Method of soil preparation to rice sowing in fallow of rice crop rotation
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes an autumn tillage by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and wintering intercrops, their harvesting and planting rice. After harvesting of winter crops and wintering intercrops a general planning of checks planes with simultaneous repair of water-inlet and water-outlet irrigation network, restoring check rollers and roads. Then, on the checks surface a maximum layer of water is created and supported until the end of the irrigation season. Thereat the soil is maintained in a condition of maximum water capacity for the entire winter period, after which the density of the plow layer reaches 1.05-1.1 t/m3.
EFFECT: method enables to save energy capacity and reduce the labour intensity of melioration measures carried out; it does not require a spring presowing processing and agro-technical measures; to improve the quality of control of weeds, to increase yields, to reduce the cost of produced grain of rice, to improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.
3 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to prepare the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field rotation.
The known method of algae control in rice cheque (U.S. Pat. RU # 2206969, AV 79/02, A01G 16/00, 27.06.2003), including autumn autumn ploughing to a depth of 20-25 cm from the drug reservoir, spring tillage, sowing rice seeds, Bay layer of 10-12 cm of water and maintaining it till sprouting above the surface.
The disadvantages of this method are its use only to combat dry type (mesophytes) weeds in crops of rice and only to the emergence above the water surface, the inability to completely destroy the weeds in the rice check.
There is a method of weed control in rice fallow field crop rotation (U.S. Pat. RU # 2330402, A01G 16/00, AV 79/02, 10.03.2007), including surface treatment fallow fields, spring incorporation of crop residues, application of nitrogen fertilizer in a dose of 20-30 kg/ha, the establishment of a permanent layer of water between may and August to ensure favorable conditions for active growth of algae biomass, "water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh) no entire water surface.
The disadvantages of this method are the large energy and economic costs of maintaining the water layer on the receipt in the period from may to August, irrational use the of irrigation water and nitrogen fertilizer, that are washed from the arable horizon to the period of planting rice, and therefore, the reduction of rice yield and environmental security in the rice irrigation system.
There is also known a method of processing soil in a part of the employed pair (Apply. Development of wetland land under rice crop. Krasnodar publishing house. Krasnodar. 1975, p.90-93) (prototype), according to which field, left under full fallow after the harvest of rice, sowing the intermediate cultures. To do this, make otvalnuyu plowing to a depth of 14-16 cm, then disking with harrowing and sowing. Catch crops sown in the period from 25 September to 5 October. In the spring after harvesting them is the layout of the planes of checks and repair network, and the fall - again sowing catch crops for green fodder or green manure. In late April - early may is moldboard plowing to a depth of 18-20 cm or milling to a depth of 12-14 cm, with subsequent submission and incorporation of fertilizers, rolling and seeding of rice.
The disadvantages of this method are the high energy consumption of executing complex technological operations, reduction of soil fertility and the need for additional doses of mineral and organic fertilizers from re-cultivation of catch crops, the decline in the quality plan surface of rice th the s from the end of April early may moldboard plowing to a depth of 18-20 cm or milling to a depth of 12-14 cm, environmental degradation and the decline in rice yield in connection with the failure of soil-conservation measures for weed control.
The technical result of the invention is to save energy and to reduce the complexity perform reclamation activities do not require spring preplant treatments and farming activities, improving quality control weeds, increase productivity, reduce costs and produce grain rice, improvement of the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation, including autumn soil by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and perennial intermediate crops, cleaning, overhaul plan plane checks, repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, restoring a cheque ridges, roads, planting rice, according to the invention after harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops carry out major layout planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads, ZAT is on the surface of checks create maximum water layer, support him to the end of the irrigation season, when the soil is kept in the state of maximum capacity for the whole winter, after which the density of arable horizon reaches of 1.05-1.1 t/m3.
The novelty of the claimed invention is attributable to the reduction processing operations on the appropriate field generated due to maximum water layer, saturating the soil to extreme humidity, which leave the soil for the winter, due to low temperatures in winter there is a natural loosening of the arable horizon to 1.05-1.1 t/m3and allows seeding of rice without spring preplant soil treatment.
The capital plan planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads will increase the period of flooding of rice paddies, which gives the opportunity to improve the ecological situation in the appropriate field by reducing weeds.
The water layer on the receipt after the execution of the capital plan planes checks allows you to create conditions for suppression of weeds: grass vegetation does not produce; the higher aquatic vegetation - clubmegamix, cattail - oppressed and gives Weg the consultative shoots, and yearling fish coming in irrigation canals on soil-conservation field, destroy the seeds and seedlings of grasses and aquatic vegetation to a depth in the soil cheque 0.2 m, which contributes to improving the quality of weed control, yield and environmental situation in the rice irrigation system.
Maintaining a layer of water until the end of the irrigation season creates the conditions for saturation of soil with water to limit plaguemaster, which leave the soil for the winter, due to low temperatures in winter there is a natural loosening of the arable horizon to 1.05-1.1 t/m3that will allow the planting of rice in time without the spring preplant treatments, and this, in turn, will reduce the cost of manufacture of a grain of rice, will improve environmental safety of the rice irrigation system.
The method is as follows. Fall in agro conduct field disking and harrowing. Then crop staging and wintering crops. After harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops carry out major layout planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads. Then on the surface of checks maximise the Loy water and maintain it until the end of the irrigation season. When this soil is kept in the state of maximum capacity for the whole winter, after which the density of arable horizon reaches of 1.05-1.1 t/m3. Then carry out sowing of rice.
An example of the method.
Testing method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation was conducted in three climatic subzones of rice cultivation in the Krasnodar region in the collective farm. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district, "Star" Abinsk district and CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic area.
Autumn in the appropriate fields of the collective farms to them. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district, "Star" Abinsk district and CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic area made disking and harrowing, and then carried out the planting of winter wheat on the farm "Star" and CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" and wintering peas on the farm to them. Lenin. After harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops made capital planning planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads. Then, before the end of the irrigation season produced flooding surface checks steam field layer of water of 0.5-0.7 m for the Whole winter the soil was kept in the state of maximum capacity, the density of arable horizon agro fields to tigla values of 1.05-1.1 t/m 3. As a result of application of this method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation was obtained a yield increase of rice from 10%to 13%. The cost of produced grain rice decreased by 8-10%. Saving energy and reducing the complexity perform reclamation activities decreased by 15-20%. The proposed method reduced the infestation of rice crops (tables 1, 2) and to improve the environmental safety of the rice irrigation system due to the amelioration of soils of rice fields (table 3).
|Table 1. The debris lubrication rice crops the first year in the fields of the collective farm. Lenin Krasnoarmeisky district, PCs/m2|
|Description checks||AMP with a layer of water||AMP with a layer of water||The AMP without the water layer||The AMP without the water layer||The AMP without the water layer|
|The number of plants Klubnaya||2||4||35||22||38|
|Table 2. Infestation of rice crops Sleeping bag on the farm "Star" Abinsk district, units/ha|
|Description checks||Check number||Rice||Clubmegamix||Chicken millet||Red form||Contamination of crops, %|
|clubmegamix||chicken millet||red form|
|AMP with a layer of water||114 (1)||205||0||9||11||0||4||5|
|AMP with a layer of water||114 (2)||162||0||6||9||0||4||5|
|AMP with a layer of water||115 (1)||194||0||7||10||0||3||5|
|AMP with a layer of water||115 (2)||187||0||9||9||0||4||5|
|AMP with a layer of water with violations of the water||115 (3)||162||39||7||36||24||4||22|
|The AMP without the water layer||116 (1)||147||41||10||32||28||7||22|
|The AMP without the water layer||116 2)||151||49||8||41||32||5||27|
|Table 3. Change ameliorative condition of soils in the rice paddies in CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic district|
|Room / feature checks||Depth selection, cm||N-NR3||N-NH4||P2O5||K2O||Humus, %|
|166 (1) / AMS with a layer of water||0-5||1,95||0,54||11,5||7,0||2,60|
|168 (1) / AMP without water layer||0-5||the 1.44||0,42||13,0||7,0||2,38|
|166 (2) / AMP with a layer of water||0-5||2,09||1,10||10,5||5,8||2,88|
|168 (2) / AMP without water layer||0-5||1,21||0,71||10,5||5,8||2,71|
The invention allows to save energy and reduce the complexity of the performed soil-conservation measures, does not require a spring preplant treatments and agrotechnical measures, can improve quality control weeds, improve productivity, reduce the cost of produced grain rice, improving the shape of the environmental situation in the rice irrigation system.
The method of preparing the soil for planting rice in the rice fallow field crop rotation, including autumn soil by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and perennial intermediate crops, cleaning, overhaul plan plane checks, repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, restoring a cheque ridges, roads, planting rice, characterized in that after harvesting of winter staging and wintering crops carry out major layout planes checks with simultaneous repair vodovypuske and the water outlet of the irrigation network, the restoration of check rollers and roads, then on the surface of checks create maximum layer of water, maintain it until the end of the irrigation season, when this soil is kept in the state of maximum capacity for the whole winter, after which the density of arable horizon reaches of 1.05-1.1 t/m3.
SUBSTANCE: method includes sowing rice seeds with their placement in soil at the depth 2.5-3 cm. After that fields are flooded with water for 3-5 days for seed soaking. Then water is drained for period of seed germination. After that re-flooding of fields with water is carried out.
EFFECT: method insures dense shoots and reduces decree of rice layering, which allows to increase rice yield and its harvesting.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preplanting treatment of seeds with a plant growth regulator. In order to enhance capacity of survival of rice, aqueous solution of Melaphen at strength of 1·10-6-1·10-9 g/l is applied as a plant growth regulator.
EFFECT: efficient increase of viability and germinating ability of the seeds, enhancement of survival capacity of rice, increase in productivity and positive impact upon technological characteristics of the products.
SUBSTANCE: this method suggests constant 10-12 cm water level during whole growing period up to rice harvesting. Herewith calurea treatment of rice is performed during the 5-6 leafs stage. This invention allows increasing waterweed (Hydrodictyon utricnlatum Pooth.) control efficiency in rice plantings during tillering stage (3-7 leafs).
EFFECT: increase of waterweed control efficiency in rice plantings.
SUBSTANCE: method ensures the facilities for active biomass growth of alga water net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L) Lagerh) over the water surface. Shallow work is carried out in the lea, in spring crop remains are embedded, nitrogenous fertilisers are added with the dosage 20-30 kg/ha, and then constant water sheet is made, that is kept in the period from May till August. For example, urea is added in the soil as nitrogenous fertilisers.
EFFECT: decreased level of rice fields infestation with the main weeds of boggy and gramineous type, and also with red-grained rice.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: plant growing, in particular, rice disease controlling process.
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating rice young crops at milky-wax ripeness phase with carbamide mixture in dose of 20-30 kg/hectare, pherazime SC fungicide in dose of 0.6 kg/hectare, and luvaram containing growth promoter in dose of 22 ml/hectare at mixture flow rate of 100 l/hectare.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of piricularia pitting rice disease at late development stages and during milky-wax ripeness stage when plant's vegetative and generative organs are simultaneously stricken by disease.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, rice cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves returning water filtered into waterway back into checks by means of water lifts which are positioned in retaining structures additionally provided on parts of waterways; returning drainage and waste water into irrigation and distribution network through additional open feeding channels. Method allows drainage and waste water volume to be effectively utilized and conditions for mixing and diluting of drainage and waste water with pure irrigation water to be improved.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in utilizing of water from rice irrigation systems and improved conditions for utilization of fertilizers in rice cultivation.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular rice cropping.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes soil treatment, fertilization, seeding and irrigation regime, plant treatment in tillering period with mixture of herbicide and growth controlling agent. Treatment id carried out using mixture of bazagran M as herbicide in amount of 3 l/hectare and emystim as growth controlling agent in amount of 0.5-5 ml/hectare against the background on N60-120P90K60.
EFFECT: decreased adverse herbicide action; increased rice yield.
4 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, rice cultivation method.
SUBSTANCE: method involves tillage of soil; providing presowing application of mineral fertilizers; treating rice seeds with growth promoter used in an amount of 1-30 ml/t; sowing and irrigating. Method allows dose of nitrous fertilizer applied during presowing period to be reduced by 30% without reducing rice yield.
EFFECT: reduced production costs and decreased influence of agronomical chemicals upon environment owing to reduced technogenic loading thereof.
6 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, controlling of weedage in rice growing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing rice crop to obtain young crops through wetting of soil in checks and provoking germination of weeds (barnyard grass); treating weed sprouts having no more than 3-4 leaves with binary bacteriological mixture of two kinds of herbicides used in doses of 0.9-4.0 l/hectare, respectively, at flow rate of up to 500 l/hectare; creating constant water track in check of 5-7 cm depth 48 hours after treatment of weeds.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of weeds, such as barnyard grass, and increased rice yield.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to growing technology of feed for animals. The method of growing of feed mixture includes sowing of components of the mixture, cultivation and harvesting. Sowing of fodder mixture, performed, at least from a two-component mixture of grains, in combinations of such crops as oats, peas, barley, vetch, wheat, is carried out in an earlier spring timing than with sowing of single-crop cultures by 10-15 days. The sowing is carried out using the normative amount of mineral fertiliser applied into the soil. Sowing of grain mixture components is carried out in stripes, in each of which each individual culture is planted in a row, or is carried out with a mixture with a mixed distribution of components, planted in the soil. The harvesting is carried out at the end of wax ripeness period of barley and milk ripeness stage of wheat and oats.
EFFECT: production of feed mixture adaptive to varying weather conditions, with a high content of mineral nutrients corresponding to the zootechnical standards.
3 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of cultivation of agricultural crops. The method involves loosening the topsoil and subsoil layers, cutting slits with molehills. The upper part of the slits cut is mulched with crushed plant residues of the predecessor culture. Slits are cut to a depth of at 0.05-0.10 m higher than the topsoil thickness. The molehills are cut in the middle part of the slits in the topsoil layer. The straw remaining after harvesting on the field surface is combed out from the stubble and moved to the slit space. Into the soil, in the zone of operating width of soil-tilling implement, herbicides are applied locally.
EFFECT: increased productivity due to more efficient storage and preservation of soil moisture, as well as creation of conditions conducive to improvement of soil fertility.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of cultivation of girasol, and can be used on medium and heavy-textured soils. The method includes autumn pre-sowing tillage, fertilising, cutting beds, planting tubers. Planting of tubers can be carried out in autumn or spring. Then the spring and summer inter-row processing is carried-out, as well as mowing of stalks for fodder, and harvesting the tubers. Pre-sowing tillage is carried out by cutting the beds of width of 150-180 cm with enclosures of width-fold of the bed, 9.0 (18.0) or 10.8 (21.6) m. Intervals between enclosures are 3.0 or 3.6 m. Planting is carried out in beds, the distance between rows is 45-90 cm. They are cultivated with ridge cultivator. In case of necessity the herbage is mowed for fodder; the stems height is 60-70 cm. Before harvesting a second mowing of herbage is carried out by mower with collecting and transporting it to the hopper of the vehicle.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the growing conditions of girasol and to reduce damage of tubers during harvesting.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes chisel treatment of soil with formation of a ridgy furrow bottom and crop sowing above grooves in the furrow bottom - in the next but one groove in the first year of sowing. At the same time in the second year sowing is carried out above spare grooves of the furrow bottom in the first year. The width between traces after treatment of soil is equal to the half of distances between rows. A spaced tilled crop is corn or sunflower.
EFFECT: method provides for higher efficiency of irrigated and dry lands, reduced number of heavy equipment passages when cultivating tilled crops and saving of resources.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes an autumn surface and spring combined treatment by giving the inhomogeneous structure to the arable layer. To reduce the impact of adverse weather conditions on the yield of crops, the inhomogeneous structure is formed simultaneously with the sowing in the layer below the level of seeding by creation of alternate sites having the density favourable for the plants, respectively, in case of the lack and excess of rainfall and the difference between the density of adjacent sites at 0.2-0.3 g/cm3. The value of density for sites designed for the lack of rainfall is 1.3-1.4 g/cm3, for the sites designed for excess of rainfall is 1.0-1.1 g/cm3. In case of an equality of natural soil density corresponding to the density of one of two types of the formed sites it is allowed to use a combination of "treated area - untreated area". Sizes of sites are selected according to the agro-physical soil properties and the average annual weather conditions in the region.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of grain by 6-19% due to the greater adaptability of the field to the weather conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes post-harvesting tillage, harrowing, cultivation and sowing. Post-harvesting tillage is implemented with disk headers at a rate not less than 16 km/h at an angle of 30-40° to the direction of the forecrop harvesting. Harrowing is carried out with spring harrows at the rate of the device movement not less than 14 km/h at an angle of 30-40° to the direction of processing with the disk headers. Cultivation is carried out with a cultivator equipped with hoes-sweep cultivators and needlelike rotors at a rate not less than 10 km/h at an angle of 30-40° to the direction of harrowing. Sowing is carried out with a seeding-machine of unstriped sowing at an angle of 30-40° to the direction of the cultivator movement, and the post-harvesting treatment, harrowing, cultivation and sowing is carried out at a depth no greater than 8.0 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to improve soil fertility, increase crop yields without the use of mineral fertilisers, herbicides and chemical pesticides, to reduce costs to planting and harvesting, as well as improve the quality of grain.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of protection of land parcels from destruction and damage. The method includes formation of impact area on the topsoil of the parcel, leveling of the topsoil, laying the reinforced concrete slabs breadthwise on the generated leveled horizontal soil layer. At that the slabs are placed with an angle of inclination lengthwise the plate from 0 to 80°. Each specified slab is connected with the previous slab and is adapted for rotational movement relative it. The niches formed with the slabs are supplied with plastic bags from biodegradable film, filled with natural humus and seeds of various kinds of flowers. At that the rate of decay of biodegradable film of bags with a thickness of 10 to 14 microns is taken into account, which contains polyethylene with addition of 8-10% sulfur, 6-8% starch, 3-20% of nitrogenous fertilisers. Turning devices are made from interconnected with each other biodegradable liners and interconnected with them axial projections at a rate of decay of biodegradable composition from 10 to 30 years. On the surface of the reinforced concrete slabs a layer of humus is applied from 8 to 12 cm to interact with sunlight and rainfall, which contribute to ultraviolet degradation of biodegradable composition of plastic film. Then a form of soil cover with flower seeds is created for their germination and formation of long-term decorative landscape of a garden plot in different natural areas of lands.
EFFECT: reduced risk of soil washaway and erosion, that together with the forest belts saves natural resources of the earth.
2 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises application into the soil of mineral and organic fertilisers in the form of chopped straw and green manure. At that, after cleaning the predecessor the chopped straw is incorporated by disc harrows to a depth of 10-12 cm and green manure is sown, which with accumulation of green mass of 5-8 t/ha is incorporated into the soil by disk harrows to a depth of 8-10 cm. Plowing is carried out at the depth of 20-22 cm, and then mineral fertilisers are applied to a depth of 6-8 cm under the presowing cultivation. After harvesting the predecessor, stubbly sowing of spring green manure is carried out and it is incorporated into the soil in autumn at the budding phase. In the spring before planting buckwheat seeds they are treated by biological products rizoagrin or mizorin.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the yielding ability of buckwheat.
1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method involves loosening the soil to a predetermined depth. At that, loosening the soil is carried out by air flows created by the system of perforated pipes laid to a given depth.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of tillage, to reduce energy consumption due to reducing metal consumption and reducing the number of machines for soil treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation of damaged soil in conditions of the Far North and may be used when restoring the soil and vegetation layer disturbed by industrial and economic human activities. The method of recultivation of damaged soil is described, including introduction into the ground of bentonite clay, seeds of perennial grasses, fertilisers, humic compounds and binder, and the bentonite clay is inserted as part of the waste mud, followed by stirring the top layer of soil. Then the fertiliser, humic compounds and seeds of perennial grasses are inserted, and then a binder is inserted, which is used as a solution of xanthan gum.
EFFECT: invention provides a more efficient process of recultivation, expansion of the scope of application on the surface of soils with different steepness.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.