Method for re-development of gravel deposits

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes backfill in worked-out area of small-grain dump and further backfill of pebble dump on its surface using mined rock removed upon processing of solid placer and consequent extraction of material from dump removing particles of gold. Before re-processing of dump works for coarsening of gold particles sizes are performed. Before backfill of pebble dump silt-settling tank is formed in near-bedrock part of small-grain dump, for which purpose a barrier is formed on bedrock surface from water-proof, covering perimeter small-grain dump. After backfill of pebble fraction on surface of small-grain dump, dump is exposed during the time interval required for flushing of dump space by non-ramming water flows, then the dump is frozen preferably in two stages. Upon extraction of material from the dump its volume located above volume of silt-settling tank is removed without flushing. In order to flush volume of the dump by non-ramming water flows, natural water-borne sediments and/or forced feed of water to the dump surface is used. During formation of water-proof barrier water-proof film material is used in addition.

EFFECT: higher gold extraction efficiency during re-development of gravel deposits.

5 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of resources placers formed when developing Zelikovich placer deposits of gold.

Placer represent a complex combination of dump formations, characterized by chaotic distribution in their thicker particles of precious metals and natural stones, not worked during the primary operation.

The main resource and technological features placers, contributing to low economic efficiency of their further processing, are:

- relatively low content of useful components (gold) in dumps of technogenic formations;

- a significant proportion of fine gold and fine fractions, in comparison with factions Zelikovich structures of natural stones, which necessitates the application of special, more complex technologies for extraction, processing technology dumps.

Therefore, the development of technogenic formations are essential processes for preliminary preparation of the rock mass to enrichment, which have a direct impact on the efficiency as traditional processing devices, and new equipment.

Known methods repeated drain the th development placers using drag and excavating equipment, after testing each section of the field on the acoustic fields in the dumps again working Gale-evalnih layers produce the removal of peat from the next section (see SU # 1097797, AS 45/00, AS 41/00, 1984 and SU # 1263849, AS 41/00, AS 45/00, 1986).

The disadvantage of these methods is gross dredging of conforming and non-conforming layers pebble-evalnih dumps, which dramatically reduces the content of useful components in the leached rock mass, increases technological losses of gold and makes re-development placers generally unprofitable.

Also known how to re-placer developments, including filling in the developed space efilego blade and subsequent dumping on the surface of the pebble blade, with the use of rock extracted during the mining of acoustic scattering, and the subsequent excavation of the material of the blade with the extraction of gold particles (see EN 2024753, AS 41/26, 1994).

The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of extraction of gold due to the fact that fine gold, amounting often a significant portion of its reserves of placer, very hard to eject, especially when a significant variation of parameters of gold particles (gold particles)that determine their hydraulic size.

The challenge aimed declared R is the solution, is expressed in increasing the efficiency of gold recovery for re-development of placer deposits. The technical result obtained by the solution of a technical problem, which seeks to ensure pre-concentration of gold-bearing fractions in prilotkovoj area of the blade that allows you to minimize the amount of leached rock. In addition, it is possible sorption merge gold particles due to the use of high pressures in the volume of rootstalk developed when it is frozen, thereby escalation that allows effective removal.

To solve the problem how to re-placer developments, including filling in the developed space efilego blade and subsequent dumping on the surface of the pebble blade, with the use of rock extracted during the mining of acoustic scattering, and the subsequent excavation of the material of the blade with the extraction of gold particles, characterized in that before re-testing of the blade carry out work on the enlargement of the size of the gold particles, however, before dumping pebble blade, prilotkovoj part efilego blade form rootstown, which on the surface of the float creates a waterproof barrier, for example, clay material, the coverage is surrounding the perimeter efilego blade, in this case, after filling the pebble fraction on the surface efilego blade, pass the blade over the time required for flushing volume of the blade pressure streams of water, then carry out the freezing blade, preferably with the use of natural cold, preferably in two stages, starting with volume dump except volume rootstalk, freezing which is carried out in the last turn, in addition, when the recess of the material of the blade its volume above the volume of rootstalk remove without washing. In addition, before excavation of rock mass, the freezing blade carried out repeatedly. In addition, in the process of freezing the top of the blade it is additionally moisturize. In addition, for flushing volume of the blade pressure water streams using natural water precipitation and/or forced flow of water to the surface of the blade. In addition, when forming a waterproof barrier in addition use waterproof film material.

Comparative analysis of the essential features of the proposed technical solutions and essential features of the prototype and analogues demonstrates its compliance with the criterion of "novelty".

While the essential features of the characterizing portion of the formula izaberete the Oia solve the following functional tasks.

Signs "before re-testing of the blade perform work on the consolidation of particle size of gold" allow "clean" gold-bearing particles from the category of fine gold in the coarse fractions, which allows in turn, the efficiency of extraction which is significantly higher.

Signs "before dumping pebble blade, prilotkovoj part efilego blade form rootstalk" provide the opportunity to create a "memory" of fine gold in the lower zone of the blade due to the wash of its overlying volume for gravity flow of water and provide a further opportunity to create high pressure in the volume of rootstalk.

Signs "on the surface of the float creates a waterproof barrier, for example, clay material covering the perimeter efilego blade" generate rootstalk as capacity, hydraulically isolated from the rest of the space.

Signs "after dumping the pebble fraction on the surface efilego blade can withstand the blade within the time required for flushing volume of the blade pressure water streams provide movement of gold-bearing fractions from top to bottom in the volume of rootstalk, because the permeability of the gravel and athelney components of the blade is sufficiently large (the size of pebbles ranges from 16 to 80 mm, latest ρ from 1800 to 2500 kg/m 3the share of the pebble fraction of the total mass of rocks from 5 to 50%; the size of the Ephel less than 50 mm, a density of from 1750 to 2150 kg/m3share athelney fraction of the total mass of rocks from 15 to 95%). When this is formed youstina fraction with the size of the Ephel less than 2 mm (the share of 10-45% by weight of rocks dump).

Signs carry out the freezing blade" provide both increased migration of the Golden faction down in rootstown and further consolidation of the gold particles, due to their adhesion to each other.

Signs indicating the preferred use of "natural"cold, allow to exclude the cost of freeze-cooling of the blade.

Signs indicating a preference for a frost blade in two stages, starting with volume dump except volume rootstalk, freezing which is carried out in the last turn, enable you to increase the level of pressure developed in the scope of rootstalk, because they provide carrying out of this process, as would in the cavity ice capsules".

Signs of "mining the material of the blade its volume above the volume of rootstalk remove without washing" reduce costs for leaching of the material of the blade by reducing the amounts of leached material. Signs of the second claim of the invention enables to increase the output of the enlarged evils is esterase faction.

The signs of the third claim of the invention allow to increase durability premaratne at the first stage of the volumes of the blade.

The signs of the fourth claim of the invention enables to increase the washing efficiency of the displacement of the blade pressure water streams (leaching and migration down gold particles), especially at low levels in natural water precipitation.

The signs of the fifth claim of the invention enables to increase the water-resistance waterproof barrier.

The claimed invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a cross-section of the blade; figure 2 schematically shows a longitudinal section of the blade with cooling system-heat rootstalk; figure 3 shows the distribution of gold after 21 cycles "Pomorski-thawing".

Processing of industrial waste dumps may be advisable when high concentrations of the remaining fine fraction of gold in the lower layer efilego blade and rootstalk. The main amount of gold in placer presents small and very small size classes (from 0.06 to 0.5 mm). An evident pattern of increased quantities of gold from the top of the placer to the bottom, indicating that it redeposition when filtering dumps surface waters.

The implementation is their migration process gold-bearing inclusions in prilosecbuy part of the reservoir can be achieved by filtering the blade surface and wash waters, and also due to surface stresses in the thickness of the layers of the blade when the periodic freezing and thawing of the blade.

If the thickness of the pile of rocks placer seepage flow occurs several types of deformation patterns of species contributing to the migration of valuable components, sand and clay in the bottom part of the blade and the formation of rootstalk.

Such deformations include:

- suppose, i.e. the removal or moving of filtration flow most of the small particles of rock. If the soil soluble salts of possible additional chemical suppose;

- contact erosion, i.e. the destruction of coherent rocks at the contact with the larger material due to the action of seepage flow along the contact surface;

- peeling, i.e. separation filtration flux of particles and aggregates of clay rocks with faction galinou and athelney mass.

In the sufoziya is an increase in porosity rocks with increasing pore size, which creates the prerequisites for the migration of valuable components that have a higher density. Contact erosion and exfoliation of the attenuated connection between the upper and lower layers of the rock mass, which facilitates the forced displacement of the upper layers of rocks to the bottom.

Characteristics fil the operating flow is determined by many parameters, which in actual conditions may vary within wide limits. These factors include: porosity and filtration capacity of the rock mass, the temperature of the water and rocks, the presence or absence of impermeable layer and a diagram of its location, the depth of freezing of the rock mass and the speed of its thawing.

The authors carried out experimental studies of the separate influence of gravity flows and water cycles "Pomorski-thawing on the formation of the enriched layer. We obtained the following results: when exposed to an array of rock mass gravity flows of water, the rate of migration of the gold particles in the horizontal plane is in the range from 0.95 to 1.6 mm/HR, vertical - 0.47 mm/hour; the rate of migration of fractions of gold in the cycles "Pomorski-thawing" is in the range from 1.6 to 0.3 mm/day (for gold particles with a size of 2.5 mm, for smaller fractions of the migration rate increases).

The fact of the migration of gold particles under the influence of cycles Pomorski-thawing is not in doubt. The study of these processes has been sewed, Shumilov. 1969: Vantsevich and others, 1969; Reshetnikov, 1970; Smeyan, 1977. The most detailed experimental and field studies of these processes performed Yevkurov etc. the fact of the migration of gold particles is confirmed by the experiments conducted previously in the mining Institute, far Eastern branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.

The authors also mouth Olena migration of small gold factions in the rock mass, consisting of fine sand and clay fractions at periodic freezing and thawing mountain gold weight, fully flooded with water. After several cycles of freeze-thawing treatment of rock layers with a thickness of 2 cm in height experimental bookmarks showed that a significant part of the Golden fractions with sizes up to 0.25 mm migrated to the depth of the rock mass and reached the bottom of the experimental vessel.

However, removing the thin gold factions, even pre-concentrated in the lower layers of the blade remains low, due to the complexity of the processes of retrieval.

Increasing the degree of extraction of gold may be made only after prior escalation gold fine inclusions provided by sticking them in contact and surface diffusion due to high pressure in the volume where they are.

The known method of sorption merge gold particles, gold and graphite with noble metals [see Lpplus, Tavkozlesi, Avicenna Experimental modeling sorption of gold in carbonaceous matter at 200-500°C, 1 kbar. Geochemistry 2004 No. 8, s-873.], in which the adhesion of fine particles are carried out at a pressure of 1 kbar and a temperature of 200-300°C, which then allows to extract gold particles from nazvanijami breeds known technological processes. However, this process of consolidation (merger particle) energy-intensive and not applicable in real terms, while maintaining pressure in the volumes of the blade.

The proposed method for the consolidation of the gold-bearing fractions, based on the principle of pressure increase, is in a deep freeze at-platinovoi part of the blade, in which the achievement of high pressure is achieved with the exception of the deformation and expansion of the frozen layer.

The pressure developed in the process of freezing, is determined by the formula (see Century Nowacki "Dynamic problem of thermoelasticity", M., Mir, 1970 s):

where σkkis the pressure, R≈(1,1-1,5)·107PA - temporal resistance of the ice in different conditions of stress state at negative temperature, K=0,9·1010PA - the modulus of elasticity of ice, αt=0,053·10-3(1/°C) coefficient of linear expansion of the ice, θ - temperature, °C.

The pressure developed in the process of ice formation, corresponding to various temperature parameters given in table 1.

Table 1
θ (°)σkk(PA)θ (°)σkk(PA)
0 1,3·107-102,731·107
-204,162·107-305,593·107
-406,024·107-508,455·107

In the drawings shown pebble blade 1; athelny blade 2; rootstalk 3; float, 4, waterproof barrier 5, the receiving space 6 of the blade, vertical precast collector end of the tube 7, the connecting pipe 8, the control bore 9, the bottom of the air pipe 10, the side air tube 11, distributing air manifold 12, prefabricated air manifold 13, the pressure of the air pipe 14, an exhaust pipe 15, the receiving directional baffle type 16, the exhaust deflector 17, the damper 18 and 19.

The claimed method is implemented as follows.

Primary mining of placer deposits are carried out in a known manner using known means, for example using Draghi, preferably before the float 4. In principle, a means of cooling-heating rootstalk (position 7-19) will not be required if development is planned in conditions of very low winter temperatures (below -40°C), but in other cases, the cooling medium-R is Zagreba (position 7-19) allow to increase the efficiency of the sorption process of the merger of the gold particles.

During the initial development of the deposits on the surface of the float 4 form the blade, while in the beginning within the space provided for the filling of the blade, place (preferably in parallel) scourge bottom of the air tube 10, and, if necessary, side air pipe 11. Next, on the thus prepared the ground are dumping efilego blade 2. Upon reaching epilinum blade 2 a given area on the perimeter creates a waterproof barrier 5 from waterproof, for example, clay material (its height is based on the percentage of silt-athelney fraction in the material placer - size Ephel less than 2 mm; the content of this fraction varies from 10 to 45% in the material placer), forming rootstalk 3. Thus, the height of the barrier 5 from the float 4 is from 0.1 to 0.4 of the height of the blade (total height efilego and pebble blade 1). When forming a waterproof barrier it is sensible to use waterproof film material (not shown), such as high-pressure polyethylene.

Next, athelny blade 2 occiput pebble blade 1. Then the top of the blade (generated by the pebble material of the blade 1) profiles, creating a platform 6, preferably concave. This platform 6 provides for the creation of seepage flow (top to bottom) in the body of the blade (water, p is given from a water source (not shown) by gravity, as well as arrives as rain water. Next on this site Buryats and known plant around steel pipes monitoring wells 9.

During filtration, the excess water is removed from the lower part efilego layer and rootstalk, flowing through the upper face of waterproof barrier 5, and removed from the blade. Waterproof wall 5 provides maximum water saturation of the blade in rootstalk 3.

This device uses a two-stage freezing blade. First of all, with closed air flap 18 and 19 freeze the upper layers of the blade height and the perimeter (i.e. proparaguay volume dump except volume rootstalk). The freezing front moves to loustaunau 3, which will absorb the heat of phase transition in the freezing of moisture for increased temperature, in comparison with epilinum upstream blade 2. When freezing the upper part of the blade additionally moisturize, if the humidity of the material of the blade is not sufficient for the freezing.

Rootstalk 3 has a thermal insulation in the form of the bottom of the air pipe 10, United teams of air collectors 12,13, and side air pipe 11, connected by vertical collectors 7, connected by piping 8 to the pump 14 and exhaust 15 pipelines.

Control freezing the main mass of the blade is through the control bore 9 with periodic sampling.

The second stage of freezing (freezing rootstalk 3) is performed after the deep freeze upstream side of the blade. At a pressure air pipe 14 opens the valve 18, the exhaust pipe 15 to the valve 19.

Inlet pressure air pipes 14 are rotatable reception deflectors feathered type 16, and at the ends of the exhaust pipes 15 are mounted exhaust vent 17 of known construction, which provides automatic placement of intake vents on the wind.

The pressure drop at the input 16 and output 17 baffles provides the velocity head in the pipe of the air system, and the cold outside air enters the bottom of the air pipe 10 and the side air tube 11, providing freezing rootstalk, which has the shape of a lens bounded by the perimeter epilinum layer with a high moisture content, frozen in the first stage, and the top - of the frozen mass efilego layer of the blade.

Wet rock of rootstalk during freezing has limited capacity expansion and deformation, due to the above reasons, that provides the appearance of high pressures and surface stresses in it.

The combined effect is Alenia and cryogenic conditions will provide an increase in the dispersion of fractions of gold due to surface diffusion of metal in the periodic cycles of freezing and thawing.

After a few more cycles Pomorski-thawing" (preferably at least ten-twenty) the blade is being prepared for testing, remove casing from wells 9, remove tools, cooling-heating rootstalk (position 7-19), then a bulldozer (or dragline) remove the upper part of the blade. Its lower boundary detected by sampling from several monitoring wells 9 before dismantling. Next, in a known manner using known technical means, for example using Prompribor, processed material, localized in the volume of rootstalk 5, and extract gold-bearing component.

1. How to re-placer developments, including filling in the developed space efilego blade and subsequent dumping on the surface of the pebble pile with the use of rock extracted during the mining of acoustic scattering, and the subsequent excavation of the material of the blade with the extraction of gold particles, characterized in that before re-testing of the blade carry out work on the enlargement of the size of the gold particles, while before dumping pebble blade in prilotkovoj part efilego blade form rootstown, which on the surface of the float creates a waterproof barrier, such as clay, the material covering the perimeter efilego blade, p and this, after dumping the pebble fraction on the surface efilego blade, pass the blade over the time required for flushing volume of the blade pressure streams of water, then carry out the freezing blade, preferably with the use of natural cold, preferably in two stages, starting with volume dump except volume rootstalk, freezing which is carried out in the last turn, in addition, when the recess of the material of the blade its volume above the volume of rootstalk remove without washing.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that, before excavation of rock mass, the freezing blade carried out repeatedly.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of freezing the top of the blade it is additionally moisturize.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the washing volume of the blade pressure water streams using natural water precipitation and/or forced flow of water to the surface of the blade.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that when forming a waterproof barrier in addition use waterproof film material.



 

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EFFECT: increased efficiency of salt pile waterproofing.

FIELD: agricultural; devices for treatment.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of clarification of water at the industrial development of the placer deposits with utilization of the wastes of the timber loggings and extraction of the finely dispersed gold from the water runoffs of the gold mining. In the bed of the diversion channel they form the firebreak out of the filtering material containing the wood sawdust mass subjected to the preliminary sorting at the vibration installation and having the ratio of the fractions from 1 to 5 mm up to the fraction from 5 up to 15 mm as 1:3 and packaged in the netted forms made out of the wire skeleton. After the water clarification the wood sawdust mass is subjected to dehydration by pressing and to drying and incineration for extraction of the fine fractions of gold. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency of the water clarification and extraction of gold.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits of both mineral resources of high density (gold, platinum, etc), and valued minerals of low density.

SUBSTANCE: method for softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits includes driving a water-feeding trench, driving a water-collecting trench in 80-100 meters along direction of fall of deposit bed in parallel to water-feeding trench, depth of water-collecting trench providing for difference of bottom levels in trenches 1,5-3 meters, filling water-feeding trench with water and recharging it to maintain constant water level by means of gate and spillway with raised spillway gate, building walling dam 1-1,5 meters high, limiting the part of deposit being processed in plan, with spillway, after that outputs of filtration flow into water-collecting trench are constructed which are fixed by wetting of upper slope for height of 1-2 meters, then spillway gate is lowered onto spillway spine, and that part of deposit is flooded with water for depth of 0,8-1,3 meters and this level is maintained for initial softening of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits, after that dredger plant is assembled, consisting of suck-in line with suction device, dredger itself and force sludge duct. At the end of force sludge duct, vortex generator is mounted together with hydrodynamic cavitator, due to which during launch of operation of dredger plant argillaceous sands of gravel deposits along the way from face and suction device of dredger to hydrodynamic cavitator are subjected to second stage of softening and disintegration, and in hydrodynamic cavitator - to third-stage final disintegration, and then are dispatched to dressing plant.

EFFECT: increased productiveness and extraction efficiency during extraction of natural and man-made gravel deposits due to efficient softening and disintegration of argillaceous sands of gravel deposits and release of valued components during hydro-transportation of sands to dressing equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said geotechnological complex incorporates a trestle with a tumbling bucket, a tumbling module with a chute located inside the closed loop of trench for disintegrated rock accumulation. The chute is directed along the rock inflow. The tumbling bucket installation provides for possibility of linear and angular displacement in the vertical plane; the bucket has slots and L-shaped rippers.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: said complex is provided with a supported trestle and an ultrasonic and mechanical tumbling module. Rotatable ultrasonic radiation module is connected to movable carriage rim by means of a hub and sliding supports. The movable carriage is provided with a drive for moving it along the trestle cross beam and a drive for turning the ultrasonic radiation module around the movable carriage yoke axis. The rotatable ultrasonic radiation module has drives for moving the ultrasonic sources in the vertical plane, a dual drive for moving the ultrasonic sources in horizontal plane, sensors to determine the rock physical and mechanical state, and communication links with functional module of disintegration process automatic control system.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of mining due to intensification of disintegration of rock with complex physical and mechanical properties during dredging and placer mining.

2 dwg

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