Method for microwave gradient activation of coal

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in microwave gradient activation of coal in high-gradient microwave field in velocity control mode of microwave field rise. Boundaries of coal lump are arranged in zones of zero or close-to-zero intensities of microwave field. Activation is performed till deep cracks appear in coal lump, which do not lead to its complete destruction. End of activation process stage is appearance of persistent flame of activation volatile hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: quick and effective heating of coals; improving energy use efficiency for coal heating; processing of compound hydrocarbons to easier and more volatile hydrocarbons deep in coal lump prior to the combustion beginning; possibility of controlling the modes of power pumping to various forms of activated volumes of coal, which allows implementing various modes of action on coal.

2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 8 dwg


The invention relates to a process for the preparation of coal of different grades to combustion in power boilers of different types.

A known method of burning coal fuel with additional jet ignition of coal dust in the boilers by passing this stream through the plasma arc. Resulting coal particles of the jet, which are almost always less than 1-2 mm, heated, and upon further movement inside the big pot faster burn (Zhukov F Plasma bhasmasura firing boilers and stabilization of combustion of pulverized coal flame / beetles F, Karpenko H., Peregudov V.S. and others - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1995. - 304 S. [1], (Imankulov E.R. Plasma ignition and stabilization of combustion torch Donetsk AL / Imankulov E.R., Messerle V.E., Zhakipov SE, Seitymov T.M., A.B. Ustimenko // thermal engineering. - 1990. No. 1. - P.51-53) [2].

The disadvantages of this method: 1 - high power consumption of the plasma torch, sometimes up to 10% of electricity generation by boiler CHP 2 - introduction sprayable material plasma electrodes in a stream of combustion and their 3 - rapid deterioration, 4 - this is conventionally called the activation of the fuel is not possible to apply it to small (less than 0.1 MW) and conventional domestic boilers. As plasma torches complex and expensive technical devices, they can be repaid only in certain situations and only on larger boilers with spreading the torch only coal is finely ground.

The known method is activated in the high-frequency microwave plasma coal powder grinding (Burov V.F., Strizhka J.V. "microwave plasma torch with a freely floating plasmoid/ / / Combustion and plasma chemistry, - V. 4, No. 2, 2007, S-109) [3],

(Burov V.F., Strizhka J.V. "microwave plasma torch with a freely floating plasmoid" // Sat. Dokl. VI all-Russian conference "solid fuel Burning" November 8-10, 2006, Novosibirsk: it SB RAS, 2006 [4]; (Burov..F., Strizhka J.V. "microwave plasma torch for ignition of coal dust use a freely floating plasmoid" Equipment. Development. Technology, No. 2 (02), 2007, p.45-48) [5]. RF patent №2328095 from 23.06.2006. "Microwave plasma torch", the applicant CJSC "Cotes-Sibir" (EN) [6].

In this embodiment, the microwave electrodeless plasma is lit in the base of the jet carbon powder, however, the discharge plasmon type is created due to ionization of the carrier powder carrier gas.

Disadvantages of this method are: the very low efficiency of almost all the energy of the microwave discharge is spent on heating of the gas and maintaining a gas discharge, and the particles of fuel less than 1-2 mm absorb only a small fraction of consumed energy; microwave plasmon at the base of the jet is very unstable and requires special complex structures with gas streams for its implementation, capacity and available operating frequency of microwave magnetrons wide industrial output is limited to narrow ranges that do not allow the us to vary the way coal particles of small size (less than 1-2 mm) in the microwave fields such frequencies (of the order of 2.45 GHz, the wavelength is about 13 cm) is actually in bigradient spatial microwave field that does not allow you to use, as explained to us, the effective gradient of temperature and stress fields within the coal matrix.

The task of the invention is to provide a method with high energy and environmental performance, providing a highly efficient combustion of a wide class of coal fuels

Technical result: the efficiency of using energy to heat the coal to 20-30 percent above conventional method, constructive ease of execution of various technical options for the implementation of this method, the use of easily controllable modes of different pumping capacities in different forms of activated volumes of coal allow different modes of exposure to coal or coal briquettes from their shock collapse into smaller pieces until smooth control of laminar flame from cracks with a given intensity of burning.

The problem is solved by the claimed method microwave-gradient activation coal fuel, which according to the invention produce microwave graded activation in high-gradient microwave field in the mode control is of the slew rate of the microwave field to occur in the piece of coal cracks deep rift, not lead to its complete destruction, and it is indicative of the end of the activation is experience sustained torch activated volatile hydrocarbons, with the boundaries of a piece of coal are placed in the zero or close to it of the strength of the microwave field

With continued activation above the threshold of appearance of torches burning light hydrocarbons mineral inclusions present in every natural angle quickly begin to coagulate (merge) in sizes up to microns and above. In this state, the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases, since large particles alter the absorption coefficient of the microwave in volume and do not have the necessary catalytic properties for the decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons to more simple and combustible.

When combined microwave activator by volume combustion boiler in one design, the maximum microwave field gradient combined with the front pouring fresh coal pieces.

The implementation of the invention

The activation process coal at high microwave field is multivariate, the original determinants of effective activation is the concordance of the dimension of the gradient microwave volume and size of the piece of coal and the coal matrix.

The most important condition, as shown by our experiments and numerical calculations, is the placement of the boundaries of the piece of coal in the areas of zero or CL is fir them of the strength of the microwave field. Failure to comply with these conditions, when a piece of coal is significantly more sizes of inhomogeneities in the microwave field generated in the resonator his method of excitation, the process abruptly loses the intensity of the pumping energy in the sample even in the same locally inhomogeneous microwave volumes. The rate of pumping energy into the matrix of the coal falls 5-15 times depending on the type of coal and their specific geometry.

Example 1. The coal sample of cylindrical shape with a size of several centimeters were set so that the maximum of the microwave field was located in the center or close to center.

The figure 1 presents a series of IR thermogram of a piece of coal cylindrical shape under the action of microwave radiation with a local focus outside of the resonator. White contours outline in black-and-white version of this figure the area of maximum internal heating of coal samples in the maxima of the intensity microwave fields.

The results of the study for the region of maximum gradient of 3.2 cm activation time threshold decomposition of hydrocarbons in the coal sample are shown in table 1 (Kemerovo incision) and table 2 (Ust-Iskitim structure).

Table 1
The sample diameter (cm)12,2 35814
The activation time (sec)331631938120

Table 2
The sample diameter (cm)1,52,13,36912
The activation time (sec)1791,592182

Under optimum conditions of approval fields and loading coal volume activation, especially in the mode of the angular extension of the microwave field from the head of the magnetron, we have shown a method of calorimetric measurements thermostats that can be injected into the lump of coal the size of a few centimetres more than 85% of the power from the magnetron. For comparison - in this mode, the flash first flying starts in less than 10 seconds to activate amineralo relatively small power 800 watts and duty cycle operation 25-50 Hz.

Example 2.

The figure 2 presents the results of activated charcoal large (25-30 cm) in the resonator volume generated by the magnetron 1 kW power, area inhomogeneity of the microwave field 3,2 see because of the occurrence in the matrix of a large piece of coal several heating zones power of the magnetron are distributed between them, and this distribution changes all the time during the activation process due to the changing dielectric constants of absorption of the microwave wavelength depending on the temperature and properties of the heated coal, which results in a sharp increase in activation time, the whole piece more than 30 minutes for Kemerovo samples. The efficiency of the process is below 20-25%.

For the purposes of practical application of the method, subject to the approval of the loading of coal by size and gradient inhomogeneity of the microwave field, as we have shown in experimental studies, it is necessary and sufficient to have a single parameter of process control - temperature change of the sample over time.

Measuring point temperature can be different and determined by the geometry of the installation. For example, averaged IR control with 5-10 points on the surface of the coal, thermocouple as with the surface and with depth of coal, with production microsurf in the coal matrix (thermocouple is in the model microwave compensation of crosstalk). And finally, the most important IR th is visory control method with attached video camera and access to a computer.

The main problem of optimal activation is the creation at the initial stage of the process (often the first few seconds) not less than two cracks in different planes relative to the main direction of scelesti" this particular piece of coal.

The creation of cracks due to the necessity of removing the piece of coal dislocation stress, the growth of which usually leads to uncontrolled collapse of the coal piece on a much smaller fragments, inside which is not possible to make a gradient activation. The second important task of creating cracks is an organization controlled release of vapor inland waters as hygroscopic, and is associated with more distant stages of activation.

The study of the role of cracks that occur when the microwave effect and mechanical loads on the pieces of coals of different sizes to optimize microwave activation of coal in environmentally friendly combustion are shown in Figure 3.

After a reset, the internal pressure of the water vapor begins volatile hydrocarbons, which were recorded by the method of analysis on a portable field chromotography "ECHO" in real-time experiment.

This criterion is the rate of release of volatile hydrocarbons, should be the main criterion stage of activation processes in the preparation of activation different grades of coal proposed in the IOM method.

The possible implementation of the inventive method is tested in many model experiments with pieces of coal of different brands and different sizes. It was shown that the optimal process is always possible to achieve the detection of intense dislocation matrix into a small number of unloading cracks.

Control over the degree of output as volatile hydrocarbons, and water was carried out by us in the mode of adjustment of specific activator using different methods (field chromatograph ECHO, / mass spectrometer, aerosol counters of the type AZ-6, turbidity meters of different types, portable spectroscopic prism, vacuum Oborniki aerosols of different types and so on).

Use for experiments of various highly sensitive chromatographic devices, laboratory and fieldwork, which allow the initial stages of heating coal, including microwave methods to analyze the kinetics of appearance of light and medium hydrocarbons, allowed to understand the basics of the processes taking place in the microwave internal high-gradient heating and the role of the emerging deep cracks.

This laboratory / mass spectroscopic methods allow to determine the mass of hydrocarbons, but require analysis of specific conditions and time not less than half an hour on the sample (Figure 4A); whereas kalibrovany on these laboratory methods field expeditionary unit ECHO allows you to explore the processes activated carbons with a time resolution less than a minute (Figure 4B).

On the above chart shows that under optimal conditions the activation of the coal pieces specified in the proposed application, from cracks activated carbon, to a temperature on the surface no more than 100-120°C, are mainly only light hydrocarbons, to weight no more than 150 atomic units (Figure 4A).

The process of identification of such hydrocarbons sustainable, that is, by increasing the concentration up to 6 orders of magnitude, the ratio of the marginal mass of hydrocarbons is almost not changed, that was installed using rapid mass spectrometer ECHO (Figure 4B).

We have developed numerical programs, which according to the IR temperature on the sample surface in a dynamic mode to restore the foci of heat inside of activated charcoal and front propagation of a thermal wave to the surface of the coal in the mode to cracking Calculations show that when the internal pressure of water vapor at 40 to 50 atmospheres there is a split of the sample in unmanaged mode, creating cracks and fragmentation.

The Figure 5 shows the calculation of the heat output waves from the depths of the coal pieces of different sizes (on the basis of the obtained experimental data on the constants of complex dielectric permeability at relatively low temperatures and thermal conductivity for cameras is on coal). The curves vary in time and under the terms of the primary microwave heating - both in size and power.

Microwave activator can be made on the basis of standard magnetrons, widely used in the home for household microwave ovens with a relatively small capacity (less than 3 kW, even without the use of water cooling), and changing the number and the geometry of the focusing of the microwave fields, it is possible to achieve both the desired gradient inhomogeneity activation of the microwave field and its various capacities.

The geometry of the activation of the installation can be very different, as the system input pieces of coal (stationary, quasi-stationary, continuous line). For example, activation of coal in small amounts - up to 10 kg per hour for domestic coal-fired boilers, we used the basic design and control electronics, ordinary household stoves, with minor modifications. These modifications are determined by the specific requirements of the activation parameters of coal.

Processing of microwave activation of coal in a large volume is not very optimal mode for the efficiency of the pumping microwave power in structural changes within the coal even in the zones of maximum power, so as not met the matching volume of the gradient field and the size of the piece.

Any natural coal contains mineral content from the hill the fir percent and up to 50. This mineral component contains many components, but usually the main ones, tens of percent are aluminum and silicon components. The analysis of the literature and our analysis based on reflective optical and scanning microscopes showed that in non-activated coal mineral components included in the structure of coal is very homogeneous. When you activate the microwave in this homogeneous structure begin to form a homogeneous inclusion of silicon and aluminium-backed entities. With continued activation above the threshold of appearance of torches burning light hydrocarbons these formations reach a size of up to 5 nm (Figure 6A), and then begin to rapidly coagulate (merge) in sizes up to microns and above. In figure 6b visible surface coal allocation of large particles in all the cracks. In this state, the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases, since large particles alter the absorption coefficient of the microwave in volume and do not have the necessary catalytic properties for the decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons to more simple and combustible.

A significant advantage of the proposed new method in comparison with analogues is very high efficiency of transfer of energy to the sample with the optimal design given the above features of the overall process.

A large p is ekosistem the proposed method is the use of coarse coal (up to 5-6 inches in diameter), instead of finely ground coal, less than 1-2 mm, which is traditionally used in large CHP and powerful boilers. This allows to apply the method to improve the efficiency in small and household boilers these boilers that serve less than a few tens of thousands of residents. This greatly extends the applicability of the new method for coal power.

Calculations were carried out economic feasibility on the basis of model experiments on boilers from 0.1 up to 1 MW of power. At the cost of a ton of coal from 1000 and up to 2000 rubles per ton and efficiency of process of burning coals with activation of 15% is obtained, which is in Siberia (heating season more than 200 days) cost boiler pays off when the new method for 1-3 years depending on the boiler type low and medium power. The warranty period boilers usually not less than 10 years, therefore, be repeated return of boilers of this size (the calculations are carried out for equipment There plant boilers Novosibirsk region).

ENVIRONMENTAL friendliness. Activated carbon has a clearly marked feature of his ignition takes place in a few seconds when the upper activation threshold and goes almost without smoke and emission of harmful hydrocarbons in the gas and aerosol phase. This is because the decomposition of the coal is of the hydrogens of the coal matrix in this way is not on the surface of the coal in the interaction with the oxidant - air as in conventional thermal ignition. When microwave activation processes breaker occur within an enclosed volume of coal. We have conducted measurements of flue gas component and at different activation methods and shows a decrease in the integrated emission of volatile component of the hydrocarbons in the outer atmosphere in the tens and hundreds of times.

Thus, the proposed method has the following advantages:

1. Heating of the primary coal is fast and efficient, unlike traditional methods flare UPS in any type of boiler.

2. Efficiency of use of energy for heating of the coal by 20-30 percent above conventional method.

3. Constructive ease of execution of various technical options for the implementation of this method.

4. Processing of complex hydrocarbons into simpler (and therefore more flammable) first occurs in the depth of the piece of coal before combustion, and not on the surface or in the gas flame, as in conventional devices.

5. The ability to use easily controllable modes of different pumping capacities in different forms of activated volumes of coal allow different modes of exposure to coal or coal briquettes from their shock collapse into smaller pieces until smooth control of laminar flame from cracks with the set and what tensionally burning.

We carried out test work on the application of this method is activated on plant boilers boilers average power in the city Cherepanova Novosibirsk region, confirmed its effectiveness on a wide range of physico-chemical parameters of the torches burning and combustion of single coal particles in the boiler space.

1. The activation method of coal fuel, including microwave effects on coal, characterized in that produce microwave graded activation in high-gradient microwave field in the control mode the slew rate of the microwave field to occur in the piece of coal cracks deep fracture that does not lead to its complete destruction, and it is indicative of the end of the activation is experience sustained torch activation of volatile hydrocarbons, with the boundaries of a piece of coal are placed in a zero or near-values of the strength of the microwave field.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when combining microwave activator by volume combustion boiler in one design, the maximum microwave field gradient combined with the front pouring fresh coal pieces.


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9 cl, 9 ex, 2 dwg, 10 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.

EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.

57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: oil and gas production industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.

EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.

2 tbl, 14 ex