Method for microwave gradient activation of coal
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in microwave gradient activation of coal in high-gradient microwave field in velocity control mode of microwave field rise. Boundaries of coal lump are arranged in zones of zero or close-to-zero intensities of microwave field. Activation is performed till deep cracks appear in coal lump, which do not lead to its complete destruction. End of activation process stage is appearance of persistent flame of activation volatile hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: quick and effective heating of coals; improving energy use efficiency for coal heating; processing of compound hydrocarbons to easier and more volatile hydrocarbons deep in coal lump prior to the combustion beginning; possibility of controlling the modes of power pumping to various forms of activated volumes of coal, which allows implementing various modes of action on coal.
2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 8 dwg
The invention relates to a process for the preparation of coal of different grades to combustion in power boilers of different types.
A known method of burning coal fuel with additional jet ignition of coal dust in the boilers by passing this stream through the plasma arc. Resulting coal particles of the jet, which are almost always less than 1-2 mm, heated, and upon further movement inside the big pot faster burn (Zhukov F Plasma bhasmasura firing boilers and stabilization of combustion of pulverized coal flame / beetles F, Karpenko H., Peregudov V.S. and others - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1995. - 304 S. , (Imankulov E.R. Plasma ignition and stabilization of combustion torch Donetsk AL / Imankulov E.R., Messerle V.E., Zhakipov SE, Seitymov T.M., A.B. Ustimenko // thermal engineering. - 1990. No. 1. - P.51-53) .
The disadvantages of this method: 1 - high power consumption of the plasma torch, sometimes up to 10% of electricity generation by boiler CHP 2 - introduction sprayable material plasma electrodes in a stream of combustion and their 3 - rapid deterioration, 4 - this is conventionally called the activation of the fuel is not possible to apply it to small (less than 0.1 MW) and conventional domestic boilers. As plasma torches complex and expensive technical devices, they can be repaid only in certain situations and only on larger boilers with spreading the torch only coal is finely ground.
The known method is activated in the high-frequency microwave plasma coal powder grinding (Burov V.F., Strizhka J.V. "microwave plasma torch with a freely floating plasmoid/ / / Combustion and plasma chemistry, - V. 4, No. 2, 2007, S-109) ,
(Burov V.F., Strizhka J.V. "microwave plasma torch with a freely floating plasmoid" // Sat. Dokl. VI all-Russian conference "solid fuel Burning" November 8-10, 2006, Novosibirsk: it SB RAS, 2006 ; (Burov..F., Strizhka J.V. "microwave plasma torch for ignition of coal dust use a freely floating plasmoid" Equipment. Development. Technology, No. 2 (02), 2007, p.45-48) . RF patent №2328095 from 23.06.2006. "Microwave plasma torch", the applicant CJSC "Cotes-Sibir" (EN) .
In this embodiment, the microwave electrodeless plasma is lit in the base of the jet carbon powder, however, the discharge plasmon type is created due to ionization of the carrier powder carrier gas.
Disadvantages of this method are: the very low efficiency of almost all the energy of the microwave discharge is spent on heating of the gas and maintaining a gas discharge, and the particles of fuel less than 1-2 mm absorb only a small fraction of consumed energy; microwave plasmon at the base of the jet is very unstable and requires special complex structures with gas streams for its implementation, capacity and available operating frequency of microwave magnetrons wide industrial output is limited to narrow ranges that do not allow the us to vary the way coal particles of small size (less than 1-2 mm) in the microwave fields such frequencies (of the order of 2.45 GHz, the wavelength is about 13 cm) is actually in bigradient spatial microwave field that does not allow you to use, as explained to us, the effective gradient of temperature and stress fields within the coal matrix.
The task of the invention is to provide a method with high energy and environmental performance, providing a highly efficient combustion of a wide class of coal fuels
Technical result: the efficiency of using energy to heat the coal to 20-30 percent above conventional method, constructive ease of execution of various technical options for the implementation of this method, the use of easily controllable modes of different pumping capacities in different forms of activated volumes of coal allow different modes of exposure to coal or coal briquettes from their shock collapse into smaller pieces until smooth control of laminar flame from cracks with a given intensity of burning.
The problem is solved by the claimed method microwave-gradient activation coal fuel, which according to the invention produce microwave graded activation in high-gradient microwave field in the mode control is of the slew rate of the microwave field to occur in the piece of coal cracks deep rift, not lead to its complete destruction, and it is indicative of the end of the activation is experience sustained torch activated volatile hydrocarbons, with the boundaries of a piece of coal are placed in the zero or close to it of the strength of the microwave field
With continued activation above the threshold of appearance of torches burning light hydrocarbons mineral inclusions present in every natural angle quickly begin to coagulate (merge) in sizes up to microns and above. In this state, the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases, since large particles alter the absorption coefficient of the microwave in volume and do not have the necessary catalytic properties for the decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons to more simple and combustible.
When combined microwave activator by volume combustion boiler in one design, the maximum microwave field gradient combined with the front pouring fresh coal pieces.
The implementation of the invention
The activation process coal at high microwave field is multivariate, the original determinants of effective activation is the concordance of the dimension of the gradient microwave volume and size of the piece of coal and the coal matrix.
The most important condition, as shown by our experiments and numerical calculations, is the placement of the boundaries of the piece of coal in the areas of zero or CL is fir them of the strength of the microwave field. Failure to comply with these conditions, when a piece of coal is significantly more sizes of inhomogeneities in the microwave field generated in the resonator his method of excitation, the process abruptly loses the intensity of the pumping energy in the sample even in the same locally inhomogeneous microwave volumes. The rate of pumping energy into the matrix of the coal falls 5-15 times depending on the type of coal and their specific geometry.
Example 1. The coal sample of cylindrical shape with a size of several centimeters were set so that the maximum of the microwave field was located in the center or close to center.
The figure 1 presents a series of IR thermogram of a piece of coal cylindrical shape under the action of microwave radiation with a local focus outside of the resonator. White contours outline in black-and-white version of this figure the area of maximum internal heating of coal samples in the maxima of the intensity microwave fields.
The results of the study for the region of maximum gradient of 3.2 cm activation time threshold decomposition of hydrocarbons in the coal sample are shown in table 1 (Kemerovo incision) and table 2 (Ust-Iskitim structure).
|The sample diameter (cm)||1||2,2||3||5||8||14|
|The activation time (sec)||33||16||3||19||38||120|
|The sample diameter (cm)||1,5||2,1||3,3||6||9||12|
|The activation time (sec)||17||9||1,5||9||21||82|
Under optimum conditions of approval fields and loading coal volume activation, especially in the mode of the angular extension of the microwave field from the head of the magnetron, we have shown a method of calorimetric measurements thermostats that can be injected into the lump of coal the size of a few centimetres more than 85% of the power from the magnetron. For comparison - in this mode, the flash first flying starts in less than 10 seconds to activate amineralo relatively small power 800 watts and duty cycle operation 25-50 Hz.
The figure 2 presents the results of activated charcoal large (25-30 cm) in the resonator volume generated by the magnetron 1 kW power, area inhomogeneity of the microwave field 3,2 see because of the occurrence in the matrix of a large piece of coal several heating zones power of the magnetron are distributed between them, and this distribution changes all the time during the activation process due to the changing dielectric constants of absorption of the microwave wavelength depending on the temperature and properties of the heated coal, which results in a sharp increase in activation time, the whole piece more than 30 minutes for Kemerovo samples. The efficiency of the process is below 20-25%.
For the purposes of practical application of the method, subject to the approval of the loading of coal by size and gradient inhomogeneity of the microwave field, as we have shown in experimental studies, it is necessary and sufficient to have a single parameter of process control - temperature change of the sample over time.
Measuring point temperature can be different and determined by the geometry of the installation. For example, averaged IR control with 5-10 points on the surface of the coal, thermocouple as with the surface and with depth of coal, with production microsurf in the coal matrix (thermocouple is in the model microwave compensation of crosstalk). And finally, the most important IR th is visory control method with attached video camera and access to a computer.
The main problem of optimal activation is the creation at the initial stage of the process (often the first few seconds) not less than two cracks in different planes relative to the main direction of scelesti" this particular piece of coal.
The creation of cracks due to the necessity of removing the piece of coal dislocation stress, the growth of which usually leads to uncontrolled collapse of the coal piece on a much smaller fragments, inside which is not possible to make a gradient activation. The second important task of creating cracks is an organization controlled release of vapor inland waters as hygroscopic, and is associated with more distant stages of activation.
The study of the role of cracks that occur when the microwave effect and mechanical loads on the pieces of coals of different sizes to optimize microwave activation of coal in environmentally friendly combustion are shown in Figure 3.
After a reset, the internal pressure of the water vapor begins volatile hydrocarbons, which were recorded by the method of analysis on a portable field chromotography "ECHO" in real-time experiment.
This criterion is the rate of release of volatile hydrocarbons, should be the main criterion stage of activation processes in the preparation of activation different grades of coal proposed in the IOM method.
The possible implementation of the inventive method is tested in many model experiments with pieces of coal of different brands and different sizes. It was shown that the optimal process is always possible to achieve the detection of intense dislocation matrix into a small number of unloading cracks.
Control over the degree of output as volatile hydrocarbons, and water was carried out by us in the mode of adjustment of specific activator using different methods (field chromatograph ECHO, / mass spectrometer, aerosol counters of the type AZ-6, turbidity meters of different types, portable spectroscopic prism, vacuum Oborniki aerosols of different types and so on).
Use for experiments of various highly sensitive chromatographic devices, laboratory and fieldwork, which allow the initial stages of heating coal, including microwave methods to analyze the kinetics of appearance of light and medium hydrocarbons, allowed to understand the basics of the processes taking place in the microwave internal high-gradient heating and the role of the emerging deep cracks.
This laboratory / mass spectroscopic methods allow to determine the mass of hydrocarbons, but require analysis of specific conditions and time not less than half an hour on the sample (Figure 4A); whereas kalibrovany on these laboratory methods field expeditionary unit ECHO allows you to explore the processes activated carbons with a time resolution less than a minute (Figure 4B).
On the above chart shows that under optimal conditions the activation of the coal pieces specified in the proposed application, from cracks activated carbon, to a temperature on the surface no more than 100-120°C, are mainly only light hydrocarbons, to weight no more than 150 atomic units (Figure 4A).
The process of identification of such hydrocarbons sustainable, that is, by increasing the concentration up to 6 orders of magnitude, the ratio of the marginal mass of hydrocarbons is almost not changed, that was installed using rapid mass spectrometer ECHO (Figure 4B).
We have developed numerical programs, which according to the IR temperature on the sample surface in a dynamic mode to restore the foci of heat inside of activated charcoal and front propagation of a thermal wave to the surface of the coal in the mode to cracking Calculations show that when the internal pressure of water vapor at 40 to 50 atmospheres there is a split of the sample in unmanaged mode, creating cracks and fragmentation.
The Figure 5 shows the calculation of the heat output waves from the depths of the coal pieces of different sizes (on the basis of the obtained experimental data on the constants of complex dielectric permeability at relatively low temperatures and thermal conductivity for cameras is on coal). The curves vary in time and under the terms of the primary microwave heating - both in size and power.
Microwave activator can be made on the basis of standard magnetrons, widely used in the home for household microwave ovens with a relatively small capacity (less than 3 kW, even without the use of water cooling), and changing the number and the geometry of the focusing of the microwave fields, it is possible to achieve both the desired gradient inhomogeneity activation of the microwave field and its various capacities.
The geometry of the activation of the installation can be very different, as the system input pieces of coal (stationary, quasi-stationary, continuous line). For example, activation of coal in small amounts - up to 10 kg per hour for domestic coal-fired boilers, we used the basic design and control electronics, ordinary household stoves, with minor modifications. These modifications are determined by the specific requirements of the activation parameters of coal.
Processing of microwave activation of coal in a large volume is not very optimal mode for the efficiency of the pumping microwave power in structural changes within the coal even in the zones of maximum power, so as not met the matching volume of the gradient field and the size of the piece.
Any natural coal contains mineral content from the hill the fir percent and up to 50. This mineral component contains many components, but usually the main ones, tens of percent are aluminum and silicon components. The analysis of the literature and our analysis based on reflective optical and scanning microscopes showed that in non-activated coal mineral components included in the structure of coal is very homogeneous. When you activate the microwave in this homogeneous structure begin to form a homogeneous inclusion of silicon and aluminium-backed entities. With continued activation above the threshold of appearance of torches burning light hydrocarbons these formations reach a size of up to 5 nm (Figure 6A), and then begin to rapidly coagulate (merge) in sizes up to microns and above. In figure 6b visible surface coal allocation of large particles in all the cracks. In this state, the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases, since large particles alter the absorption coefficient of the microwave in volume and do not have the necessary catalytic properties for the decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons to more simple and combustible.
A significant advantage of the proposed new method in comparison with analogues is very high efficiency of transfer of energy to the sample with the optimal design given the above features of the overall process.
A large p is ekosistem the proposed method is the use of coarse coal (up to 5-6 inches in diameter), instead of finely ground coal, less than 1-2 mm, which is traditionally used in large CHP and powerful boilers. This allows to apply the method to improve the efficiency in small and household boilers these boilers that serve less than a few tens of thousands of residents. This greatly extends the applicability of the new method for coal power.
Calculations were carried out economic feasibility on the basis of model experiments on boilers from 0.1 up to 1 MW of power. At the cost of a ton of coal from 1000 and up to 2000 rubles per ton and efficiency of process of burning coals with activation of 15% is obtained, which is in Siberia (heating season more than 200 days) cost boiler pays off when the new method for 1-3 years depending on the boiler type low and medium power. The warranty period boilers usually not less than 10 years, therefore, be repeated return of boilers of this size (the calculations are carried out for equipment There plant boilers Novosibirsk region).
ENVIRONMENTAL friendliness. Activated carbon has a clearly marked feature of his ignition takes place in a few seconds when the upper activation threshold and goes almost without smoke and emission of harmful hydrocarbons in the gas and aerosol phase. This is because the decomposition of the coal is of the hydrogens of the coal matrix in this way is not on the surface of the coal in the interaction with the oxidant - air as in conventional thermal ignition. When microwave activation processes breaker occur within an enclosed volume of coal. We have conducted measurements of flue gas component and at different activation methods and shows a decrease in the integrated emission of volatile component of the hydrocarbons in the outer atmosphere in the tens and hundreds of times.
Thus, the proposed method has the following advantages:
1. Heating of the primary coal is fast and efficient, unlike traditional methods flare UPS in any type of boiler.
2. Efficiency of use of energy for heating of the coal by 20-30 percent above conventional method.
3. Constructive ease of execution of various technical options for the implementation of this method.
4. Processing of complex hydrocarbons into simpler (and therefore more flammable) first occurs in the depth of the piece of coal before combustion, and not on the surface or in the gas flame, as in conventional devices.
5. The ability to use easily controllable modes of different pumping capacities in different forms of activated volumes of coal allow different modes of exposure to coal or coal briquettes from their shock collapse into smaller pieces until smooth control of laminar flame from cracks with the set and what tensionally burning.
We carried out test work on the application of this method is activated on plant boilers boilers average power in the city Cherepanova Novosibirsk region, confirmed its effectiveness on a wide range of physico-chemical parameters of the torches burning and combustion of single coal particles in the boiler space.
1. The activation method of coal fuel, including microwave effects on coal, characterized in that produce microwave graded activation in high-gradient microwave field in the control mode the slew rate of the microwave field to occur in the piece of coal cracks deep fracture that does not lead to its complete destruction, and it is indicative of the end of the activation is experience sustained torch activation of volatile hydrocarbons, with the boundaries of a piece of coal are placed in a zero or near-values of the strength of the microwave field.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when combining microwave activator by volume combustion boiler in one design, the maximum microwave field gradient combined with the front pouring fresh coal pieces.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing solid organic fuel, particularly fuel briquettes, and can be used to heat houses, in field conditions, on transportation and in industry. The fuel briquette is made with longitudinal holes and contains organic binder in form of polypropylene production wastes in amount of 2.0-10.0 wt %, oxidising agent - potassium nitrate 2.0-5.0 wt %, catalyst - MnO2+Fe2O3 mixture with weight ratio thereof ranging from 4:1 to 1:6 in amount of 0.1-1.5 wt % and sawdust - the rest.
EFFECT: high calorific value of the briquette and reduced smoking.
1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke is implemented by spraying at temperature of not less than 20°C onto blast-furnace coke lumps of 2-20% water solution of sodium, potassium or calcium pentaborate, which contains 0.1-0.2 wt % of non-ionic surface active substance in the form of mono- and/or dialkyl ethers of polyethylene glycol in the quantity providing the content of surface active substance in coke of 0.0035-0.0070 wt %; at that, content of dry pentaborate of one of the above metals in coke is 0.09-0.68 wt %.
EFFECT: improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke owing to decreasing reactivity index and increasing its strength value.
1 cl, 25 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for intensifying the combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition; pulverised-coal mixture is subject to ultrasonic treatment immediately prior to supply to burners, and then to ignition and burning in the boiler. As nanoadditions there used are astralines - multi-layer fulleroide nanoparticles or Taunit - carbon nanomaterial. Nanoadditions are introduced to pulverised-coal mixture in the form of homoeopathic doses as per weight of solid fuel of 0.01 - 0.02%. The method results in increase of response rate of ignition and combustion of fuel mixture; besides, at combined burning of low-reactivity coal and fuel oil in the steam boiler furnace the method leads to reduction of unburnt carbon, nitrogen and sulphur oxides emissions, and therefore, to reduction of corrosion of heating surface and to improvement of reliability of power equipment; increase in combustion efficiency of pulverised-fuel mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition owing to avoiding the agglomeration of components. The effect is achieved due to intensification method of combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel, which involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition, ultrasonic treatment, ignition and its burning in the boiler.
EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency of low-reactivity solid fuel.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a fuel mixture via successive mechanical mixing of oxidising agent with fuel-binder. The oxidising agent used is either ammonium perchlorate (APC) or ammonium nitrate (AN) or octogen (HMX) or a mixture of APC/AN, APC/HMX, AN/HMX, components being in ratio 1/1 for each mixture. The fuel-binder used is inert rubber (SKDM-80) or active rubber - polyurethane which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The mixture additionally contains tin chloride powder with particle size (100-150) mcm, which is premixed for not less than 30 minutes with ultrafine aluminium powder with particle size less than 0.1 mcm, with the following ratio of components in wt %: ultrafine aluminium powder 87.5, tin chloride powder - 12.5. A hardener is added to the obtained mixture and the fuel composition is stirred for not less than 30 minutes.
EFFECT: rate of combustion of the mixed solid fuel increases depending on compositions of the oxidising agent and fuel-binder used in the fuel.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical mixture of an oxidising agent, fuel binder and metallic fuel. The oxidising agent used is ammonium perchlorate with particle size not greater than 50 mcm and ammonium nitrate with particle size (165-315) mcm. The fuel binder used is butadiene rubber which is plasticised with transformer oil or polyurethane rubber which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The metal fuel used is aluminium micropowder or aluminium nanopowder or mixtures thereof. Further, silicon dioxide with average particle size not greater than 50 mcm is added to the fuel in amount of 1-2 wt % over 100% of the fuel mass. The mixture is further mixed and evacuated. The obtained fuel mass is moulded into fluoroplastic units, polymerised and plated on the lateral surface with a solution of linoleum in acetone.
EFFECT: high rate of combustion and low content of solid condensed combustion products.
5 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sulphur-containing fuel additives and can be used in thermal power for desulphuration of liquid and solid fuel, mainly solid ash-bearing fuel during combustion. The composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion contains the following, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 19-29; alkali metal carbonate 26-37; alkali metal chloride 29-50; alkali metal hydrocarbonate 1-2; cryolite 3-4; alkali metal chromate 0.0001-0.0003.
EFFECT: additive is mainly meant for solid ash-bearing fuel, lowers temperature for deformation, melting and molten state of sludge, which prevents formation of refractory slag and solves the problem of outlet of slag and cleaning heat-generating equipment from deposits, thus increasing efficiency and service life of the equipment, as well as improving degree of neutralisation of sulphur compounds.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises coal crushing and damping. Crushed and damped coal is heated to sulfur melting point to deposit sulfur on steel electrodes arranged in coal and receiving direct current. Voltage effect on damped coal in air-water medium at sulfur melting point (119.4°C) time sufficient for sulfur that features polar electronegativity to get transferred onto anode steel electrode.
EFFECT: simplified process, high degree of extraction of sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds.
6 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for performance improvement of incinerators includes the following stages: burning of the hydrocarbon fuel in incinerator, determination of the given incinerator burning conditions which can be improved by adding of the special additive which conditions are determined on the base of measuring and calculations including hydrodynamical ones; determination of special points location whereat the additives are added to the incinerator; providing on the base of the said stages of the mode of special additive adding to the incinerator in the determine points. The using of the said mode allows to achieve one or more effect selected from the group including: decrease of the flame non-transparency, burning intensification, scorification decrease, reducing of limiting oxygen index, decrease of unburned coal amount, corrosion decrease and improvement of the electrostatic precipitator performance. In the said method the special additive contains the alloy of following general formula (Aa)n(Bb)n(Cc)n(Dd)n(…)n whereat every capital letter and (…) means metal with A being burning modificator, B meaning modificator of deposits, C meaning corrosion inhibitor, D meaning comodificator of burning/intensificator of electrostatic precipitator perfomance whereat each subindex means the stoichiometric index of the composition with n being not less than zero, sum of all n is more than zero; alloys includes two different metals; if metal is cerium the stoichiometric index is less than approximately 0.7.
EFFECT: non-transparency decrease of the flame released into atmosphere by large-scale incinerators used in for power production and waste burning industry and community facilities.
SUBSTANCE: ordinary solid fuel for concentration is obtained; one or several characteristics of ordinary solid fuel selected from following: moisture content (BTU/pound), ash content (%,) total sulphur content (%), content of different sulphur forms (%), content of volatile materials (%), content of bound carbon (%), Hardgrove grindabillity index, mass content of trace minerals and reaction of fuel and its components to electromagnetic radiation are measured; the characteristics of the fuel expectable from solid fuel after its concentration are determined. Relying on desired moisture content in solid fuel at least one working parametre of the system and one configuration parametre leading to obtaining of solid concentrated fuel with desired moisture content are selected; the solid fuel is concentrated by the way of its electromagnetic radiation in accordance with at least one aforementioned parametre; the selected parametre is modified in response to data of moisture content in solid fuel during concentration.
EFFECT: obtaining of new family of solid-fuel custom coals being absent in nature.
17 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety metal-bearing additives improving burning for usage in communal and industry furnaces. Additive contains: complex of metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and dissolvent for transfer of complex catalyst/ligands where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F. Method of additive receiving, by which: it is chosen metal-bearing catalyst containing manganese for usage in furnaces of general-purpose and/or industrial furnaces, it is formed complex of current metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and it is added dissolvent in order to transfer this complex catalyst/ligands, where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F.
EFFECT: receiving of additives safety for inhalation.
13 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.
EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.
EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.
FIELD: methods of simultaneous reduction of forming NOx, CO and carbon at combustion of fuel containing coal by addition of effective amount of manganese compound.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes combining coal and additive with manganese-containing compound for forming their mixture which is burnt in combustion chamber. Manganese-containing compound is present in effective amount for reduction of NOx, CO and carbon formed in the course of combustion of coal in combustion chamber in fly ash. Provision is also made for additive for coal at reduction of amount of carbon and NOx formed in the course of combustion of coal. Additive contains manganese compound which is added to coal in the amount of from 1 to 500 parts/min. Proposed method includes also stabilization of combustion of coal in presence of manganese-containing additive. Amount of carbon and NOx in fly ash is reduced relative to their amounts obtained at combustion of coal at absence of manganese-containing additive.
EFFECT: improved combustion of coal at simultaneous reduction of NOx, CO and carbon in fly ash.
21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: domestic cookers to be used in tourism, hunting, in homes and working under field conditions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cooker has body made from combustible material which may be used both as fuel and device for its burning. This body is provided with at least two intersecting vertical slotted passages having common line of intersection inside body which is close to center of its upper base. Length, width and height of vertical slotted passages is dictated by possibility of continuous burning of inner surfaces of body forming vertical slotted passages; burning-out of device accompanied by forming of supports for cooking reservoir.
EFFECT: simplified construction; reduced consumption of labor; avoidance of preparation of fuel.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: treatment of coal for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions during burning of coal.
SUBSTANCE: coal at high content of sulfur is placed in low-pressure medium for cracking of part of coal by extraction of atmospheric fluids entrapped in coal. Then cracked coal is brought in contact with aqueous composition of colloidal silicon oxide oversaturated with calcium carbonate and larger part of aqueous composition is brought out of contact with coal, after which coal is acted on by high pressure in carbon dioxide medium during period of time sufficient for penetration of calcium carbide into cracks in coal. Description is also given for coal cracked in vacuum which contains about 0.5 wt-% of sulfur and additionally contains calcium carbonate deposited in cracks in coal in the amount sufficient for obtaining Ca:S molar ratio equal to at least 0.5. Specification contains also description of obtaining energy in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur at simultaneous reduction of sulfur dioxide in emissions. Specification contains also description of increase of calcium sulfate obtained in the course of burning coal at high content of sulfur and aqueous composition used for treatment of such coal. Specification contains also description of preparation of aqueous composition for treatment of coal at high content of sulfur in combustion products. Description is also given for device for treatment of coal at pressure.
EFFECT: considerable reduction of sulfur dioxide and other toxic gases formed during burning of coal.
25 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: power-supply processes and equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises providing furnace having combustion chamber, wherein coal is combusted in presence of oxygen, supplying coal and metal-containing combustion catalyst to combustion chamber, and supplying oxygen to combustion chamber in amounts reduced relative to those required in absence of metal-containing combustion catalyst, which reduced amounts of supplied oxygen constituting up to 50% of the amount of oxygen above its stoichiometric amount.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of oxygen without losses in thermal efficiency and burning stability.
9 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: cleaning of low-grade coal not suited for production of reduced metal by standard carbon-composite method.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of cleaned coal for production of high-quality reduced metal. Coal is first kept in organic solvent simultaneously with heating, thus obtaining cleaned coal suitable for metallurgy which possesses higher thermoplasticity as compared with starting coal. Then, mixture of cleaned coal and starting material is subjected to agglomeration in agglomerator and agglomerate thus obtained is reduced at heating in furnace provided with movable hearth; then, it is molten by further heating, thus obtaining reduced melt which is cooled and hardened in furnace provided with movable hearth, thus obtaining solid material, after which reduced solid material is withdrawn from furnace. Then, slag is removed with the use of screen and reduced metal is extracted.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved quality of reduced metal.
21 cl, 9 dwg, 10 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to compositions for producing a granulated fuel for pyrolysis on the base of peat with modified additives and can be used in minor energetics and housing and communal services. The invention facilitates efficiency of the granulated fuel for pyrolysis. The assigned task and the said technical result are achieved by means of the fuel containing peat as an organic filling material and aluminium silicate material as a modifying additive at a following composition of elements, mas.%: aluminium silicate material 2-30% and peat 70-98. Granules can be made from 5 to 30 mm size by the method of balling on various types of granulators. A betonite clay, clay marl, Cambrian clay, kaolin clay, synthetic zeolite H-Beta-25 or synthetic zeolite H-MORD can be used as an aluminium silicate material.
EFFECT: increased combustion value of the fuel facilitating its efficient implementation at low temperature pyrolisis.
9 cl, 9 ex, 2 dwg, 10 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.
EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.
57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas production industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.
EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.
2 tbl, 14 ex