Method of controlling working mechanism

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method of controlling working mechanism includes the following stages: determination of maximum pressure of hydraulic fluid for independent fulfilment of certain task for, at least, one of operating functions; hydraulic fluid supply which pressure does not exceed certain maximum pressure for fulfilment of this operating function; and fluid pressure control with the aid of, at least, one control valve as pressure reducer connected with this operating function.

EFFECT: increase of operation efficiency in condition of large loads at mechanism operating component.

26 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to a method of controlling a working machine that includes a hydraulic system for controlling operating functions, including lifting and tilting of the implement.

The level of technology

The invention will be described below with reference to the working vehicle, which represents a wheel loader. This is the preferred use, however, it in no way limits the scope of the invention. The invention may also be applied to other types of work machines (self-propelled material handling machines, such as backhoe loader, excavator or agricultural machine such as a tractor.

Wheel loader can be used for various types of work, such as lifting and transporting rocks and gravel, moving pallets and logs. In each of these works is used by various operating equipment, including outboard tools, such as shovel, fork gripper and gripper lever. More specifically, the equipment contains a unit of cargo boom or boom, which is mounted on the frame wheel loader can be rotated. Between the frame and block cargo boom are two hydraulic cylinder for lifting and lowering a cargo boom. Hinged instrument set is go to block cargo boom can be rotated. Mounted between the tool and unit cargo boom is an additional hydraulic cylinder for effecting tilting of the guns.

The hydraulic system includes a pump designed to supply hydraulic fluid under pressure to the hydraulic cylinders for hydraulic network, in which there are control valves.

Typically, the hydraulic system is a system with measurement of the load (controlled hydraulic drive). In one such known systems with measurement of the load is determined by the maximum supply pressure. Then the maximum inlet pressure is limited by the pump or valve. In addition, the hydraulic system is calculated on the basis of predetermined, the highest pressures. In known hydraulic systems, wheel loaders lifting capacity may be insufficient when the bucket is held in a lowered position, rests on the pile of material to take out of it piece of material. To resolve this problem you can use the hydraulic cylinder is increased in size, to ensure which requires a more powerful pump. As a result, the cost of the system increases, also increasing the loss in the process, and to install the system requires more space.

Disclosure of inventions

the First aim of the invention is the provision of a method of controlling a working machine, which economically provides increased efficiency, especially in relation to large loads that occur when the fence material from compacted piles, preferably without reducing the service life or increase.

This goal is achieved by using the method according to claim 1 of the claims. Accordingly, the objective is achieved by determining the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid to perform a specific task separately for at least one of the work functions and the supply of hydraulic fluid under pressure which does not exceed a certain thus the maximum pressure to perform this job function. This can be obtained variable maximum pressure, which is determined by the force required to perform the function.

The desired maximum pressure of the supplied hydraulic fluid will vary depending on the prevailing operating mode, that is, from the features used, the position of the cylinder, the type of work tools, work type, etc.

In accordance with a preferred variant of the method involves determining the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately for a work function in accordance with the prevailing operating mode. For example, for the function of lifting temporarily can in order to provide a higher pressure when the bucket is in the lower position runs into a pile of material in the collection of this material. Accordingly, the lifting cylinder it is necessary to apply a high pressure when it retracts (penetration into the pile of material), and low pressure when it is put forward that it is expedient from the point of view of load, because the cylinders are most sensitive to the load in the extended position.

In accordance with one variant of the method involves continuous detection conditions, namely, that the maximum pressure required to perform a work function lower than the basic level of maximum pressure, and reducing the maximum pressure to the necessary level below basic level, if you only lower the maximum level. In this case, in many operating modes can be supported by the lowest possible pressure level and, accordingly, may be provided with long service life.

One variant of the method involves measurement (registration) at least one working parameter and determining the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately for a work function in accordance with the measured value of the working parameter. Under the working parameter refers to a parameter that is indicative of a position Qili the DRA, type of work tools, the type of work performed, etc. In accordance with one variant of the system is adaptive adjustable. The control unit may determine, as a wheel loader is used for some interval of time, by measuring the operating parameters and make decisions regarding the type of work performed and/or the type of work tools. Then, on the basis of such information, the control unit may select the maximum pressure. Alternatively or additionally, the maximum pressure is determined in accordance with a signal from the body control operator, such as a lever, button or other control in the cockpit.

In accordance with another preferred variant of the method involves determining the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid to perform some tasks using workflow tools separately, at least for two business functions and supply hydraulic fluid under pressure which does not exceed a certain thus the maximum pressure to perform each job function. These work functions include, for example, lifting and tilting of the implement. The method preferably also includes the supply of hydraulic fluid under pressure which does not exceed a certain thus the m maximum pressure, at the same time to perform each of these functions.

The hydraulic system is preferably a system with measurement of the load (controlled hydraulic drive). This means that the pump measures the pressure measurement signal load) involved in hydraulic cylinders during operation of the system. The pressure signal produced by the pressure sensors, which are functionally connected with the hydraulic cylinders. After that the pump sets the pressure that a certain number of bar higher than the pressure in the cylinders. This leads to the inflow of oil into the hydraulic cylinders, the degree of which depends on the opening degree of the involved control valve. In accordance with a preferred variant of the measuring signal load is limited depending on the above parameters. Only in the case when there is a sharing of functions, the valves can limit the maximum pressure as stated above, if you have to perform some functions require a higher pressure. The advantage of the limitations of using the first electric signal measuring load is to reduce the losses, since the control pressure, for example, for the function of lifting is reduced if performed at the same time the lifting function is aborted.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is described below in more detail with reference to variations in its implementation, are presented in the attached drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 is a side view of the wheel loader;

figure 2 is an example system for a wheel loader in accordance with the invention;

figure 3 - block diagram of the control system shown in figure 2.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 shows a side view of the wheel loader 101. Wheel loader 101 has a front portion 102 and rear portion 103, each of which contains a frame, and two leading axis 112, 113. In the rear part 103 of the truck is the cab 114 of the driver-operator. Part 102, 103 of the truck are connected with the possibility of rotation relative to each other around a vertical axis by means of two actuators in the form of hydraulic cylinders 104, 105, which is attached to the parts 102, 103. Accordingly, the hydraulic cylinders 104, 105 are located on both sides of the Central line in the longitudinal direction of the truck to control the direction of movement or rotation of the loader 101.

Wheel loader 101 is equipped with a mechanism 111 for loading/unloading of objects or material. The mechanism 111 includes a block 106 cargo boom and ancillary tool 107 in the form of a bucket, which fitted the h block cargo boom. As shown in figure 1, the bucket 107 is filled with material 116. The first end of the cargo boom 106 is attached to the front portion 102 of the truck can be rotated to ensure the bucket is raised. The bucket 107 is attached to the second end of the block 106 cargo boom can be rotated to change the tilt of the bucket.

Block 106 cargo boom can be raised and lowered relative to the front portion 102 of the truck by means of two actuators in the form of hydraulic cylinders 108, 109, each of which is attached one end to the front portion 102 of the truck and the other end to the block 106 cargo boom. The bucket 107 can be tilted relative to the block 106 cargo boom with the third actuator (hydraulic cylinder), which is attached one end to the front portion 102 of the truck and the other end to the bucket 107 through a system of connecting links and rods.

The first version of the system presented in figure 2. The system 201 includes a pump 205 designed to supply hydraulic fluid under pressure to the hydraulic cylinders by the hydraulic network. The pump 205 is supplied from the engine 206 of the truck, which is a diesel engine. The pump 205 has a variable working volume. Preferably the pump is used 205 with stepless adjustment. the system 201 includes a block 208 valves (indicated by phantom lines), containing hydraulic network with control valves for control of the lifting and tilting of the bucket.

Two of the control valve, in the form of flow regulators 207, 209, located in the hydraulic line between the pump 205 and hydraulic cylinders 108, 109 lifting the bucket to control the lifting and lowering of the bucket. The first valve 207 management provides the connection of the pump 205 side of the piston and the second valve 209 management provides the connection of the tank 243 side of the piston rod. In addition, the first valve 207 management provides the connection of the tank 243 side of the piston and, accordingly, the second valve 209 management provides the connection of the pump 205 side of the piston rod. This scheme provides broad management capabilities. In particular, it is not necessary to perform the function to simultaneously connect the pump and the tank.

System 201 also includes a control block 213 (or the computer), which contains software for controlling the functions of the truck. The control unit also called a Central processing unit or electronic control module. The control block 213 preferably includes a microprocessor.

Unit 213 controls functionally connected to the body 211 of the control operator in the form of handlebars rise. Unit 213 controls to ensure Ecevit receiving control signals, produced by the arm lifting control, and actuation of the respective valves 207, 209 management (through the block 215 control valves). Unit 213 controls preferably provides a more General management and the block 215 control valves manages the basic functions of block 208 valves. Of course, the blocks 213, 215 management can be combined into one common unit. When you run the pump 205 is provided by the inflow of oil to the cylinders 108, 109, the degree of which depends on the opening degree of the involved valves 207, 209.

The body of 219 the management of the operator in the form of a steering wheel is connected hydraulically with the cylinders 104, 105 through valve site in the form of a rotary device 220 for direct control cylinders.

As well as features lifting bucket, between the pump 205 and the cylinder 110 of the slope there are two valve 223, 225 to control the movement backward and forward mounted guns in relation to a block of a cargo boom. Unit 213 controls functionally connected to the body 227 control operator in the form of arms control tilt. Block 213 management ensures the reception of the control signals generated by the control handle tilt, and actuation of the respective valves 223, 225 control.

On the output tube 245 pump is LAPAN 220 priority for the automatic provision of priority, namely, that the function of controlling the direction of movement of the truck is provided primarily concerning the function of lifting (and tilt).

In system 201 is measured by the load, which uses sensors 229, 231, 233, 235, 237 pressure to measure the pressure created by the load for each of the above functions. To ensure the function of the bucket is raised, the system uses two sensors 229, 231 pressure, one of which is on the tube going to the side of the pistons of the cylinders of the lifting of the bucket, and the other is on the tube going to the side of the piston rods of these cylinders. Similarly, to ensure the function of the tilting of the bucket, the system uses two sensors 235, 237 pressure, one of which is on the tube going to the side of the piston rod of the tilt cylinder bucket, and the other is on the tube going to the side of the piston of this cylinder. To ensure the function of steering the truck the system uses a sensor 233 pressure mounted on the tube going to the cylinders 104, 105 steering. More precisely, the sensor 233 pressure is on the tube pressure measurement, the pressure of which is equal to the pressure on the side of one cylinder, when the rotation is in one direction, and pressure on the other side of the cylinder, when the rotation is in the opposite direction. In neutral position the AI tube measuring load is connected with the tank.

The system also includes a valve 241 with electric control designed to control the output pressure of the pump using the hydraulic signal. The system 201 includes an additional sensor 239 pressure for pressure measurement, which is a measure of the output pressure of the pump. More precisely, the sensor 239 pressure is designed to measure the pressure at the point after the valve 241 with electric control. Accordingly, the sensor 239 pressure directly measures the pressure created by the pump when the valve 241 is fully open. In the normal mode, the sensor 239 pressure measures the pressure adjustable valve 241. Accordingly, the control block 213 is designed to receive signal from the sensor 239 pressure pump, containing information about the pressure level.

Block 213 management receives electrical signals from sensors 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 239 pressure and produces an electrical signal to actuate the valve 241 with electric control.

As mentioned, the control block 213 is designed to receive signals from the arms 211, 227 management. If the operator needs to raise the bucket, he uses the handle 211 lifting. The control unit receives from the arm 211 of the rise and sets the valves 207, 209 control in such a position, in which the pump soedinenii side of the piston of the lifting cylinder 108, 109 and the rod side of the piston of the lifting cylinder is connected with the reservoir 243. In addition, the control unit receives signals from the sensor 229 load pressure side of the piston of the lifting cylinder and from the sensor 239 pressure on the outlet side of the pump. In accordance with the signals to determine the required pump pressure greater than the measured pressure of the load, and accordingly activated valve 241 with electric control.

Unit 213 controls preferably provides the coordination degree of opening of the valves 207, 209 control and pressure at the pump exit 205 to optimize the operation.

The tilt of the bucket is the same as lift function. When controlling the direction of movement of the truck sensor 233 pressure in the steering subsystem detects the pressure load of the steering, and produces a signal corresponding to the load. The control block 213 receives the load signal and the signal from the sensor 239 pressure at the outlet of the valve 241 with electric control. In accordance with the signals to determine the required pump pressure exceeding the pressure measured load, and uses appropriate way valve 241 with electric control.

If enabled simultaneously several functions, the measured pressure is I load are compared and the pump 205 is fed the control signal, corresponding to the highest pressure load.

Accordingly, the valve 241 with electric control is arranged in such a way that it could be infinitely translate way adjustable between two extreme positions: a first extreme position corresponds to the minimum pressure pump and the second end position corresponds to the maximum pressure.

The tube 251 between the valve 241 is electrically operated and the pump is a hydraulic device 253 in the form of a reversing valve. The reversing valve 253 provides reception hydraulic signals from the steering wheel and from the valve 241 pump control. The reversing valve is designed to control the pump 205 in accordance with the received signal, corresponding to the highest pressure load. Accordingly, the hydraulic device (reversing valve) 253 selects the highest pressure in the output signal composed of the two input signals of the pressure.

The system also includes a sensor 255 for measuring the position of the lifting cylinder. Sensor 255 is functionally connected to the control block 213. In this case, the control block 213 may determine whether lifting or lowering of the load.

Figure 3 illustrates one possible method of controlling the working machine 101. The run method starts the I in block 302. Detected or determined (see below) the prevailing operating mode, and the control unit receives the signal (block 304). The control unit determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid to perform a specific task hinged instrument separately for at least one function in accordance with the mode of operation (block 306). Next, the control unit receives confirmation that the hydraulic liquid is carried out and the pressure as much as possible matches the given maximum pressure to ensure the work function (block 308). In accordance with the first option, the maximum pressure is determined and continuously changed for a work function in accordance with the need. In turn, for different operating modes needs are different.

In accordance with the first option operating mode measured performance parameter, which is indicative of the position of the mounted guns.

The position of the mounted guns is determined by its slope, that is, the orientation relative to the boom (which can be determined by the position of the tilt cylinder), height, i.e. the orientation of the boom vertically relative to the frame wheel loader (which can be determined by the position of the lifting cylinder), and/or lateral displacement, i.e. the relative position of the parts 102, 10 wheel loader (which can be determined by the position of the steering cylinder).

More specifically, the cylinder position is defined for the function, which is operated by the operator: for example, when sampling from a pile when lifting requires high pressure, because the block arrows in the bottom position, in which the resistance to pulling, acting on the car, counteracts the lifting force. In accordance with another variant, the position of the cylinder is determined for another function. For example, for the function of lifting, when carrying out sampling of material from a pile, it is easier to determine that you are such a fence, if the determined position of the cylinders of the lift and tilt. Further, in accordance with another variant of the dependence of the lift function when the fence material may also be a function of the position of the cylinder 104, 105 steering. This is done to avoid climbing into the air of the rear wheels, which will hit the ground when the load is removed. The greater the angle, the less will be the maximum pressure that may be created for the function of lifting. Accordingly, the performance parameter is measured for the first work function and the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid is determined for the second work function. In accordance with another option instead is determined by the position of the part which is moved by the cylinders.

Maximum pressure determine eleesa by one or more of the specified operating parameters or their combination. In accordance with a second embodiment, the maximum pressure is determined by the curve of the maximum pressure, which is a function of these parameters, and this curve may also have a different shape depending on other operating parameters, such as running an operation that is used attached equipment and the position of the control operator (offset arm).

For example, if the garbage collection using a bucket, you must be able to condense trash drop the bucket, however, the growth in air front wheels are undesirable because they have a lot of weight, and the operator will operate heavy loads, when the front wheels hit the ground. When performing such work maximum pressure lowering bucket can be set at a level which is slightly lower pressure, is able to raise the car.

With regard to the type of the mounted guns, the relatively low maximum pressure required for forklift capture for pallets, as in this case, you only work on the rise, as for the bucket, in this case, requires a greater maximum pressure, because you have to break loose in the pile material.

Regarding the response to movement of the control levers in the system to measure the receiving load supply hydraulic fluid to the cylinders is a function of the deflection arm. However, the deviation of the handle can also be used to regulate the maximum force, i.e. the maximum pressure increases with the variance of the handle.

The dependence curve of maximum pressure from work, mounted guns and deflection of the arm can be set in the control unit using buttons on the control panel or any other system that does this automatically.

The main valves 207, 209, 223, 225 for each function are used for flow control, and as reducers under the control of the control block 213. When hydraulic fluid enters the cylinder 108, 109 of the pump 205, the control unit checks that the pressure does not exceed the maximum level, using sensor 229, 231 pressure, measuring the pressure in the corresponding cylinder. If the pressure exceeds the maximum level, the control unit closes the valve. On the other hand, when the pressure drops below the maximum value, the valve opens again at the position specified by the operator (provided that no higher-priority function for which you want a different valve position).

If the above is combined with the use of an adjustable measuring signal load (as indicated above), it can affect the fuel consumption Then block 213 control limits the maximum adjustable pressure pump primarily by limiting the signal measured load in accordance with the above parameters. Only in the case when there is a sharing of functions, the valves can limit the maximum pressure, as described above, if the function requires a higher pressure. Dignity limitations, primarily with the use of an electrical signal measured load, is that losses are reduced, since the control pressure is reduced, for example, for the function of inclination, when the lifting function is turned off.

The invention should not be deemed limited to the above variants of its implementation, moreover, within the scope of the invention defined by the attached formula may also be offered other options and their modifications. In particular, the preferred options can be used together in different ways.

In addition, for two different work functions can be fitted with various fixed levels of maximum pressure. Then select the maximum pressure associated with work performed by the function.

In accordance with another variant of the measured performance parameter, which is indicator of the load on the working machine. For example, the measured hydraulic pressure for operating functions, namely the pressure in one of the hydraulic cylinders. In addition, based on the measured operating the second parameter is the maximum pressure for this work function (or other work function). Accordingly, the maximum pressure for the implementation of the tilt and/or lift may be controlled to increase when the attached equipment rests on a pile of material and you need to select some material from a pile.

In accordance with one variant of the control method may also include comparing the desired pressure set by the operator) with the found maximum pressure and the pressure supply of hydraulic fluid for the implementation of the work function, which is the smallest of the required pressure and found maximum pressure.

In accordance with another variant, in which the maximum pressure for the working function is continuously changing, the maximum pressure is set in advance in the form of several different levels, and the control unit selects one of such predetermined maximum pressure depending on the operating mode.

1. The method of controlling a working machine (101)having a hydraulic system (201) to control operational functions (203, 217, 221), including lifting and tilting of the implement (107), and having at least one valve (207, 209, 223, 225) controls for each work function, which is driven by a unit (213) control, and the method includes the steps are: determine the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid for the implementation of the specific tasks separately, at least for one of the job functions, serves hydraulic fluid pressure which does not exceed the specified maximum pressure, to perform a work function and manage the pressure of the hydraulic fluid supplied to perform a work function, using at least one associated with the work function of the control valve as a pressure reducer.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which different maximum pressure of hydraulic fluid connected at least with the two working functions and carry out the selection of the maximum pressure associated with work performed by the function.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, comprising the step that determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately for a work function in accordance with the prevailing operating mode.

4. The method according to claim 1, comprising the step on which measure at least one operating parameter and determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately for a work function in accordance with the measured value of the working parameter.

5. The method according to claim 4, including a step where the measured performance parameter of the first work function and determine the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid to the second work function.

6. The method according to claim 1, including a step where the measure of work is the second parameter, which is the indicator of the condition of the working tools, and determine the maximum pressure for the working functions in accordance with the measured work parameter.

7. The method according to claim 1, including a step where the measured performance parameter, which is a measure of the orientation of the working machine, and determine the maximum pressure for the working functions in accordance with the measured work parameter.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the hydraulic system includes at least one hydraulic actuator(104, 105, 108, 109, 110) to control each work function.

9. The method according to claim 8, in which the actuator includes at least one hydraulic cylinder for each of the work functions of the lift and tilt.

10. The method according to claim 7 and 9, including the step where the measured performance parameter, which is the indicator of the position of the working cylinder,

11. The method according to claim 1, including a step where the measured performance parameter, which is indicator of the load acting on the working machine, and determine the maximum pressure for the working functions in accordance with the measured work parameter.

12. The method according to claim 1, including the step, at which the measured hydraulic pressure associated with one of the job functions, and determine the maximum pressure for one of the job functions in accordance with the measured R is working parameter.

13. The method according to claim 1, including the step that determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately to the work function depending on the type of work performed.

14. The method according to claim 1, including the step that determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately to the work function depending on the type of work the guns.

15. The method according to claim 1, including the step that determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately to the work function depending on the type of work the guns.

16. The method according to claim 1, including the step that determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid separately for a work function in accordance with the signal produced by the body (211, 227) control operator.

17. The method according to claim 1, including the step that determines whether the maximum pressure needed to perform a work function higher base level of maximum pressure, and provide a temporary increase in the level of maximum pressure to the required level over baseline.

18. The method according to claim 1, including the step continuously determining whether the maximum pressure needed to perform a work function lower than the basic level of maximum pressure, and carry out the reduction in the anti-shudder performance and maximum pressure up to the necessary level, below the basic level, if you only lower the maximum level.

19. The method according to claim 1, including the step that determines the maximum pressure of the hydraulic fluid to perform a specific task using desktop tools separately, at least for two business functions and implement the flow of hydraulic fluid pressure which does not exceed a certain thus the maximum pressure to perform each of these functions.

20. The method according to claim 19, including the step, at which the supply of hydraulic fluid pressure which does not exceed a certain maximum pressure, for simultaneous execution of each job function.

21. The method according to claim 1, comprising the step on which actuate the control valve using an electric signal.

22. The method according to claim 1, including the step in which you carry out continuous measurement of the hydraulic pressure used to perform the function, comparing the measured pressure value with a certain thus the maximum pressure and stop the injection if the measured pressure exceeds a certain thus the maximum pressure.

23. The method according to claim 1, wherein the hydraulic system includes a common pump (205), DL designed the supply of hydraulic fluid under pressure to perform the job functions.

24. The method according to item 23, including the step at which control the pump using an electric signal.

25. The method according to item 23 or 24, comprising the step that provides the maximum level of the regulated pressure of the pump.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises first assembly of actuators to control first hydraulic function, pump to feed hydraulic fluid at pressure into said actuators, electrically control valve to control pump discharge pressure by hydraulic signal, first pressure transducer to measure load pressure of the said first assembly of actuators, and control unit to receive signal containing data on load pressure measured by first pressure transducer and to generate control signal corresponding to first measured load pressure to be transmitted to said control valve. Note here that control unit allow determining required pump pressure so that difference between measured load pressure and pump pressure varies depending upon operating conditions.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of control.

18 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises, at least, one hydraulic cylinder to handle cargoes, accumulator and valve to control flows between said cylinder and said accumulator. Note here that said system comprises first control valves arranged on tube connected to hydraulic cylinder piston side, second control valve arranged on tube connected to cylinder rod side, first hydraulic cylinder pressure transducer, second accumulator pressure transducer, and control unit. Note also that control unit receives signals containing data on pressures measured by aforesaid transducers and to generate signals to control damping control functions. Invention covers also method of damping working tool comprising measuring accumulator and hydraulic cylinder pressures, and controlling damping functions in compliance with measured pressures. Note here that pressures between accumulator and cylinder piston are equalised and flow between accumulator and tank are controlled by control valve arranged on tube secured to hydraulic cylinder piston side.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

37 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: system to control mining machine comprises a hydraulic drive of travel and a drilling rod with a power hydraulic control unit, a hydraulic drive of a loading element and hydraulic cylinders of a drilling rig with a power hydraulic control unit, an electrohydraulic unit of power hydraulic units control with a system of electric interlocks, sources of supply for hydraulic drive and control systems. At the same time power hydraulic units to control a hydraulic drive of travel, a drilling rod, a hydraulic drive of a loading element and hydraulic cylinders of a drilling rig are equipped with additional locking devices installed between sections of the hydraulic control units.

EFFECT: locking of the caterpillar drive and loading element drive during operation of drilling equipment to ensure safety of maintenance personnel.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: test bench for digging-transporting machines of bucket type consists of full-size digging-transport machine of bucket type with hydraulic drive, of loading system, of position sensors and of computer. Each cavity of the hydraulic cylinder of hydraulic drive of working equipment is equipped with the hydraulic system of loading. It includes a regulated throttle with proportional electric control - a back valve and a pressure gauge. The back valve is parallel connected to the regulated throttle with proportional electric control. An inlet cavity of the back valve on a side of the seat is connected to one outlet of a distributor of fluid of hydraulic drive of digging-transporting machine by means of one pipeline; while an outlet cavity of the back valve is connected to the cavity of the hydraulic cylinder of the hydraulic drive of the digging-transporting machine by means of another pipeline. The pressure gauge is connected to the same cavity. The output of the gauge is connected with an inlet of the computer, while an electric input of the control unit of the regulated throttle with proportional electric control is connected with an output of the computer.

EFFECT: simplified design of bench, reduced expenditures for its fabrication and raised reliability of tests.

2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-system consists of tank, of working equipment pump, pressure main of which is connected with rod and piston cavities of hydro-cylinder of working equipment and hydraulic motor by means of hydraulic distributors, and of safety valve. The hydro-system has an accumulator of replenishment, a hydraulic distributor, a control valve and a throttle. Also, the accumulator of replenishment is connected with a drain main, with the tank via the safety valve, with an input of the hydraulic distributor and with a control cavity of the hydraulic distributor through the control valve. Further, via a throttle, it is connected with a suction main of the pump. The suction main is coupled with an output of the hydraulic distributor.

EFFECT: reduced losses of hydraulic energy in hydraulic system.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed preheater comprises hydraulic pump articulated with heat engine and gas heat carrier circulation circuit. Proposed device incorporates heat-isolated chamber and flexible heat-isolated metal hose communicated with inlet branch pipe of heat-isolated chamber mounted for heating interval via special guides outside of hydraulic tank bottom nearby hydraulic pump suction branch pipe. In operation, heat-isolated chamber discharge branch pipe is communicated by similar metal hose with atmosphere. Proposed method of cleaning consists in intermittent feed of preset amount of finely dispersed NaO2 agent into heat-isolated chamber to oxidise (burn out) deposited solid particle after prestarting heater withdrawn from the machine.

EFFECT: simplified design, higher efficiency at negative ambient temperatures.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: power efficient working equipment consists of turning platform, of gantry, of boom, of stick, of bucket, of hydro-cylinders of boom lift. of hydro-cylinders of stick turn and of hydro-cylinder of bucket turn. In vertical plane of symmetry of the boom between hydro-cylinders of stick turn there is installed a pneumatic hydro-cylinder pivotally secured on the turning platform and the boom, a piston cavity of which is connected at least with two gas tanks charged with compressed air at pressure over 10 MPa. Total volume of gas tanks amounts to at least four working volumes of the pneumatic hydro-cylinder. At least one hydraulic damper of working fluid pressure charged with compressed air over 15 MPa is connected to piston cavities of the boom hydro-cylinders.

EFFECT: improved design of working equipment of hydraulic excavator, reduced fluctuations of pressure in hydro-system of working equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: energy-saving operating equipment includes digging arm base, digging arm head, handle, bucket, the main hydraulic cylinders for lifting the digging arm, control hydraulic cylinder of the digging arm length, additional balancing pneumatic cylinder connected to portal and to the digging arm base. Piston cavity of balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to gas bottle charged with pressure of more than 10 MPa and having the volume equal at least to five operating volumes of balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder. At that, to piston cavity at least of one main hydraulic cylinder for lifting the digging arm there connected is hydropneumatic accumulator the gas cavity of which is charged with initial pressure of more than 10 MPa and divided at least into two gas chambers separated with a partition in which an adjustable orifice is installed.

EFFECT: higher operating efficiency of machine, lower energy losses and higher efficiency of operating equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a boom, a bucket, the main hydraulic cylinder of the boom, a balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder, a gas balloon. The main hydraulic cylinder of the boom and the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder are located in a single longitudinal vertical plane of the boom symmetry, so that the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is brought to the boom as close as possible in the lower and upper limit positions of the working equipment. The boom base is arranged in the form of a box, where the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is installed, a piston cavity of which is connected to a gas balloon charged with pressure of more than 10 MPa. At the same time the volume of the gas balloon makes more than five working volumes of the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder.

EFFECT: energy-saving and simplification of design.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: energy-saving working equipment of a single-bucket excavator on a rotary column comprises a top utility tractor, a rotary column, including a base and a head, a boom, a handle, a bucket, main hydraulic cylinders of a boom. The boom is hingedly connected to a head of a rotary column, and the main hydraulic cylinders of the boom are hingedly connected to the base of the rotary column and the boom. A balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to the base of the rotary column and the boom, and a piston cavity of the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to a gas balloon charged with pressure of more than 10 MPa. At the same time the gas balloon volume makes more than five working volumes of the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder, a hinged joint of which is arranged on the base of the rotary column with displacement relative to the boom hinged joint on the rotary column head, with the possibility to ensure compact arrangement at the upper and lower positions of the working equipment.

EFFECT: increased effectiveness and efficiency factor, improved design of the working equipment.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving facilities; hydraulic drives of scraper working members.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic drive contains pressure spool installed in parallel with like spaces of two hydraulic cylinders, pressure main line connected between two check valves, free outlet of check valve being connected with inlet of pressure spool and one hydraulic cylinder. Free inlet is connected with outlet of pressure spool and other hydraulic cylinder, drum main line connects opposite spaces of hydraulic cylinders. Hydraulic drive is furnished with two series-connected pressure spools. Inlet of first pressure spool and outlet of second pressure spool are connected with outlet of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool. Their common line is connected with controllable space of second hydraulic cylinder and is separated by check valve from pressure main line. Inlets of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool are connected to outputs of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool and are connected with controllable spaces of first and second hydraulic cylinders. One inlet of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool is connected with inlet of pressure spool and is connected to pressure line through check valve, and second inlet is separated from pressure line by other check valve. Control spaces of two hydraulically controlled reversible spools are united and are connected to pressure main line through two-position spool.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of control of scraper blade system.

4 dwg

FIELD: handling machinery, particularly soil-shifting, mining, agricultural and loading cyclic machines.

SUBSTANCE: device includes implement, main hydraulic cylinders and balancing hydraulic cylinder, at least one gas cylinder and hydropneumatic accumulator, main and additional hydrodistributors, as well as safety valve. Gas cylinder communicates with gas chamber of hydropneumatic accumulator. Device made in the first embodiment has the second additional hydrodistributor connecting working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with pump. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder communicates with rod ends of the main ones. In the second embodiment additional hydraulic cylinder is arranged in main hydrodistributor case and connected to hydrolines of the main hydraulic cylinders through hydrolines. Additional hydrodistributor is installed so that additional hydrodistributor may connect working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with the pump when additional hydrodistributor is installed in the first position. Additional hydrodistributor being installed in the second position may connect working chambers of main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with drain. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with rod ends of main hydraulic cylinders.

EFFECT: increased machine productivity due to increased implement hoisting speed.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulically driven dredgers.

SUBSTANCE: drive comprises power plant with controlled power pumps having servo control taps, gear-box, hydraulic motors and hydraulic equipment. Hydraulic equipment has hydraulic distributor with address travel spool and its servo control taps, power hydraulic lines and servo control loop with hydraulic lines. The controlled power pumps may supply predetermined volume of working liquid at zero pressure in servo control lines thereof. Hydraulic lines for servo control of address travel spool have additional circuit including control unit, servo control lines and logical hydraulic OR valve with two inlet and one outlet taps. Hydraulic lines of servo control circuit included in additional loop are connected with inlet taps of hydraulic OR valve having outlet tap communicated with servo control taps of address travel spool.

EFFECT: provision of no-failure gear actuation in standing still dredger.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulic systems for mobile machines.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system comprises hydraulic reservoir, controllable hydraulic pump with load-sensitive control slide, power hydraulic line protected with safety valve, main hydraulic distributor with three-position slide having one pressure supply means, two discharge lines, two working outlet means and line, which provides connection of each working outlet means with LS line, attached to control slide. The hydraulic system is provided with pressure control valve and with controllable reducing valve installed in LS line. Input and output of reducing valve are connected to hydraulic distributor and control slide correspondingly. Control line of reducing valve is linked to pressure control valve outlet. Inlet and discharge line of the pressure control valve are connected with power hydraulic line and with hydraulic reservoir correspondingly.

EFFECT: increased operational efficiency and reliability.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving, mining, building machines and other wheeled and caterpillar handling periodically acting machines.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises working implement, main and balancing hydraulic cylinders, gas cylinder, main and additional working liquid distribution means. The piston cavity of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with gas cylinder. Additional distribution means may connect working cavities of main hydraulic cylinders one with another and with hydraulic pump during implement lifting.

EFFECT: increased working implement lifting speed without pump and system parameter change.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, mechanical engineering, possible use in system for controlling caterpillar drive of mining machine.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-system contains pumps for caterpillar drive and pump, feeding system of working functions of machine, hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive, driving hydro-motors and working mains, two controllable check valves and hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions. Outlet channels of hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions are connected to inlet channels of controllable check valves, which are connected between each other. Outlet channels of these valves are connected to working mains of driving hydro-motors and hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive.

EFFECT: possible movement of mining machine in case of breakdown of driving pumps at the expense of influx of working liquid from pump driving system normally used for working functions of machine.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth moving machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic drives of draw-booster gears of tractor-drawn scrapers. Proposed hydraulic drive contains pump, hydraulic tank, hydraulic cylinder, pressure valve connected in parallel with hydraulic cylinder, and hydraulic distributor. Hydraulic drive contains additionally hydraulic accumulator, time relay, check valve, pressure valve is provided with control line, and hydraulic cylinder has control arm engaging with two-position spool whose input is connected with pump and output, through time relay, with hydraulic accumulator and control line of pressure valve and with input of check valve whose output is connected to input of pressure valve.

EFFECT: provision of automatic continuous increase of adhesion weight of tractor of scraper when digging.

3 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.

SUBSTANCE: blade assembly comprises side sections and central section. The sections are provided with undercutting blades and are directly connected to bucket bottom. The central section is hinged to bucket bottom and is operated by rotation hydraulic cylinders through operation levers. Undercutting blades made as gussets are connected to inner edges of side sections from below. The gussets have supports to cooperate with central section in lower position thereof. Undercutting blades of central section are connected to outer side edges of central section. Undercutting gussets are provided with orifices to arrange fixers installed in lower parts of side sections so that they may cooperate with end switches. Position switches adapted to cooperate with operation levers of central section in central or extreme positions are mounted on bucket side walls. Hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation are linked in pairs to hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. Lifting and lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders are correspondingly communicated with raising and deepening cavities of hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation. Hydraulic drive for blade assembly includes hydraulically operated on-off three-way slide. The first outlet of the slide is united with the third one and is linked to raising cavity of hydraulic cylinder for central section rotation. Operational chamber and the first inlet of the slide are connected to outlet of pressure slide having output connected to lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. The second and the third inlets of on-off three-way slide are correspondingly connected to lifting cavities of hydraulic cylinders, which operate front bucket gate and lowering cavity of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation.

EFFECT: decreased load to be applied to blade system during earth cutting as central section is in central and extreme positions, provision of automatic installation of above section in side blade plane and in extreme positions.

9 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to boom earth-moving, mine, construction and loading lifting-and-transporting machines of cyclic action. Proposed balancing system contains working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and balancing cylinder including hydraulic rod space and gas piston space connected with gas bottle, and distributors. According to first design version, hydraulic rod space of balancing cylinder is connected by hydraulic line with drain into hydraulic tank, and distributor of hydraulic liquid is installed for connecting in one position of spool, of boom hydraulic cylinders working spaces to each other with hydraulic pump. According to second design version, distributor is installed in system for connecting working spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump. According to third design version, rod space of balancing cylinder is connected with distributor installed for connecting, in one position of spool, of rod space of balancing cylinder with into hydraulic tank, and in other position, with hydraulic pump. Distributor is installed in hydraulic line of boom hydraulic cylinders for connecting, in one position of spool, of spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly earth-moving and construction equipment to be operated at low temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: device for hydraulic drive heating comprises heat engine and hydraulic pump kinematically connected with each other. Device also has liquid heat carrier circulation loop including heat accumulator. Heat pipe is connected to heat engine exhaust pipe through two-way valve. Heating member is arranged in tank and linked to heat engine generator.

EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.

1 dwg

Up!