Mechanical adhesion of floor panels by vertical stacking

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: floor panels are equipped with a mechanical lock system on long and short faces, making it possible to assemble with the help of vertical stacking, besides, the lock system of a long face prevents disconnection of short faces in process of stacking.

EFFECT: elimination of gaps between floor panels during their assembly.

5 cl, 27 dwg

 

The invention relates, in General, to the floor panel with mechanical locking systems with flexible and shift-tab to facilitate their installation. The invention provides new and improved locking systems and methods of Assembly.

In particular, but not exclusively, the invention relates to a mechanical locking system for a rectangular floor panels with long and short edges. It should be emphasized that the long and short faces are used solely for reasons of simplification of the description. The panel may also be square. However, the invention is also applicable to the construction panels in General. More specifically, the invention relates to this type of mechanical locking systems, which allows you to seal all four sides of the panel with other panels one angular displacement, preferably containing a flexible or partially flexible and/or move the tongue and/or flexible sheet to facilitate the installation of building panels.

The floor panel of this type is presented in WO 2006/043893, where disclosed a floor panel with a locking system that contains the locking element cooperating with the locking groove for coupling in the horizontal direction, and a flexible tongue, which interacts with a groove for the tongue to lock the panel in the vertical direction. Flexible reed bends in g the horizontal plane during the connection of the floor panel and allows the installation of panels with vertical folding or only vertical movement. Under "vertical stacking" refers to the combination of three panels, in which the first and second panels are connected and only the turn of the new panel, called "collapsible panel", allows you to simultaneously attach two perpendicular faces of the new panel to the first and second panels. This connection takes place, for example, when the long side of the first panel in the first row is already attached to the long side of the second panel in the second row. Then a new collapsible panel attached with the angular displacement to the long side of the first panel in the first row. This particular type of rotation connecting the short side of the new folding panel and the second panel, called "vertical stacking". Short faces gradually added together and mesh from one side face to the other, like a pair of scissors when the panel cant, putting on a black floor. You can also connect two panels down the entire panel one only vertical movement relative to the other. This particular type of coupling is called "vertical grip". The rest of the series connected vertical folding. You can also collect the entire floor, adding a number of vertical folding. Then the whole number is attached to the previously installed the previous row with the angular displacement.

Analogically sex described in more detail in WO 20003/016654, where disclosed locking system, containing the tongue with flexible latch. The tongue continues and significantly bent in the vertical direction, and the tip of the latch cooperates with a groove for the tongue, providing a vertical grip.

Vertical grip and a vertical folding of this type create divisive pressure on the short sides, when the flexible tongue or flexible part of the tongue is displaced horizontally during the angular displacement of the long sides. The inventor has analyzed several types of floor panel and found that the short faces can be separated in the Assembly process and that between the edges of the short sides may be formed gap. This gap may prevent the further installation process, and the floor panels will not be able to connect. It can also cause serious damage to the locking system in the field of short edges. Pushing floorboards sideways, short faces, the installation process can prevent the formation of gap. This method of installation, however, is complex and difficult to use, as you need a combination of three simultaneous actions and their use together with the lowering of the long sides at an angle, as described below.

a) the Brink of a new floor panel must be brought into contact with the first panel lying on the floor, and a long edge of the new panel and must be pressed at an angle to the first panel.

b) a New panel must be shifted sideways, pressed and tilted position, and pressed in the lateral direction to the short face of the second panel, laying on the floor in order to prevent the back pressure of the tongue.

C) And finally, a new panel must be lowered to the floor, the pressure is directed forward and sideways, in the process lowering should remain unchanged.

It was found that the separation problems in the Assembly process often occur when the small thickness of the panels and small, compact locking systems on long faces, or when the base panel contains a material with a smooth surface, such as, for example, fibreboard, high density. Such problems can also occur when the panel is short or in connection with the installation of the first or last panel in each row, as it is usually done in relation to the panels, cut to a smaller length so that they fit in the space remaining to the wall. The problem of disconnection, of course, extremely difficult to be solved in relation to the panels of any type that use locking systems with durable flexible tongue, creating considerable horizontal separating pressure during vertical folding. These durable tabs are very important in many applications that require high-quality connection, but panels such flexible tabs are very difficult to determine by known methods in the Assembly.

The objective of the invention is to solve the problems associated with the occurrence of gaps in the floor that is installed with vertical folding or vertical grip.

In the following description, the visible surface of the installed floor panel is called the "front surface", while the opposite side panel of the floor, turned to the black floor, called the "rear surface". The line between the front and rear surface is called "suture line". Under the "horizontal plane" means a plane that is parallel to the outer part of the surface layer. Directly adjacent to each other, the upper parts of two adjacent seam edges of the joined panels together form a "vertical plane"perpendicular to the horizontal plane.

Under the "seam" or "locking" refers to interactive media connections connecting floor panels vertically and/or horizontally. Under "mechanical locking system" means that the connection can be made without glue. Mechanical locking systems in many cases can be combined with glue. The term "combined with..." should read, "made in one piece with the panel or attached to it in the factory".

The term "flexible tongue" is a separate tab, the length is and which is directed along the seam edges and which form part of the vertical locking systems and can be displaced, at least partially in a horizontal direction while the clutch. The tongue may, for example, be flexible in whole or can contain a flexible and elastic parts which bend in the coupled position or can elastically bend and bounce back to its original position.

Under the "angular displacement" refers to the connection that occurs when turning, which is the change in the relative angular position of two connectable or releasable parts. When the angular displacement refers to the connection of two panels, the change in angular position is at the upper parts of the seam faces at least partially in contact with each other, during the last part of the movement.

Under the "angular locking system" means a mechanical locking system which can be connected in vertical and horizontal direction angular displacement, containing the tongue and groove, pin two adjacent faces in a vertical direction, and a tongue with a locking element on one face of the panel, called "panel with tongue and groove, which cooperates with a locking groove on the verge of another panel called "panel with the groove", and concatenates the faces in the horizontal direction. Locking element and the locking groove generally have a rounded guide surface that e.g. the keys locking element in the locking groove, and locking surfaces, which provide traction and prevent horizontal separation of the faces.

Under "angle" refers to the commonly used angle between the two panels at the primary stage of Assembly with the angular displacement, when one panel is raised and is at an angle and press the top edge to the top edge of the panel lying flat on the black floor. The angle is usually about 25 degrees, and in this position the wedge between the panel and the panel with the groove there are only two points of contact. In special cases, if the connectors more than two points of contact angle greater than 25 degrees.

Under "contact angle at three points" refers to the angle between the two panels during the angular displacement in the presence of at least three points of contact between the parts of the locking system.

Under the "contact angle" means the angle of folding panels when the short edge of one panel is in the initial contact with a part of the flexible tongue, which should be offset in the horizontal direction and which is active when the vertical grip short faces.

Under "guiding angle" means the angle between the two panels during the angular displacement, when the guide surface of the locking cell battery (included) is that on the tongue and/or the locking groove are in contact with each other, the upper part of the locking element or the lower part of the locking groove, respectively. The guiding surfaces are often rounded or beveled portion, which during the angular displacement press the upper faces of the panels to each other and facilitate inserting the locking element into the locking groove. Most locking systems available on the market have a guide angle of about 5 degrees.

Under "angle coupling" refers to the angle between the two panels at the final stage of angular displacement when the active locking surface on the locking element and the locking groove come into initial contact with each other. In most locking systems the angle of fixation is of the order of 3 degrees or less.

Under the "friction angle" means the angle at which the friction force along the long sides increases significantly during angular displacement relative to the angle of installation is due to the fact that in the locking system has more than two points of contact, and prevents displacement along the long edges.

Under the pressure of the tongue" refers to the force pressing in N, when the tongue is in a predetermined position. Under the maximum pressure of the tongue" refers to the pressure of the tongue when it is in its inner position during vertical folding, and under "pedwar the positive voltage of the tongue" refers to the pressure of the tongue in the coupled position, when the tongue presses on the part of the groove for the tongue.

The present invention relates to a set of floor panels, or floating floor, with a mechanical locking system that allows you to improve the Assembly process of the floor panel that is installed with vertical folding, and prevents separation of the short edges during installation.

The invention is based on the first basic idea of what the aforementioned problems associated with the separation are mainly in the locking system of long faces. All known locking systems used for the bonding of the panels with the angular displacement, is very easily dislodged along the seam, when the floor panels are in the initial inclined position relative to each other. Friction increases significantly at a small angle, when the floor panel is almost linked. This means that the friction between the long edges is not enough to prevent displacement of the short edges during the initial stage vertical folding, when the angle is great and when part of the flexible tongue must be pressed in a horizontal direction with the purpose of the vertical folding. The friction between the long edges in most locking systems increases at small angles, but this is a flaw, because short faces could already be disconnected and locks the system I short faces cannot overcome the friction at a small angle, to connect the short edge. Separation complicates the Assembly, as the panels need to be straightened and pressed sideways and there is a significant risk of damage to the locking system short faces.

The main objective of the invention is to solve the problem of disconnection of the short sides using (in contrast to the known technology) increase friction between the long edges, when the long edges are at an angle, before reaching their final coupled position. Increased friction between the long edges can counteract the shift of the long edges along the seam during the vertical folding, when the flexible tongue pushes the floor panel, or even prevent this offset and counteract the separation of short edges during Assembly or even completely prevent it.

The invention is based on the second basic idea of what joint action locking system is long sides and short sides necessarily for sex, intended for installation with vertical folding. The locking system of long and short sides should be adapted to each other to provide a simple, convenient and reliable Assembly.

The invention provides a new version of the implementation of the locking system of long and short faces according to various aspects the am, providing related advantages. The scope of the invention is the manufacture of floor panels of any shape and from any material, such as laminated flooring, and in particular panels, the surface of which contains a thermosetting resin, wood, fibreboard, high density, veneer or stone.

The invention according to the first principle relates to floor panels with long edges, equipped with a locking system, which, being situated at an angle that is more used in existing technologies, prevents displacement along the joint when the panels are connected by a vertical fold.

According to one of embodiments of the first principle of the invention provides a set of essentially identical floor panels, each of which has a long and short faces, provided with first and second connectors integrated with the floor panels. Connectors are used to join adjacent faces. The first connector includes a tongue with an upward locking element on the verge of a floor panel and an outdoor down locking groove in the adjacent faces of the adjacent floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in a horizontal direction, perpendicular to the adjacent faces. The second connector includes a tongue on the edge of one floor panel, continuing, essentially, the PE pendicular face and opened in the horizontal direction of the groove for the tongue in the adjacent faces of another floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in the vertical direction. Connectors long faces are designed for coupling with angular displacement, and connectors short faces are designed for coupling with vertical folding. The long edge of the new panel in the second row combined with the long edge of the first panel in the first row with the angular displacement. Short edge of the new panel and the short edge of the second panel in the second row must be connected to the same angular movement. Connectors long faces have at least three separate points of contact or surface contact between adjacent parts of the connectors when the new panel press the top edge to the top edge of the first panel at an angle to the main plane comprising at least 10 degrees.

Since the floor panel according to the first principle of the invention is equipped with long faces, which when tilted 10 degrees have three points of contact, between the long edges creates considerable friction which counteracts the displacement of the short edges, caused by the pressure of the uvula during the vertical folding, or prevents it. The advantage is that the flexible tongue can be made and changed the yen on short faces from the original point of contact, located near the long sides, for example at a distance of about 15 mm from the long edges, and this allows vertical grip for much of the plot of the short edge.

The Assembly is improved according to some variants of implementation, if the angle of contact at three points more than 10 degrees, preferably 15 degrees or more. According to other variants of implementation for easy Assembly required more than 18, and even more than 20 degrees.

According to the second principle of the invention, the position and shape of the preferably flexible tongue short faces and locking systems long sides such that the friction on the long edges increases with the angular movement of the panel down from angle to angle of contact when the flexible tongue under the action of vertical folding comes into initial contact with the adjacent short side, and further angular movement causes the first flexible region of the flexible tongue is displaced in the horizontal direction, creating a horizontal separating the pressure acting on the short edge.

According to a variant implementation of this second principle, the invention provides a set of essentially identical floor panels, each of which has a long and short faces, provided with first and second connectors integrated with the floor panels. Connectors the substations are designed for the connection of adjacent faces. The first connector includes a tongue with an upward locking element on the verge of one floor panel and outdoor down locking groove in the adjacent faces of the adjacent floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in a horizontal direction, perpendicular to the adjacent faces. The second connector includes a tongue on the edge of one floor panel, continuing, essentially perpendicular to the face, and opened in the horizontal direction of the groove for the tongue in the adjacent faces of another floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in the vertical direction. Connectors long faces are designed for coupling with angular displacement, and connectors short faces are designed for coupling with vertical folding. The long edge of the new panel in the second row combined with the long edge of the first panel in the first row with the angular displacement. Short edge of the new panel and the short edge of the second panel in the second row must be connected to the same angular movement. The tongue on the short sides are made of a single material, is attached to the connecting groove and includes a flexible portion, the edge area which is located near the long sides of the first panel. The regional area is shifted in the horizontal direction during folding and communicates with the groove for the tongue adjacent short sides with purpose is Ceplene floor panels together in a vertical direction. The first and second connectors on the long sides are so designed that the friction force acting along the long edges, less under the installation angle than the angle of contact when the panels are pressed to each other with the same force pressing, keeping in contact with the upper seam edges. The installation angle is 25 degrees and the contact angle is smaller and corresponds to the moment of initial contact between the edge portion and the adjacent short edge.

The increased friction between the long edges under the contact angle can be achieved and the many alternative ways, for example by increasing the pressure between the contact points and/or increase the size of the contact surfaces at the contact points between the first and second connectors, and/or by increasing the number of contact points from 2-3 to 3-4.

According to the third principle of the invention provided with the locking system on the long sides, provided with friction means so that the long sides at an angle there is considerable friction in the presence of only two points of contact between the connectors on the long edges.

According to one of embodiments of the third principle of the invention provides a set of essentially identical floor panels, each of which has a long and short faces, provided with first and second connectors that are made about who United with the floor panel. The connectors are designed to adjacent faces. The first connector includes a tongue with an upward locking element on the verge of a floor panel and an outdoor down locking groove in the adjacent faces of the adjacent floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in a horizontal direction, perpendicular to the adjacent faces. The second connector includes a tongue on the verge of one of the floor panels, ongoing, essentially perpendicular to the face, and opened in the horizontal direction of the groove for the tongue on the adjacent face of another floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in the vertical direction. Connectors long faces are designed for coupling with angular displacement, and connectors short faces are designed for coupling with vertical folding. The long edge of the new panel in the second row combined with the long edge of the first panel in the first row with the angular displacement. Short edge of the new panel and the short edge of the second panel in the second row must be connected to the same angular movement. The tongue on the short sides are made of a single material, is attached to the connecting groove and has a flexible portion intended for horizontal movement during folding and to communicate with the groove for the tongue adjacent short faces with the purpose of coupling of the floor panel between the ow in the vertical direction. The first and second connectors on the long sides contain friction means for increasing the friction on the long edges when the panels are tilted, when there are only two contact points between the first and second connectors.

The friction means may be or may not be active at smaller angles, when in locking system there are three points of contact, and more.

The third principle benefits, consisting in the fact that the friction on the long sides can be large even at large angles, for example at an angle of installation, and it can be used in the method of Assembly, when the edge of the flexible tongue is compressed by displacement of the long sides during the initial stage vertical folding (Fig.4b and 4C). Friction means opposing displacement along the long sides and the short separation faces during the vertical folding or prevents it.

This friction means may include mechanical elements, such as small ridges made using rotary tools on the parts of the locking system, for example on the tongue and/or groove. It also may contain chemicals or particles of small size printed on the locking system to increase friction on the long edges.

According to the fourth principle of the invention provided the flooring with locking system on long the x and short sides, in which panels can be coupled with vertical folding, and the position, shape and properties of the material is preferably flexible tongue on the short face combined with a locking system long edges, containing connectors, which provide the ability to attach cut to length 20 cm panel to another panel in the same row with vertical folding, as well as to prevent separation of the short edges.

According to one of embodiments of this fourth principle of the invention provides a set of essentially identical floor panels, each of which has a long and short faces, provided with first and second connectors that are made as a single piece with the panels. Connectors are used to join adjacent faces. The first connector includes a tongue with an upward locking element on the verge of a floor panel and an outdoor down locking groove in the adjacent faces of the adjacent floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in a horizontal direction, perpendicular to the adjacent faces. The second connector includes a tongue on one of the floor panel located horizontally and perpendicular to the face, and opened in the horizontal direction of the groove for the tongue adjacent the verge of another floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in the vertical direction. Connectors on the other faces provide coupling with angular displacement, and connectors short sides provide grip with vertical folding. The long edge of the new panel in the second row combined with the long edge of the first panel in the first row with the angular displacement. Short edge of the new panel and the short edge of the second panel in the second row must be connected to the same angular movement. The tongue on the short sides are made of a single material, is attached to the connecting groove and has a flexible portion intended for horizontal movement during folding and to communicate with the groove for the tongue of the adjacent short sides for coupling the panels together in a vertical direction. The connectors on the long and short sides are so designed that the second and the new panel, if one of them cut to length 20 cm, not moving away from each other, being in the position of the contact angle of installation, and also during the vertical folding.

The fourth principle provides the following benefits: panel with such a locking system can be assembled with high precision, and the separation of the short edges will not occur even if the panel briefly trimmed and installed the first or the last in the series. Separation of the panels with a gap of about 0.01 mm may be enough to cause problems and undesired hair is s intervals, which can be seen on the surface of the floor, or in the seam moisture can penetrate.

The second object of the invention is the provision of a method of Assembly for connecting floor panels with vertical folding, and the panel is equipped with a locking system angular displacement on the long sides and a system of vertical fold the short edges for grip panels in vertical and horizontal directions, while the first and second panels lie flat on the black floor and their long sides are connected, characterized in that it contains the following steps:

a) bring a long face angled the new panel into contact with the upper part of the long sides of the first panel;

b) enter a short edge of the new panel into contact with the short edge of the second panel so that the new panel is held in this position by means of locking system on long and/or short faces

C) press the plot of the short faces of the new panel down to the floor, thereby connecting the first, second and third panels to each other by vertical folding.

This method gives the possibility to hold the floor panel in an elevated inclined position by, for example, the upper part of the locking element and the lower part of the locking groove. This facilitates Assembly, since the assembler can p in order to change the position of the hands, to move from the location of the panel at an angle to a position suitable for pressing plots the short edges of the panel to the black floor. The advantage is that the combined effect of simultaneous compression along the upper edges at an angle, grip panels to the side to avoid the disconnection of the short sides and lowering of the panel on the floor, can be replaced by three separate and independent action.

The third objective of the invention to provide a new locking systems, or a combination of locking systems that can be used on long and/or short edges and specially designed to solve the problems associated with separation. Data locking systems can, of course, be applied separately to connect the floorboards of any type or wall panels for short and/or long faces.

According to the first aspect of this third problem is proposed flexible tongue comprising two flexible parts: an inner part located inside the slot offset, and an outer flexible portion located outside of the groove offset, which engages with the groove for the tongue adjacent face of the other panel. The inner part is preferably more flexible than the outer, and preferably is offset stronger, more rigid than the outer portion providing a vertical grip panels. The image is giving allows you to combine strength and low resistance to the offset.

According to the second aspect of this third problem locking system short face with a preferably flexible tongue combined with a compact latch locking system that engages with the angular displacement. This locking system is the most effective, its geometry is favorable and can be used in the construction of the castle system, creating considerable friction for long faces during angular displacement. This latch lock can replace the locking system long face with protruding tongue, in accordance with all the principles and methods described above. This variant embodiment of the invention includes a first connector that contains the tab with an upward locking element in the upper part of the tongue, the sides of one of the floor panel, and the second connector, containing turned down the groove for the tongue depressed at the adjoining side of another floor panel for connecting the adjacent edges in horizontal and vertical direction. Connectors long faces even in this embodiment, intended for coupling with angular displacement, and connectors short faces are designed for coupling with vertical folding. As example can be mentioned that according to the first principle connectors long sides have, at m is re, three separate contact points or surfaces of contact between adjacent parts of the connectors when the new panel press the top edge to the top edge of the new panel at an angle to the main plane, constituting about 10 degrees.

According to a third aspect of this third objective of the proposed locking system short face with a preferably flexible tongue which counteracts the displacement of the long sides during the vertical folding or prevent this bias. Locking system contains, as described above, the tongue with a locking element and a separate flexible tongue on the panel with the groove, the groove for the tongue and a locking groove on the folding panel. Locking surface of the locking groove, essentially vertical and parallel to the vertical plane VP, and its height is preferably about 0.1 of the thickness T of the floor. Locking system preferably has such a structure that the upper part of the locking element with a locking surface in contact with the lower part of the locking surface of the locking groove at an angle of coupling, in the absence of contact between the foldable panel and a flexible tongue. Vertical, essentially locking surface prevents separation when the tongue is in the process of further angular displacement is in contact with the folding panel. Part of the castle overgeslagen preferred variant implementation is located on the protrusion and the recess.

Obviously, you can combine two or even all of the above principles and that all embodiments of locking systems described in this application can be used together or independently from each other for connecting long and/or short edges. The drawings are used only to illustrate examples of various embodiments, which can be applied in various combinations of long and short sides of the panels of the same type or different types, designed to connect with each other. All locking systems on long and/or short sides of the panel can be made integral with the base panel, and may contain separate materials, for example a separate tongue and/or groove, which can be integrated with the floor panel or attached during Assembly. Even locking groove and/or the groove for the tongue may be made of separate materials. This means that the invention also includes integral locking system on the short sides, in which part of the castle systems, such as, for example, tongue and/or groove and/or locking element, are flexible and preferably contain fibre material, such as fiberboard, high density, and which can be coupled by vertical folding, provided that in these systems in the process of coupling oznikaet divisive efforts. A separate material for wood-fiber-based can also be fixed to a face of the panel by, for example, gluing and machined in accordance with the requirements of locking systems, similar to the one-piece locking system described above.

The invention is applicable to all types of floor coverings. However, it is especially suitable for short panels in length, for example, 40-120 cm, which is characterized by low friction, long faces, wide panels of a width exceeding 20 cm, so as a flexible tongue, these panels are long and creates considerable pressure, as well as for panels, which are made, for example, of fiberboard, high-density, compact laminate, plastic and the like, in which the friction is small because of the very smooth surfaces with a low coefficient of friction locking system. The invention is also useful for thin panels, the thickness is, for example, 6-9 mm, preferably 8 mm, and thinner, and in particular for thin panels with a compact locking system on long faces, for example, when the grooves less than 6 mm, such as floor panels and such locking systems have a small contact surface with a low coefficient of friction.

Using a floor covering, the construction of which corresponds to one or more of the above principles the top the invention, you can achieve several advantages. The first advantage is that the Assembly is carried out in a simple way and there is no need for the application of lateral pressure during Assembly to prevent separation of the coating on the short sides. The second advantage is that the risk of end faces, which can cause cracks in the locking system during folding is greatly reduced. The third advantage is that the locking system can be made more rigid and durable tabs, which can put the panel in a vertical direction with a higher strength and a significant pre-stress of the tongue. These tabs with a significant maximum pressure and pressure pre-stress in the coupled position, can cause a strong separation with vertical folding. The fourth advantage is that the flexible tongue can be positioned near the long edges and to get a secure grip, despite the fact that the said flexible tongue creates a divisive pressure sufficiently large contact angle.

Measurement of the friction of the primary contact and friction of the installation can be carried out in accordance with the following principles. The contact angle of the new floor panel and the first panel of the floor should be measured, when the first boundary in the Astok flexible tongue, active during vertical fixation, is the first contact with the short edge at the initial stage vertical folding. Contact friction on the long edges of the sample length of 200 mm should be measured under the given contact angle, when the panels are pressed to each other under normal pressure, or with a force of 10 N. Friction installation should be measured in the same way, but under the installation angle of 25 degrees. Contact friction must be at least approximately 50% greater than the friction of the installation.

Friction means containing mechanical devices, such as protrusions, of combed fibres, Subramanya edges, etc. in the locking system, easy to track. Challenging chemicals.

To measure enhanced friction should use a different method, because of the friction tool is not so clearly distinguishable and it is not obvious that mechanical devices, chemicals, impregnation, coating, separate materials, etc. are used to enhance the friction between the floor panel at an angle installation. A new locking system that has essentially the same design as the original sample must be made of the same panels with the same base. Friction can be measured at the same angle of installation and the same pressure, and then need to compare the friction between the two samples - the original and the new. This pic is b testing means, of course, that the whole basis does not contain materials that increase friction.

Has been tested many panels on the basis of fiberboard, high density available on the market, and the result was as follows: the friction on the sample with a long edge length of 200 mm, is pressed against the other long edges with a force of 10 N at an angle of 25 degrees, usually is about 10 N or less. This friction force is too small to prevent the displacement of the short sides during the vertical folding. The friction means can greatly enhance the friction.

The contact angle is defined as the angle position of the new panel, when the face comes into initial contact with a part of the flexible tongue, which should be offset and actively participates in the vertical fixing. On the edge of the tongue, for instance, can be tabs, not giving a large horizontal pressure during vertical folding. These ledges and similar tools should not be considered as part of the flexible tongue.

All references to the element, device, component, means, step, etc. in the singular should be interpreted broadly, as an example available, at least one element, device, component, means, step, etc, unless expressly stated otherwise.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings.

On Figa-d depicts the castle is the system of the prior art.

On Figa-b shows the flexible tongue of the prior art during clutch.

On Figa-b shows the floor panel with the prior art mechanical locking system on the short edge.

On Figa-d shows how short the faces of the two floor panels can be coupled vertical folding according to the prior art.

On Figa-e shows embodiments of locking systems short faces that can be used in connection with the invention.

On Figa-C shows the effect of moving the tabs according to the options of carrying out the invention.

On Figa-d shows a three-dimensional illustration of the end panels during the vertical folding.

On Figa-d illustrates the separating pressure of the tongue short sides in the build process.

On Figa-about shows locking systems used and released to the market in large volumes, and the point of contact between the surfaces of such systems under different angles during installation using angular movements.

On Figa-shown embodiments of locking systems long sides with a friction angle of 10 degrees according to the invention.

On Figa-shown embodiments of locking systems long sides with a friction angle of 15 degrees according to the invention.

On Figa-shown locking system long and short is th faces and the position of the flexible tongue according to alternate embodiment of the invention.

On Figa-d shows the options positions of the angle of contact.

On Figa-d shows the position of the flexible tongue is relatively long faces according to alternate embodiment of the invention.

On Figa-C shows an implementation option with friction means according to the invention.

On Figa-d presents a method of measuring friction forces at different angles according to the options of carrying out the invention.

On Figa-shown alternative embodiments of with three points of contact according to the invention.

On Figa-C shows an additional alternative implementation with three points of contact according to the invention.

On Figa-C shows an additional alternative embodiments of two-and three contact points, creating friction, according to the invention.

On Figa-shown alternative embodiments of a four-point contact at an angle of 20 degrees according to the invention.

On Figa-d shows a flexible tongue with two flexible parts.

On Figa-shows the installation of the panels with a flexible tongue according to the invention.

On Figa-b shows the latch locking system.

On Figa-e shows a locking system that can be used when implementing the invention.

On Figa-presents methods of measurement points of contact.

the and Figa-d are shown embodiments of the invention with a vertical locking surfaces.

On Figa is shown with the locking system on the long and short sides according to the invention.

Figure 1-6 and in the corresponding description that will follow below, presents the published versions of the implementation, and these drawings are used to explain the basic principles of the invention and demonstration of examples of embodiments, which can be used in the invention. Presents options for implementation are only examples. It should be emphasized that all types of flexible reeds reeds and solid, which can be used in the locking system, enabling vertical folding and/or vertical clutch, can be used and the applicable part of this description is included in the scope of the present invention.

Panel 1, 1' floor prior art with a mechanical locking system and a shift of the tongue described with reference to Figa-d.

On Figa is a schematic view in section of a seam between the short seam face 4A of the panel 1 and the opposite short seam face 4b of the second panel 1'.

The front surface of the panel, in essence, are located in a common horizontal plane HP, and the upper part 21, 41 seam faces 4A, 4b against each other in the vertical plane VP. Mechanical locking system ensures the fixation of the panels relative to the other is in the vertical direction D1, and also in the horizontal direction D2.

To ensure the connection of the two seam edges in the directions D1 and D2 one face of the floor panel, from here on called "panel with the tongue", in a known manner provided with a groove 6 with a locking element 8 in one seam faces cooperating with a locking groove 14 in the other seam edge, hereinafter called "collapsible panel", and provides a horizontal grip.

Mechanical locking system of the prior art contains a separate flexible tongue 30 is fixed in the groove 40 offset in one of the seam edges. The flexible tongue 30 has a hidden plot P1 located in the groove 40 offset, and the protruding section P2, protruding outward from the groove 40 offset. The exposed area P2 of the flexible tongue 30 in one of the two seam edges interacts with a groove 20 for tongue made in the other seam edge.

The flexible tongue 30 has a protruding portion P2 with a rounded outer part 31 and the beveled surface 32, which in this embodiment has the form of a chamfer. It also contains the top (33) and the bottom (35) of the surface displacement and the inner part 34.

The groove 40 has an upper offset (42) and lower (46) holes, which in this embodiment are curved, rear (44), upper (43) and the bottom (45) of the surface displacement of the groove, which predpochtitel is but almost parallel to the horizontal plane HP.

The groove 20 for tongue has the locking lug surface 22 that communicates with a flexible tongue 30 and the fixing seam faces in the vertical direction D1. Folding panel 1' has a vertical locking surface 24, which is closer to the rear surface 62 than the groove 20 for tongue. Vertical locking surface 24 cooperates with the groove 6 and concatenates the seam faces in the other vertical direction. Fold the panel in this embodiment has the sliding surface 23, which during coupling interacts with the sliding surface 32 of the flexible tongue 30.

Flexible tongue may be in the form of a wedge and can be fixed in the groove for the tongue using preload, clamping folding panel 1' to the panel with the tongue. Such an implementation option provides a very durable, high quality seam.

On Figa shows in section a-a panel according Fig.3b, when viewed from above. The flexible tongue 30 has a length L along the seam edge, the width W parallel to the horizontal plane and perpendicular to the length L and the thickness T in the vertical direction D1. The greatest amount of area P1 of the groove and the most protruding part P2 is the total width TW. A flexible tongue in this embodiment also has the middle portion of the MS and two boundary area ES adjacent to the front section. The size of the protruding part P2 and the area P1 of the groove varies in this embodiment, the length L, and the tongue is separated from the two side portions 9a and 9b. The flexible tongue 30 has on one of the boundary areas of the friction connection 36, which may be, for example, a small local vertical ledge. This frictional connection holds the flexible tongue in the groove offset 40 in the Assembly process or in the process of production, packing and transportation, if the flexible tongue is made as one piece with the floor panel in the factory.

On Figa and 2b shows the position of the flexible tongue 30 after the first offset to the bottom 4 of the groove 40 offset. The offset is caused, essentially, by bending the flexible tongue 30 in the direction of its length L, parallel to the width W. This feature is essential for this system of the prior art. In the on the market options exercise of the maximum pressure of the tongue is approximately 20 H.

Collapsible panel can be detached from the tool needle form, which can be inserted from the corner section 9b in the groove 20 of the tongue and push the flexible tongue back into the groove offset 40. Then add the panel to be raised, while the panel with the tongue remains on the black floor. Of course, the panel can be separated in the traditional way.

On Figa presents one of the embodiments of the process of vertical folding. The first panel 1" in the first row R1 is attached to the second panel, 1 in the second row R2. The new panel 1' move long face 5A to the long edges 5b of the first panel 1" under normal angle, constituting approximately 25-30 degrees, pressed against the adjacent faces, and join the long line 5A to the long edges 5b of the first panel under normal angle of about 25-30 degrees. This angular movement also connects the short face 4b of the new panel 1' short face 4A of the second panel 1. Folding panel 1' engages with the panel 1 with groove through the combined movement vertical movement and simultaneous rotation in the vertical plane VP. The protruding part P2 has a rounded and/or beveled folding portion P2', which during the folding interacts with the sliding surface 23 of the folding panel 1'. The combined effect of the folding panel P2' and the impact surface 32 of the slip of the tongue, which during the folding interacts with the sliding surface 23 of the folding panel 1', facilitates the first displacement of the flexible tongue 30. The essential feature of this invention is the provision of a prominent plot P2, which is related to the distance from the corner section 9a and 9. This distance is at least 10% of the length of suture faces - in this case, the visible short faces 4A.

On Fig.4b-c shows a variant implementation of the set of floor panels with offset tongue and alternative installation method. According to this variant implementation, the length of the tongue is more than 90% of the width WS of the front surface of the panel, in other preferred embodiments, the implementation of the length of the tongue is preferably from 75% to almost 100% of the width WS of the front surface. The length of the tongue is preferably approximately equal to the difference between full panel width and the width of the locking systems of adjacent faces of the panel. At the edges of the outer faces may be provided with a small bevel, but a direct part of the tongue in the area of the outer face preferably has a length essentially equal to the length of the tongue, preferably more than 90%. The new panel 1' is located at an angle, with the upper part of the seam faces in contact with the first panel 1" in the first row. Short faces 4A and 4b spaced at a distance from each other. Then the new panel 1' is shifted to the side, the second panel 1, while short faces 4A, 4b, essentially, will not come into contact, and a part of the flexible tongue 15 is inserted into the groove 40 offset, as seen in Fig.4b. Then the new panel 1' is folded down, the second panel 1. Since the offset of the new panel 1' causes indentations in the groove 40 whether the e edge of the flexible tongue 30, vertical folding can be done in terms of less resistance. You can perform the Assembly with offset tongue having a straight outer edge. When installing panels with a known tongue in the form of a bow (see Fig.2-4) into the groove offset you need to push the entire tongue. When comparing known arcuate tongue with a tongue according to the invention it turns out that for bands with the same dynamic stiffness per unit length requires less effort. Therefore, you can use the tongue with a higher dynamic stiffness per unit length and greater force springing, which leads to increased reliability of the final position of the tongue. When using this method of assembling the need for bevel sliding folding panel disappears, or this surface may be less than that in the case of thin panels is an advantage. The disadvantage of this method is that the new panel should be tilted and pushed to the side during the vertical folding. On Figs shown that folding panels can be any of the embodiments of the tongue - of course, considering the fact that you want a certain regulation.

Usually, the presence of tabs on the panel with the tongue is an advantage because you can use rounded or beveled portion on the IC is adivima panel to facilitate displacement shift parts of the tongue. An implementation option with pull-tab, which is located on the folding panel, as shown in Fig.4d, has a drawback consisting in the fact that the tab should slide over the sharp edge of the panel surface.

The tongue may consist of plastic and can be manufactured, for example, injection molding. When using this production method can be obtained many different complex forms of low cost, and flexible tabs can easily be joined to each other, forming the workpiece. The tongue can also be made of extruded or machined plastic or metal profile, which can then be tformat, for example, by cutting, to obtain a flexible tongue. The disadvantage associated with the extrusion, in addition to technological operations, is that the tongue in this case, it is difficult to reinforced - for example, fibers.

You can use polymer material of any type, such as nylon, Polyoxymethylene, polychloroprene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene and other materials with the properties described above in connection with different types of implementation. Data plastic material using injection molding can be reinforced, for example, fiberglass, Kevlar, carbon or chalk. Preferably the m material is polypropylene or Polyoxymethylene, fiber-glass reinforced, preferably very long.

On Figa-5e presents embodiments of flexible tongues 30, which can be used to concatenate short faces according to the invention. On Figa shown separate tab 30 panel folding flexible latch upward. On Fig.5b represented by a separate tab 30 on the panel with the tongue, with a flexible latch downward. On Figs represented by a separate tab on the panel with the tongue, with a flexible latch inside the groove 40 offset. The latch may go up or down and can be on a panel with sheet piling or stacking panel in accordance with the same principles (Figa and b). On Fig.5d shows a flexible tab that contains the tabs, as shown in Figa, and these protrusions may be located within the groove 40 offset or you can go from a vertical plane in a groove 20 for tongue. On File shown that the tongue 30 may be made in one piece with the panel and the coupling can be achieved by compressing fibers or parts of the panel material and/or bending of the tongue 6.

On Figa-presented embodiments of the tongue 30, which can be used according to the invention. They all have a form that allows to insert them into the slot on the floor panel. On Figa shows the flexible tongue 30 with a flexible tabs 16. On Fig.6b represent the updates tab 30 in the form of a bow, and Figs - tongue 30 with a flexible latch 17.

A flexible tongue, similar to the variant of implementation, are presented in figures 1-4, 5d, 6A and 6b may, for example, be made of a material based on wood fibers, for example of fiberboard, high density, solid wood, or several layers of plywood. Extremely durable and flexible tabs can be made of fiberboard, high density, especially if the design is such that the flexibility is achieved essentially in parallel with the fibre orientation fibre boards.

On Figa-d presents 4 stage Assembly with a vertical folding and associated problems. To simplify the description shows a variant implementation of the flexible tongue 30 on the panel with the tongue. As already explained above, the tongue can be on a collapsible panel. The new panel 1' is moved at an angle installation, long face 5A to the long sides of the first panel 1", while the top edge will not come into contact. Then a new panel slip sideways while short line 4b will not come into contact with the short edge adjacent the second panel of the same number (Figa). Then the new panel 1' incline before reaching the contact angle when the edge 30' of the flexible tongue 30 is in primary contact with the short edge of the new panel (Fig.7b). Additional angular displacement to the e in the optimal case should occur in the contact conditions between the short sides, gradually pushes a large part of the flexible tongue in a horizontal direction, and the flexibility of the tongue contributes to the growing pressure that can push away from each other a short faces 4A and 4b. The result is an undesirable gap G (Figs). Locking element 8 in many cases, you may be able to pull back the short faces of the panels, as the friction between the long edges can be significant, when the panels are located under a sloping angle, and the gap will remain in the United position (Fig.7d). This can cause cracks and other damage in the castle system. Even very small gaps in the amount of 0.01-0.1 mm can cause serious problems, because the seam will be easy to absorb moisture.

On Figa-8d detail illustrated separation problems caused by the presence of the flexible tongue 30. Panels 1, 1' according Figa are under the contact angle, the surface 23, 32 sliding folding panel 1' and the flexible tongue contact. On Fig.8b and 8C shows that the flexibility of the tongue creates a divisive pressure SP, which can be separated from each panel 1, 1' and to create a gap G, if the installer will not press the panel to each other. On Fig.8d shows the panel in the coupled position, with the ever existing gap G between them. In this case, the sheet 6 is bent, and the locking element 8 only h is partially included in the locking groove 14. In the worst case, the locking elements 8 are cracked, and the panel will not be linked in a horizontal direction along the short sides.

On Figa-o presents 3 types of locking systems with angular movement, widely used in traditional floor coverings and fixed to each other by means of angular displacement. On Figa-presents with the floor panel, angled And installation of 25 degrees. In this position between the first and second connectors has only two points of contact SR and SR or SR, CP4. Between the inner lower part of the tongue 10 and the locking groove 14 there is always the upper point of contact SR, or the contact surface on the top seam faces and a second point of contact, or the contact surface, CP4, SR on the lower part of the tongue or in any place between the inner lower part of the tongue 10 and the locking groove 14. Friction displacement along the seam faces in this position very little, especially in coatings based on fiberboard, high density with smooth surfaces. On Fig.9d-f shows the additional angular displacement up to an angle of 15 degrees, and Figd-i illustrated an angle of 10 degrees. These provisions are still having only two points of contact, and friction remains small. On Fig.j-l shows the position angle of 5 degrees, which in these cases the implementation of t is aetsa angle of friction. On Fig.9j and 9k shows that the locking system is located at an angle of coupling, in which the locking surfaces 51, 52 are in partial contact. On Fig.9l presents locking system under the Directive angle when in contact are the guiding surfaces 11, 12. On Fig.9j shown that this locking system has 4 points of contact: two upper point of contact SR on the top seam faces and CP1 on top of the tongue, and the two lower points of contact SR on the lower part of the tongue and CP4 between the locking surfaces. On FIGC shows two upper contact points CP1, SR and one lower contact point CP4. Fig.9l similar Fig.9j except that one of the lower contact point is located between the guide surfaces 11, 12. Friction displacement along the seam faces in these provisions is significantly increased, especially if the contact points or contact surfaces dense planting and/or if the contact surfaces are of considerable size. The preload can additional increase the friction, and offset along the long edges together with a vertical folding will receive opposition; in many cases it will be absolutely impossible, even with the small size of the floor panel. Such locking systems, however, are not suitable for the long side in the vertical system of folding, where the contact angle is more than 5-8 degrees, especially if they made a normal landing between the connectors, as they will not be able to prevent the relative displacement along the long sides and the short separation of the faces.

On Figa shows a variant implementation according to the first invention. This locking system preferably can be used on long faces vertically stacked system with a contact angle of approximately 10 degrees or less. This system is also suitable for locking systems with large contact angles, as it prevents shifting already at 10 degrees, when in most folding locking systems, there is a maximum shear pressure. On Figa shows the position of the panel 1' at an angle of 15 degrees, when in contact are only two points SR, SR. Panel 1 a is under friction angle of 12 degrees with three contact points SR, SR, CP4'. This position is characterized by the fact that on the tongue there is only one point of contact SR, as well as the fact that the guiding surfaces 11, 12 are in contact. This is an advantage, because the guides are pressed by the tongue, when pushing it into the groove, while further angular displacement (Fig.10b). Friction is additionally enhanced because of the vertical contacts and interaction between the tongue 10 and the groove 9 latch (CP1, SR), horizontal is contactame between the upper faces SR and the guide surfaces 11, 12, which form the second lower contact point CP4. The ideal position preferably is an implementation option with a contact angle that is less than or equal to the angle of friction and submitting the corner. Such an implementation option may, for example, to have the friction angle and the deflection angle of about 10 degrees and a contact angle of about 8-9 degrees. Fixation can be extremely simple way is just to put pressure on the new panel in a downward direction when it is located under the Directive angle. On Figs shown that the design locking system the angle between the locking surfaces large and that at the last stage of angular displacement indicated by the position 1 a, the fibers must be compressed in the upper edge area CP4 and locking surfaces CP4, to allow the clutch. This design provides several advantages. Friction increases and becomes large when the separating force is maximum. The floor panels are held in raised position by means of a locking element in the locking groove (Fig.10b) - independently or in combination with contact between the short edge folding panel and the edge of the flexible tongue. Friction prevents slippage short face with a flexible tongue. This simplifies the installation, as the installer can change the position of the hands to lane who come from the location of the panel at an angle to the vertical pressure on the short side. Therefore, the invention provides a vertical locking system and the angular displacement of long faces, allowing the panel to remain in an inclined position relative to the other panel when the contact of the upper seam edges. It also provides a locking system in which the pressure between the upper seam edges, and a locking element and/or between the tongue and the groove at the final stage of angular displacement when a part of the locking groove 14 is in contact with a locking element 8 increases.

On Figa is shown that the same principles can be used for education locking systems even with bigger angle And friction components, for example, 15 degrees (Figa). Locking element 8 above, and in this preferred embodiment, it continues vertically from the bottom of the groove 6 on the height LH of approximately 0.2 thickness of the floor So the Tongue has a lower portion 54, which is essentially parallel to the horizontal plane HP and goes from a vertical plane, preferably at a distance TD of about 0.1 floor thickness T.

The importance of contact angle and joint functioning of long and short faces during vertical folding and vertical clutch will now be explained with reference to Figa-13d.

On Figa shows castle si the unit 1", 1' long faces and locking system 1, 1' short faces, intended for coupling with vertical folding, or vertical grip. Long face provided with a locking system that can be fix with the help of angular displacement. Each short edge is equipped with a locking system that engages with a vertical clutch, or vertical folding.

On Fig.12b shows the position of the surface 23 of the slide, for example, the new panel 1', when viewed from the side of the second panel 1 on the new panel 1', when the new panel 1' is moved vertically downwards. This type of clutch may be used, for example, to connect the first row. The surface 23 of the slide is a plane located at the bottom of the panel 1'.

On Figs shows the position of the surface 32 of the sliding of the tip 31 of the flexible tongue and the surface 23 of the slide when the first panel 1 and second panel 1 lie flat on the floor.

On Fig.12b and 12C shown that the position of the flexible tongue in the direction of the length of the short side do not matter much when the vertical grip when the entire panel is moved vertically downward.

On Figa presents an implementation option of the same locking system that Fig, during the vertical folding. The edge of the flexible tongue 30 in this embodiment domestic is located at a distance FD from the long sides of the first panel 1". On Fig.13b shows the process of vertical folding bend CS and position the new panel 1', is close to reaching the contact angle. Because of the beveled surfaces 23, 32 slide until there is no contact between the folding panel 1' and the flexible tongue 30. On Figs shows the contact angle, which in this embodiment is 10 degrees. Sliding surfaces 32, 23 overlap each other at the origin SR contact. Further, the slope will begin to cause a gradually increasing separating pressure between the short edges of the panels 1, 1', as most of the TRS agile tongue be pressed horizontally inward into the groove displacement, the sliding surface 23 of the panel 1' (Fig.13d).

On Figa and 14b shows the position of the flexible tongue 30 according to two variants of the embodiment of the invention. The flexible tongue 30 according to the modalities for the implementation of the bent horizontally in the direction of the length. The edge of the flexible tongue on Figa is at a distance FD1 from the long faces 5b of, for example, about 1-5 mm. Such a locking system in the floor with laminated parquet normal thickness will have a contact angle of about 10 degrees. The contact angle is less, if the edge of the tongue will be located further away from the long edges 5b, the distance FD2 (Fig.14b). In this case, you can use the locking system is mu with a smaller contact angle. This option may not be sufficient for thick and resistant panels or narrow panels. For more narrow floorboards, for example, to laminate width 6-8 mm and veneered floor coverings, it is advantageous if the flexible tongue can concatenate short faces near the long sides and at considerable length on the short edge. On Figs and 14d shows a flexible tongue almost in the position of the contact when the first part of the flexible tongue 30 is bent in the horizontal direction and retracted horizontally inward into the groove bias. It is obvious that the release pressure increases when a large part of the tongue is bent and pressed horizontally sideways during folding. These, as well as the previously described embodiments of demonstrating that the locking system of long and short sides depend on each other and must be adapted to each other to ensure a simple and secure grip.

On Figa is shown with the friction means 53, 53', which according to this variant implementation is performed with small local protrusions on the upper part of the tongue 6 V panel 1 and on the lower part of the tongue or on the panel 1' with a groove. Such protrusions can be performed on other surfaces in the locking system, and they prevent displacement under large angles, in the example, when there are only two points of contact (Figa). The friction means may also include any type of materials or chemicals such as solid particles of small size, rubber, ligaments, and similar materials used in the locking system. The preferred materials are soft waxes such as microcrystalline waxes or wax-based wax, which can be applied on one or more surfaces in the locking system, such as a tongue or groove for the tongue, the tongue, the locking element and/or the locking groove, one or more guide surfaces, etc. that can increase the initial friction, especially between wood-fiber plates of high density. For the manufacture of the tongue 10 and the groove 6 can be used in different layers of plywood and fibrous structure, allowing a large friction during angular displacement. The above-mentioned friction means can be combined with each other. Small local protrusions, rough surface, oriented fibrous structures, etc. can be combined, for example, with wax, or chemicals.

On Figa-d presents ways to measure friction between the long edges of the floor panel. Given as an example, the panel 1' with a groove whose width W2 is about 200 mm, press firmly pressing F1 10 H under in the scrap And to the panel 1 with groove, which is fixedly mounted and has a width W1 greater than 200 mm, the Force pressing F1 is applied to the panel 1' with a groove with a wheel that rotates with low friction. The frictional force of the bias is defined as the maximum force F2 required to offset panel 1' with a groove along the seam. Curve Fa Fig shows measurements made on the example vosjmikilometrovom layered panel with the surface of the printed paper impregnated with thermosetting resin and with the base of the wood boards of high density. Friction can be measured from the angle, and moving to smaller angles. The frictional force of the bias of this sample at an angle of installation of the IA is approximately 10 N, and it is almost the same when the angle of contact of the CA average of 10 degrees. The friction angle FA for this sample is approximately 5 degrees. Many locking systems on the basis of wood-based panels high density have the force of friction displacement of less than 10 N at an angle of installation. Friction may be even smaller, reaching 5 N. Long faces in such a locking system have only an indirect influence on the anti-offset short faces during the first stage of the vertical folding, as the angle of friction is less than the contact angle. Curve Fb shows special locking system, in which the friction due to the geometry of the locking system, under the corner of mouth is ovci more than under a smaller angle. The invention is based on the principle that the friction should increase with increasing contact angle compared to the angle or any other angle lying in the range between the angle and the contact angle at which the frictional force is minimal. According to a preferred variant implementation of the friction force under the contact angle exceeds 15 N, and still more preferably 20 N. According to a preferred variant implementation of the locking system with a flexible tongue also creates a pressure tongue over 20 H, more preferably more than 30 N.

The market offers a locking system, in which the friction force at large angles is quite large. Such locking systems cannot be omitted from angle to angle of contact or guide angle in the usual way, applying compression force F1 in 10 N, which corresponds to the pressing force 60 N, attached to the floor panel size 120 cm during installation; and they belong to this type of locking systems for the Assembly of which the angular displacement must be combined with a very strong pressure or snap fit in an inclined position. Such locking systems do not use for vertical folding. They are not excluded from the scope of the invention, but is not recommended for systems with vertical folding, as they only slightly, the some special cases of the Assembly, improve installation in comparison with the traditional method involving the angular displacement of the short and long sides, a snap short and long edges or angular displacement of the long sides and snap short.

On Figs presents the preferred locking system according to the invention, in which the friction angle FA is about 15 degrees, and the contact angle of CA - 10 degrees. The friction angle FA more contact angle SA, and friction between the long edges has increased significantly for the contact angle of CA compared with the angle IA. On Fig.16d shows how to collect two samples of 1, 1' width W3 200 mm, and according to the fourth variant of implementation of the build process should not cause disconnection of the short sides, when the foldable panel is pressed to the black floor, exclusively vertically and without any lateral pressure in the direction of the short edge, provided that the panel is equipped with a locking system according to the invention. You can also test with one full-size panel 1 and one panel 1'truncated to a length of about 20 cm, Such locking system with friction long edges, preventing the displacement of such small parts of the floor, makes it possible to simplify the Assembly not only conventional floor panel, and cut the floor panel located at the wall.

On Fig is-shown, as the locking system represented by figure 11, can be adjusted to create friction within three points of contact SR, CP1 and CP4. Friction is obtained mainly from mutual pressure locking element 8 and the locking groove, and the upper part of the tongue 10 and the groove 9 of the tongue. In this embodiment, the tongue has a lower portion 54, which is essentially parallel to the horizontal plane HP and goes from a vertical plane, preferably at a shorter distance TD than 11, constituting less than 0.1 of the thickness T of the floor.

On Figa-18C shows that the locking system, presented on 11 may also be adjusted to create friction in the other three points of contact SR, CP1 and CP4. Friction is obtained mainly from mutual pressure of the upper and lower parts of the tongue 10 and the groove 9 of the tongue. In this embodiment, the tongue has a lower portion 54, which is essentially parallel to the horizontal plane HP and goes from a vertical plane, preferably at the same distance TD, and 11. Height LH locking element, however, less. Friction means 53 provided in the form of wax deposited on the lower part of the tongue 10. The wax preferably should be quite soft and can deform during angular displacement. Soft wax prevents the initial shift the structure of the seam. This wax can be applied in all locking systems, and it will prevent the offset, especially relative to the surface of fiberboard and high density.

On Fig and 18 shows that you can get many combinations of angles of friction and friction points, if the size of the tongue 10 and the groove 9, the tongue 6 of the locking element 8 and the locking groove 14 is adjusted in accordance with the principles of the invention.

On Figa presents an implementation option with an angle of friction of such magnitude that the friction occurs when there are only two contact points CP1 and SR between the upper and lower parts of the tongue 10 and the groove 9 of the tongue. In this embodiment, the tongue has a lower portion 54, which is essentially parallel to the horizontal plane HP and goes from a vertical plane at a distance of more than 0.2 TD thickness T of the floor. According to this variant implementation between the underside of the tongue and groove for the tongue there is a space 55, which contributes to the clutch and allows the guide surfaces 11, 12 overlap at an angle to a larger value, for example 15 degrees (Fig.19b).

On Figa-shows that it is possible to perform locking system with three points of contact SR, CP1 and SR for angle of 25 degrees (Figa). Locking element even higher (LH)than in previous versions of the implementation, and the panel 1' is provided with a groove made the 56 Ohm between the tongue 10 and the groove 9 of the tongue. The upper portion of the pull tab is located at an angle to the horizontal, which facilitates the handling of the groove 9 latch rotating tools.

Simple vertical fixing short face does not give a significant improvement compared to existing technologies without combining it with a well-established lock system long faces with excellent direction and fixation, which allows you to combine long and short faces simple angular displacement. As can be seen from the embodiments shown, for example, on Fig.10b, 11a, 17A, 13C, 18b, 19b and 20b, it is possible to create a locking system with a combined friction angle and the guide angle and with a locking element 8 and the locking groove 14, the retaining collapsible panel in the raised position. The only action required for coupling panels is a vertical pressing folding panel near the short edges.

According to the invention, based on this principle, provided a way to install three panel when the first panel 1 and second panel 1 are flat on the black floor, with their long sides are connected, as shown in Figa. The method comprises the following steps.:

a) Have the new panel 1' is inclined, with a long face 5A is in contact with the upper part of the long edges 5b of the first panel 1".

b) Enter short the second face 4b of the new panel 1' in contact with the short edge 4A of the second panel 1 - so that the new panel 1' is held in this position by means of locking system on long and/or short edges. The new panel 1' can be held in this position by means of the guide surface of the locking element and the locking groove (Figa) and/or edges of the flexible tongue.

C) Press the plot of the short faces of the new panel down to the floor, thereby connecting the first, second and third panels to each other by vertical folding, preferably without significant visible gaps between the short edges.

This installation method allows you to hold the floor panel in the raised position, for example, with guide surfaces 11, 12 (Figure 10). This simplifies the installation, as the installer can change the position of the hands when moving from a first position in which the panel is placed under an angle of 25 degrees, pressed to the edge of the already installed first panel 1 and preferably slightly tilted down at an angle of friction and the guide angle. Then the installer can move the arm in the second position suitable for pressing areas of short sides of the panel, preferably both, to the black floor. The guide surface of the guide locking element into the locking groove and the tongue - in groove for the tongue. The friction between the long edges prevents shifting. The advantage is what is the combined effect of pressing together the upper edges at an angle, pressing the panel to the side to avoid the disconnection of the short sides and the lower panel to the floor can be replaced by two or three separate and simple independent action.

On Figa-presents a flexible tongue 30 with the inner and outer flexible parts. Flexible tabs (Figa-5C) have the following disadvantages.

1. They are usually made from extruded plastic profile is economical, but manufacturing tolerances stiff enough to produce high-quality products.

2. The lack of flexibility due to the fact that you only use one flexible latch, which in thin floors curves within a very limited vertical distance. Inflexible creates significant divisive efforts on faces.

3. It is difficult to combine the flexibility and adhesive strength, especially in the flexible tabs (Figa, b). Variant implementation of the invention can reduce or eliminate the aforementioned problems. The inner flexible portion 62 is not part of the vertical locking systems and, therefore, can be made very flexible, because its main function is to move the flexible tongue 30 into the groove. The upper portion 67 of the inner flexible portion is pressed against the inner part of the groove offset and bent or compressed immediately after pressing face of the floor panel to the outer flexible frequent is 61. Preferably, the outer part 61 was tougher and stronger than the inner part 62. The combined flexibility of the inner and outer parts can provide stronger fixation with less divisive force in comparison with the known tongues. The flexible tongue 30 can, of course, to have one or more internal and/or external parts having, for example, W-shaped and continuing vertically up or down, and this can be used to provide greater flexibility and offset. This tab can also be made of a rigid outer part, not flexible. The tongue may be attached to the collapsible panel. The outer flexible portion 61 in this embodiment is vertically upward and is fixed relative to the upper part of the groove for the tongue.

On Fig.21b shown that obtained by extrusion of the tongue, made for example from plastic or metal, can be customized by machining or grinding. This will greatly improve the manufacturing tolerances to the level similar to the level of tolerance injection molding or even the best. The offset grip and adhesion strength can be significantly improved. In the present embodiments, the implementation of the bottom surface 64 and/or locking surface 65 is adjusted before inserting into the groove 40 offset. Part of the Flex is on the tongue, preferably the outer flexible portion 61 can be adjusted when attaching the tongue to the face. This can be done at a particular stage of the technological process of production or together with the implementation of locking systems. Flexible tab may be of a design allowing it to bend horizontally, in the direction of the length, while the vertical folding. This bending is facilitated and sharing efforts are reduced if you remove the section 68 of the tongue at the edge (Fig). This means that the width W of the tongue 30 varies along the length L. This section of the tongue can also be removed from the inner elastic portion 67, and the tab will bend in the direction of the length with less resistance, which facilitates the vertical folding. Such molding with truncation of the boundary area can be performed is obtained by squeezing the tabs of all types, especially with limited flexibility, for example in the embodiment with only one outer elastic or flexible part (Figa, 5b and 6C). Flexible tongue may also have a design appropriate to the principle of joint with the rigid plate and a flexible coupling so that it does not bend in a horizontal direction while the clutch. This alternative implementation may provide a strong grip. However, there may be significant divisive efforts. They can tackle the work, for example, using a variant of implementation that contains multiple internal or external individual flexible parts 61A, 61b, separated by a slot 69, made for example by punching or machining. Such separate flexible parts can snap into place individually, which reduces the manufacturing tolerances, especially if the reeds are made with a separate flexible parts, the length of which can vary, for example 0.1 mm, and which are intended for the clutch on a specially defined levels relative to each other. This provides a guarantee that certain individual flexible part will always be perfectly fixed. The individual parts can be combined with a flexible tongue fixedly attached to the face panel, preferably in a horizontal groove.

The invention also includes individual obtained by extrusion of a flexible tongue that is designed for vertical clutch floorboards, characterized in that it preferably fitted to the top (63) and/or the bottom (64) of the contact surface and/or locking surface 65. This tongue or above the tongue with a remote regional area could also have a form similar to the form presented on Figa-5C, where the flexible tab contains only inner or outer flexible latch.

Machining, grinding and the others who analogichnye technological operations in General allow you to create a surface different from those obtained by extrusion of a raw surface. In most cases this can be seen in the microscope. Such machining may also be used to increase or decrease the friction between the tongue and the groove offset.

On Figa-22s presents the process of vertical folding or vertical grip. Another panel 1' is moved, preferably along the vertical plane VP to the other panel 1. The inner flexible portion 62 is bent vertically, when the plot verge of folding panel 1' comes into contact with the outer part of the flexible tongue 30, preferably with the outer flexible part 61, and a flexible tongue moves inward in the groove 40 of the offset to which it is attached, preferably by friction. Gradually even this outer flexible portion 61 will start to bend (Fig.22b). Finally, both parts 62 - inner and outer - snap back into its original position, and a flexible tongue moves inside the groove 40 offset in the direction of the groove 20 for tongue. Locking surface 65 of the flexible tongue 30 is fixed relative to the part of the flexible tongue 20. The connection of the tongue and groove offset can be done with a small space, easily enabling displacement and a tilt of the uvula during the clutch. The outer flexible portion 61 in the process of coupling preferably shifts the I, mainly horizontally, with a small rotation around the upper knee 70. The lower contact surface 65 may be located at an angle, preferably less than 10 degrees to the horizontal plane, which increases the adhesion strength.

On Fig presents latch locking system, which can be concatenated using the angular displacement. The new panel 1' contains the first connector containing the tongue 10 with a locking element 8A in the upper part. The first panel 1" contains a groove 9 for the tongue depressed, fitted top (6b) and bottom (6A) flanges, and locking groove 14a in the top flange 6b and continuing to the bottom of the flange 6A. The first and second connectors fixed panel in vertical and horizontal direction. The lower flange 6A preferably continues beyond the vertical plane VP and preferably contains a horizontal contact surface that is in contact with the lower part of the tongue 10. Locking system may, for example, be of a design that contains three contact points CP1, 2, 3 at an angle greater than 15 degrees (Figa). Reed castle is used as an alternative spotovi lock systems in all variants of implementation described above. Reed castle on long faces can be combined with a system of hooks on short faces that predpochtite the flax provide traction only in the horizontal direction (Fig.24d).

On Figa shown locking system with double tongue 10, 10' and two corresponding grooves 9, 9' for the reeds used for fixing faces with angular displacement, lock it or even vertical clutch, if the reeds and the tongue is so adjusted that allow vertical snap. Such a system may have more than four points of contact, and friction along the joint may be significant.

On Fig.24b presents locking system with a separate groove 6', which can also be used for fixation of long faces the same version of the implementation presented on Figa. Such a sheet may contain material or surface with more favorable frictional properties than the base material.

On Fig.24b presents locking system with a separate pull-tab 10', which may be flexible or rigid and can be attached to the V-panel 1" or folding panel 1' long and/or short edges to improve the frictional properties or to save material.

On Fig.24d presents a system of hooks, which provide only horizontal grip. On Five presents an implementation option locking systems with a flexible tongue 30 is made integral with the base panel. The groove 71 is depressed, made for a flexible tongue 30, increases gibco the ü tongue. Such a groove can be performed, preferably using a scraper, when machining short faces. These technologies scraping or dragging can be used to create shaped forms, similar extruded plastic profiles, especially of fibrous materials such as hardboard (high-density, but also from solid wood and plastics. The flexible tongue 30 can also be accomplished by using a rotating tools on the folding panel 1', with the outer part facing upwards. Locking system may also have two flexible tabs - one for each face. Wood fibers in the flexible tongue can be impregnated and/or coated, for example, a bunch of 70 to increase strength and flexibility. Impregnation can be performed before or after fabrication of the tongue or face. The whole face or part of the castle system, for example a groove 20 for the latch, locking element 8 or locking groove 14 can also be provided with an impregnation and/or coating. Groove with undercut can be filled with flexible materials to increase strength and flexibility. Vertical folding is facilitated if the tongue 6 and/or locking element 8 is bent in the process of folding. The wax in the castle system promotes adhesion. Vertical, essentially, a groove 73 on the sheet in the folding panel 1' or cavity 72 in the groove 6 adjacent to the locking element 8 in the V-panel 1, flexibility of locking systems and enable more flexible parts. Part 78 of the lower part of the tongue and/or balancing layer can be removed - this will increase the flexibility of the tongue and facilitate bending to the black floor. Folding panel may have a protrusion 74, and preferably also the castle of a surface is described in connection with Figs type. The flexible tongue can also be made of other material, permanently attached to the panel, for example, by gluing, friction or snap. This other material may constitute, for example, the local regional area 77, attached to the face before final processing. The groove 71 is depressed may also be preformed before joining separate material 77 to the face panel. This connection can be done on separate faces of a panel or panel to the workpiece, which is then cut into individual panels of the floor. Separate material 75, 76 can also be attached to the face panel 1 with groove and/or folding panel 1' so that it contains the main part of the castle system. Such separate the material in the wooden floor can be preferably bonded to the upper layer and the lower balancing layer. Separate materials may include, for example, made of solid wood, preferably hard and flexible, tcog is how the rubber tree or birch, wood, impregnation of binders such as acrylic substance, of plastics, solid laminate, made from wood material and phenol, which can also contain fiberglass, fiberboard, high density or fiberboard, high-density, reinforced binding substances fibreboard, high density, essentially vertical orientation of the fibers, materials with multiple layers containing wood fibers and/or plastic and/or fiberglass. Such materials can be used alone or in combination with one another. Locking system can, of course, also be manufactured according to the principles described above, without groove 71 is depressed, for example according to a variant implementation, described in relation File, if the material will be used and the configuration of the seam, suitable for achieving the desired flexibility.

For impregnation or coating of parts all locking systems can be used many different chemicals, such as melamine, urea, phenol, thermoplastic materials such as polypropylene or polyurethane. Such chemicals can be solidified, for example, using a heat-wave, or equivalent, ways of influence, pressure, or without.

Flexible tongue 70 on the I standard wood material can be bent to a few tenths of a millimeter, that's enough to get a vertical grip, especially in the floor of the laminate. The impregnation and/or coating can significantly increase the flexibility.

According to the invention provided with locking system short edge, which engages with a vertical folding or vertical clutch, and differs in that it contains a face with the tongue 6, a locking element 8, the flexible tongue 30, continuing down and made as one piece with the main part of the panel or from a separate material fixedly attached to the base. The flexible tongue 30 has a groove 70 is depressed, made for a tongue.

On Figa is shown as the maximum angle of contact at three points can be correctly set in the locking system, made mainly from wood material. Currently the market offers hundreds of different locking systems that are designed only for connection laminate flooring. Most of them are pretty easy to measure the maximum angle of contact at three points. This is shown in Figa. The sample width W2 and a length of about 100 mm tilt down, starting with the installation angle, while the upper edges are in contact, unless there is resistance due to contact between the locking groove and a locking element. In this position, i.e. when the largest angle of contact in the requirement of the points, the sample must be held in an elevated inclined position and not fall on a black floor under its own weight. The design of this locking system is characterized by the fact that the three dots represent the point of contact of the upper edges - SR, the upper part of the tongue and groove - CP1, and the locking element and the locking groove - CP4. Locking system may, however, be of a design presented on Fig.25b, in which three points of contact are the upper and lower parts of the tongue with the upper edges (CP1, SR, SR). Some of these locking systems, however, will not stand in the raised position. In such systems it is necessary to examine under the microscope cross-section of the weld. If the loosened fiber complicate the determination of the contact angle at the three points, it is necessary to measure the friction (Fig). Increased friction indicates that in the locking system is an additional point of contact.

On Figa-26d shows a variant implementation of the locking system short faces, opposing the displacement of the long sides during the vertical folding or prevent this bias. On Figa shows a view in section b-In locking system on the short side near the edge, which begins the folding, as shown in Figa. This locking system, as described previously, for example in connection with Figure 3, 5 and 8, includes a tongue 6 with locking the element and a separate flexible tongue 30 on the panel 1 with groove, the groove 20 for tongue and a locking groove on the folding panel 1'. Locking surface, essentially vertical and parallel to the vertical plane VP. This locking system may preferably be so designed that the element 8 with the upper part of the locking surface 8A may come in contact with the lower part of the locking surface 14a locking groove 14 (Figa), while between the folding panel 1' and the flexible tongue 30 contact no. This can be achieved due to the fact that close with a long face no parts of the tongue, or the fact that the tongue has the shape of a bow and has no protruding parts which come into contact with foldable panel. On Fig.26b presents a view in section C-C on FIGU. Locking surface 8A, 14a prevent separation when the tongue 30 is in contact with a foldable panel, provided that they are, in essence, preferably vertical, and continuing vertically to a considerable distance so that you can prevent the offset angle is preferably 10 degrees or more, even in the embodiment in which the flexible tongue 30 is located near the long edges. Locking surface should preferably have a height H, which is at least of 0.1, and preferably to 0.15 thickness T of the floor. Vertical locking surface can also be performed with height H 0,2T and Bo is her.

In the framework of the General principle of the invention there are several alternatives. On Fig.26d shown that the operation can be equivalent only if the locking surface 14a locking groove 14 corresponds to the above-mentioned requirements. Function locking systems will be similar, if locking groove, for example, has the shape of a bow with an arc towards the outer edge, provided that there are at least two parts arranged vertically along a vertical plane, and the distance between them is about 0,1T.

On Figa presents an implementation option, in which the locking element and the locking groove 14 for a short faces are used to prevent separation. If the edge 8A locking element 8 is located near the long edges 5A of the first panel 1", which is an advantage, because this edge enters the locking groove of the new panel under quite a wide angle, and a flexible tongue may be located so that until near the long edges. The flexible tongue 30 in this embodiment is an extruded profile with the shape of the edge section 68, to facilitate horizontal movement during the folding. High vertical locking surface on the short sides are particularly suitable for locking system with a flexible tongue that contains you allendy plastic profile and especially if this profile contains only one outer flexible latch, which creates significant divisive pressure due to limited flexibility.

On Fig shown that the flexible tongue 30 can be moved even further to the long edges 5b, which prevents the displacement along the long edges even at an even greater angle, if the long sides is a compact latch locking system, and this locking system does not contain grooves 6A protruding beyond the vertical plane VP.

On Figs shown locking system with preferably obtained by extrusion of a flexible tongue 30 and essentially vertical locking surfaces between the locking element 8 on the tongue 6 and the locking groove 14 of the folding panel 1'. Folding panel 1' includes a protrusion 74 adjacent to the locking surface of the locking groove 14, which is housed in a respective cavity 72 in the groove 6, and preferably horizontal bottom surface 24 of the contact, which is fixed relative to the adjacent contact surfaces of the groove 6' in the vertical direction. This design is very suitable for floors with a basis of fiberboard, high density, because the cavity is in the lower part of the panel, where the density is high. The cavity only to a limited extent reduces durable is here locking systems. The height H of the vertical locking surface is preferably at least 0,1T. To avoid cracking shrinkage of the floor and to facilitate the penetration of each individual tongue 30 into the groove 40 offset, the design of the locking system preferably is such that the locking element 8 is located below the horizontal plane H2, containing the lower part of the groove 40 offset, and the locking groove 14 is located below the horizontal plane H1 containing the inner part and the lower part of the groove 20 for tongue.

1. The method of Assembly that is designed to connect floor panels (1, 1', 1") with vertical folding, and the panel is equipped with a locking system with angular movement on long faces(9, 10, 6, 8, 14) and a system of vertical folding(20, 30, 6, 8, 14) on the short sides for grip panels in vertical and horizontal directions, with the first (1") and second (1) the panels are flat on the black floor, and their long sides are connected, characterized in that contains the following stages, which are:
a) enter the first long edge (5A)below the angle of the new panel in contact with the upper part of the second long side (5b) of the first panel (1"),
b) enter a short face (4b) of the new panel (1') into contact with the short edge (4A) of the second panel so that the new panel kept the ü in this position by means of locking system on long and/or short faces
C) press the plot of the short face (4b) of the new panel down to the black floor, and
g) connecting the first, second and third panels to each other by means of vertical folding.

2. The method according to claim 1, containing a stage at which: install the panel in a position in which the long sides have a top (CP1) and lower (SR) vertical point of contact between the tongue (10, 30) and a groove (9, 20) latch, internal (SR) horizontally of the point of contact between adjacent upper surfaces of the first and second long sides and the outer guide surface contact (CP4) horizontally between adjacent bottom surfaces of the first and second long sides, when the first panel press the top edge to the top edge of the new panel under angle to the main plane of about 10 degrees.

3. The method according to claim 1, containing a stage at which: install the panel in a position in which the long sides have a top (CP1) and lower (SR) vertical point of contact between the tongue (10, 30) and a groove (9, 20) for reed, as well as internal (SR) horizontally of the point of contact between adjacent upper surfaces of the first and second long sides and the outer guide surface contact horizontally (CP4) between adjacent bottom surfaces of the first and second long sides, when the first panel press the top edge to the top edge of the n the front panel under the contact angle.

4. The method according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the tongue (10, 30) on one of the short edges contains a separate material and provided with a flexible part made with the possibility of displacement in the horizontal direction during folding and interaction with a groove (9, 20) for tongue in another short faces to grip the floor panel in a vertical direction (DI)that is parallel to the vertical plane (VP).

5. The method according to claim 4, in which part of the tongue (10, 30) is arranged to bias in the connecting groove (40) in the Board.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: construction, road engineering.

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8 cl, 5 dwg

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6 cl, 9 dwg

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10 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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26 cl, 12 dwg

Shelf floor // 2435009

FIELD: construction.

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8 cl, 2 dwg

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FIELD: building, particularly floor structures in rooms adapted for electronic and electrical equipment installation.

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6 cl, 4 dwg

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7 cl, 3 dwg

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6 cl, 10 dwg

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14 cl, 6 dwg

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