Method of soil preparation to rice sowing in fallow of rice crop rotation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes an autumn tillage by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and wintering intercrops, their harvesting and planting rice. After harvesting of winter crops and wintering intercrops a general planning of checks planes with simultaneous repair of water-inlet and water-outlet irrigation network, restoring check rollers and roads. Then, on the checks surface a maximum layer of water is created and supported until the end of the irrigation season. Thereat the soil is maintained in a condition of maximum water capacity for the entire winter period, after which the density of the plow layer reaches 1.05-1.1 t/m3.

EFFECT: method enables to save energy capacity and reduce the labour intensity of melioration measures carried out; it does not require a spring presowing processing and agro-technical measures; to improve the quality of control of weeds, to increase yields, to reduce the cost of produced grain of rice, to improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.

3 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to prepare the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field rotation.

The known method of algae control in rice cheque (U.S. Pat. RU # 2206969, AV 79/02, A01G 16/00, 27.06.2003), including autumn autumn ploughing to a depth of 20-25 cm from the drug reservoir, spring tillage, sowing rice seeds, Bay layer of 10-12 cm of water and maintaining it till sprouting above the surface.

The disadvantages of this method are its use only to combat dry type (mesophytes) weeds in crops of rice and only to the emergence above the water surface, the inability to completely destroy the weeds in the rice check.

There is a method of weed control in rice fallow field crop rotation (U.S. Pat. RU # 2330402, A01G 16/00, AV 79/02, 10.03.2007), including surface treatment fallow fields, spring incorporation of crop residues, application of nitrogen fertilizer in a dose of 20-30 kg/ha, the establishment of a permanent layer of water between may and August to ensure favorable conditions for active growth of algae biomass, "water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh) no entire water surface.

The disadvantages of this method are the large energy and economic costs of maintaining the water layer on the receipt in the period from may to August, irrational use the of irrigation water and nitrogen fertilizer, that are washed from the arable horizon to the period of planting rice, and therefore, the reduction of rice yield and environmental security in the rice irrigation system.

There is also known a method of processing soil in a part of the employed pair (Apply. Development of wetland land under rice crop. Krasnodar publishing house. Krasnodar. 1975, p.90-93) (prototype), according to which field, left under full fallow after the harvest of rice, sowing the intermediate cultures. To do this, make otvalnuyu plowing to a depth of 14-16 cm, then disking with harrowing and sowing. Catch crops sown in the period from 25 September to 5 October. In the spring after harvesting them is the layout of the planes of checks and repair network, and the fall - again sowing catch crops for green fodder or green manure. In late April - early may is moldboard plowing to a depth of 18-20 cm or milling to a depth of 12-14 cm, with subsequent submission and incorporation of fertilizers, rolling and seeding of rice.

The disadvantages of this method are the high energy consumption of executing complex technological operations, reduction of soil fertility and the need for additional doses of mineral and organic fertilizers from re-cultivation of catch crops, the decline in the quality plan surface of rice th the s from the end of April early may moldboard plowing to a depth of 18-20 cm or milling to a depth of 12-14 cm, environmental degradation and the decline in rice yield in connection with the failure of soil-conservation measures for weed control.

The technical result of the invention is to save energy and to reduce the complexity perform reclamation activities do not require spring preplant treatments and farming activities, improving quality control weeds, increase productivity, reduce costs and produce grain rice, improvement of the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation, including autumn soil by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and perennial intermediate crops, cleaning, overhaul plan plane checks, repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, restoring a cheque ridges, roads, planting rice, according to the invention after harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops carry out major layout planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads, ZAT is on the surface of checks create maximum water layer, support him to the end of the irrigation season, when the soil is kept in the state of maximum capacity for the whole winter, after which the density of arable horizon reaches of 1.05-1.1 t/m3.

The novelty of the claimed invention is attributable to the reduction processing operations on the appropriate field generated due to maximum water layer, saturating the soil to extreme humidity, which leave the soil for the winter, due to low temperatures in winter there is a natural loosening of the arable horizon to 1.05-1.1 t/m3and allows seeding of rice without spring preplant soil treatment.

The capital plan planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads will increase the period of flooding of rice paddies, which gives the opportunity to improve the ecological situation in the appropriate field by reducing weeds.

The water layer on the receipt after the execution of the capital plan planes checks allows you to create conditions for suppression of weeds: grass vegetation does not produce; the higher aquatic vegetation - clubmegamix, cattail - oppressed and gives Weg the consultative shoots, and yearling fish coming in irrigation canals on soil-conservation field, destroy the seeds and seedlings of grasses and aquatic vegetation to a depth in the soil cheque 0.2 m, which contributes to improving the quality of weed control, yield and environmental situation in the rice irrigation system.

Maintaining a layer of water until the end of the irrigation season creates the conditions for saturation of soil with water to limit plaguemaster, which leave the soil for the winter, due to low temperatures in winter there is a natural loosening of the arable horizon to 1.05-1.1 t/m3that will allow the planting of rice in time without the spring preplant treatments, and this, in turn, will reduce the cost of manufacture of a grain of rice, will improve environmental safety of the rice irrigation system.

The method is as follows. Fall in agro conduct field disking and harrowing. Then crop staging and wintering crops. After harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops carry out major layout planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads. Then on the surface of checks maximise the Loy water and maintain it until the end of the irrigation season. When this soil is kept in the state of maximum capacity for the whole winter, after which the density of arable horizon reaches of 1.05-1.1 t/m3. Then carry out sowing of rice.

An example of the method.

Testing method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation was conducted in three climatic subzones of rice cultivation in the Krasnodar region in the collective farm. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district, "Star" Abinsk district and CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic area.

Autumn in the appropriate fields of the collective farms to them. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district, "Star" Abinsk district and CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic area made disking and harrowing, and then carried out the planting of winter wheat on the farm "Star" and CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" and wintering peas on the farm to them. Lenin. After harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops made capital planning planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads. Then, before the end of the irrigation season produced flooding surface checks steam field layer of water of 0.5-0.7 m for the Whole winter the soil was kept in the state of maximum capacity, the density of arable horizon agro fields to tigla values of 1.05-1.1 t/m 3. As a result of application of this method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation was obtained a yield increase of rice from 10%to 13%. The cost of produced grain rice decreased by 8-10%. Saving energy and reducing the complexity perform reclamation activities decreased by 15-20%. The proposed method reduced the infestation of rice crops (tables 1, 2) and to improve the environmental safety of the rice irrigation system due to the amelioration of soils of rice fields (table 3).

Table 1. The debris lubrication rice crops the first year in the fields of the collective farm. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district, PCs/m2
IndicatorsChecks
11555330256
Description checksAMP with a layer of waterAMP with a layer of waterThe AMP without the water layerThe AMP without the water layerThe AMP without the water layer
The number of plants Klubnaya24352238

Table 2. Infestation of rice crops Sleeping bag on the farm "Star" Abinsk district, units/ha
Description checksCheck numberRiceClubmegamixChicken milletRed formContamination of crops, %
clubmegamixchicken milletred form
AMP with a layer of water114 (1)2050911045
AMP with a layer of water114 (2)16206 9045
AMP with a layer of water115 (1)1940710035
AMP with a layer of water115 (2)187099045
AMP with a layer of water with violations of the water115 (3)1623973624422
The AMP without the water layer116 (1)14741103228722
The AMP without the water layer116 2) 1514984132527

Table 3. Change ameliorative condition of soils in the rice paddies in CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic district
Room / feature checksDepth selection, cmN-NR3N-NH4P2O5K2OHumus, %
166 (1) / AMS with a layer of water0-51,950,5411,57,02,60
5-101,840,5111,07,0
168 (1) / AMP without water layer0-5the 1.440,4213,07,0 2,38
5-101,380,4212,26,9
166 (2) / AMP with a layer of water0-52,091,1010,55,82,88
5-102,041,0410,55,6
168 (2) / AMP without water layer0-51,210,7110,55,82,71
5-101,240,6910,55,6

The invention allows to save energy and reduce the complexity of the performed soil-conservation measures, does not require a spring preplant treatments and agrotechnical measures, can improve quality control weeds, improve productivity, reduce the cost of produced grain rice, improving the shape of the environmental situation in the rice irrigation system.

The method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation, including autumn soil by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and perennial intermediate crops, cleaning, overhaul plan plane checks, repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, restoring a cheque ridges, roads, planting rice, characterized in that after harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops carry out major layout planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads, then on the surface of checks create maximum layer of water, maintain it until the end of the irrigation season, when this soil is kept in the state of maximum capacity for the whole winter, after which the density of arable horizon reaches of 1.05-1.1 t/m3.



 

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1 tbl, 6 ex

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