-1016ATM-2with-1during time t≥0.5 minutes.

The minimum value of the flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate equal to 1013ATM-2with-1that ass is t a maximum duration of technological processes. At the lowest flux density of atoms on the surface of the plate, the time required for the processes of interaction of copper and Germany becomes unacceptable.

The minimum temperature of formation of the thin-film copper-germanium compounds are asking typical value at room temperature. Using temperature less than 20°C is possible only with use of special devices to reduce the temperature of the plate that is not economically feasible.

The maximum value of the temperature of formation of copper-germanium compounds represent the maximum temperature that can withstand resistive mask for the formation of images of topological elements created devices and monolithic integrated circuits.

The maximum value of the flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate equal to 1016ATM-2with-1determine the limits of the technical possibilities available sources of atomic hydrogen.

The minimum time of forming the thin-film copper-germanium compounds in atomic hydrogen is determined by the time at which reach the result.

Example

The example demonstrates the technical result, which reach the proposed method relative to the prototype method.

In the experiment the x used a GaAs wafer. Before deposition of the metallization to clean the surface and remove native oxides of arsenic and gallium the GaAs wafer was treated with in aqueous HCl (1:10) for 3 minutes and then washed in deionized water and dried in a stream of nitrogen. Next, the GaAs wafer was divided into two parts and placed in a vacuum chamber for the deposition of thin films. On both parts of the wafer by electron beam evaporation in vacuum successively besieged Ge layers with a thickness of 78 nm, and Cu with a thickness of 122 nm. The residual pressure of the atmosphere was 4×10-6Torr. After deposition, by analogy with the method of the prototype, the first part of the GaAs plate was subjected to heat treatment in vacuum at a temperature of T=150°C, for t=30 minutes, and the second part of the plate was subjected to processing in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a pressure of molecular hydrogen p=10-4Torr and flux density of the hydrogen atoms of 1015ATM2with-1during t=5 minutes at a temperature of T=22°C. Then both plates GaAs was removed from the vacuum chamber and examined using scanning electron microscopy.

From electron microscopic images in figure 1-6, it is seen that the plate surface of Cu/Ge/GaAs after deposition is small, undeveloped terrain (figure 1). The surface of the wafer after forming the thin-film copper-germanium compounds, the scientists in the method prototype (figure 2) and the proposed method (figure 3), have developed terrain with the same morphology. Change the relief of the plates, with the formed thin-film copper-germanium compounds obtained in the method prototype and the proposed method relative to the plate with unformed thin-film copper-germanium compound is caused by the occurrence of solid-phase reactions between layers of Cu and Ge during the process of forming the connection.

Microscopic examination of the cross-section of the plate Cu/Ge/GaAs after deposition (figure 4) and plates formed with thin-film copper-germanium compounds obtained in the method prototype (figure 5) and the proposed method (6), showed that in both cases, as under the influence of heat treatment and under the influence of atomic hydrogen is full interaction of layers of Cu and Ge, leading to the formation of thin-film copper-germanium compounds with vertically oriented grains. When forming the thin-film copper-germanium compounds according to the present method, unlike the prototype method, occurs at room temperature and for less time.

1. A method of obtaining a thin-film copper-germanium compounds, comprising the sequential deposition of layers of Ge and Cu on the surface of the plate and forming a thin-film honey is about-germanium compounds characterized in that the formation of thin-film copper-germanium compounds can be performed during time t≥0.5 min in an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen at a temperature of T=20-120°C and flux density of hydrogen atoms on the surface of the plate equal to 1013-1016ATM-2c-1.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the formation of thin-film copper-germanium compounds in the atmosphere of atomic hydrogen is produced in a single vacuum cycle sequential deposition of layers of Ge and Cu.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plate is made on the basis of GaAs or on the basis of epitaxial GaAs heterostructures with n layers on the surface.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that on the surface of the plate is pre-formed layers and/or topological elements.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that on the surface plate pre-form the resistive mask.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plate surface is precipitated at least two alternating layers of Ge and Cu with a thickness that specifies the Ge concentration in the Cu equal to 15-40%.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that it further impose the AI and/or Ga content concentration equal to 1-15%.



 

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