SUBSTANCE: earthquake-proof pipe comprises a reinforced concrete structure. It comprises a cone-shaped base with a galvanised shell from sheet steel, is placed into a sand-concrete reinforced cylinder with a cone-shaped end, on the bottom of which there is granite sand, with a layer of around one metre. The space between a reinforced concrete pile and side parts of the cone-shaped shell are filled with sand for the height of the hollow cylinder.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable foundation, strengthening of a foundation preventing building damage during significant ground vibrations in seismically dangerous conditions, lower material intensity.
The present invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to devices used to strengthen the Foundation of buildings and structures, to prevent their destruction, in seismically hazardous regions.
Known for bored pile, made of concrete and metal, which is obtained by drilling a well, to a considerable depth to bedrock [1-2].
The disadvantage of this pile is its small footprint, and in consequence, it is not a reliable building with tremors, since the displacements at the base of the buildings having the reaction, able to destroy the pile and pull out from the base.
In addition, this type of piles requires special expenses as in their manufacture uses a significant amount of concrete and metal.
Known floating pile representing a design in the form of poccoobraznuu frame using metal wedges, not fortified at a certain depth, which is like a "floating support" of the building, which takes the pressure holds the Foundation, preventing its destruction [3-4].
Production and installation of this design are costly and complicated installation procedure takes a significant amount of metal required for of the otopleniya metal frame in the form of wedges.
With tremors use of floating piles does not exclude the possibility of the "extraction"as such constructions are never fixed, therefore, in its form and characteristics of these settings may not be a reliable means of strengthening the Foundation of the building.
The task of the invention is to strengthen the Foundation, preventing the destruction of the building, even with wide variations of the earth in seismically hazardous conditions.
The problem is solved by creating piles specific structure installed on a sand cushion.
Beneath the pile shown in the drawing, where the positions indicated:
1 - reinforced concrete structure with a well-developed cone-shaped base;
2 - cone-shaped casing made of galvanized sheet steel cone on the base of the pile;
3 - well;
4 is a hollow cone-shaped shell;
5 - peskobetonnuyu reinforced hollow cylinder with a conical end;
6 - granite sand.
Beneath the pile consists of a reinforced concrete cylindrical structure and a cone-shaped base (1), the cone-shaped base is performed at the place of installation (in the well) when pouring concrete reinforced cone-shaped shell of sheet steel (2).
Further, the manufacturing technology of earthquake is th piles is her future installation and is as follows.
Original drill hole (3) a depth of 10 to 12 m, to the dense layers of the earth. Mining method assemble and install in the hole (3) a hollow conical shell (4) of smaller diameter, made of metal, and the casing, the space between the bore (3), a hollow conical shell (4) and the casing pipe is filled under pressure with a cement-sandy mass, the casing pipe is pulled out. The result is peskobetonnuyu reinforced hollow cylinder with a conical end (5). At the bottom of the cylinder (5) poured granite sand (6) the layer height from 600 to 1000 mm (by calculation).
On the formed cushion set a cone-shaped shell made of galvanized steel of smaller diameter (2) and casing pipe, reinforced base and barrel design, formed of reinforced concrete cylindrical structure with a conical base (1). Casing pipe is pulled out. The space between the reinforced concrete pile and lateral parts of the cone-shaped shell (4) filled with sand on all height of a flat cylinder.
The proposed design of piles helps to strengthen the Foundation to prevent the destruction of buildings even when significant fluctuations of the earth in seismically hazardous conditions.
Sand is an ideal material that gives the zero draft of the building. In the case of tremor, special thanks its the TSS sand and specific structure, piles, the design will act as a giant shock absorber, the earth's vibrations will put out the Foundation of the building and, accordingly, the possibility of destruction of the building will be minimized.
The estimated depth at which the drilling piles, designed to cut the piles when push 8-9 points on the Richter scale - from 10-12 m (underground impetus, there is a high probability cutoff piles installed below). Thus, the installation of earthquake piles, be made to optimally secure the depth that involves significant savings, because there is no need of drilling wells to a greater depth - base of the cone piles can be increased by calculation to the required diameter.
Specific design earthquake-resistant shell piles eliminates the possibility of "pulling out" even with significant groundwater fluctuations, design securely fixed at the required depth.
Application of the proposed seismic piles, due to its particular structure, requires no additional cost, as the maximum level of security of the building is achieved through the use of a much smaller number of piles in comparison with the most commonly used pile.
Given the minimum level of costs in the manufacturing and installation, reliability and a clear advantage over others is in other types of piles, this piles in seismically hazardous regions is the most important.
Sources of information
1. SNiP 2.02.03-85 "Pile foundations".
2. SNiP II-7-81 "Construction in seismic areas", part II, chap 7.
3. Nazarov, P., Vasutin A.N. "Vector analysis of records of strong earthquakes". // Trim the Institute them. Vouchering - 1983
4. Recommendations for the design, construction and operation of multi-functional high-rise buildings and complexes. Load and impact. - M.: Institute them. Vouchering, 2005.
5. SNiP 2.02.01-83* "Foundations of buildings and structures".
Beneath the pile, comprising a reinforced concrete structure, characterized in that it has a tapered base with galvanized sheet steel covers, placed in peskobetonnuyu reinforced cylinder with a conical end, the bottom of which is filled granite sand layer of about one meter, and the space between the reinforced concrete pile and lateral parts of the cone-shaped shell filled with sand to a height of the hollow cylinder.
SUBSTANCE: quakeproof support of a building comprises a pile, support links and movable links, damping elements, fixing elements. The pile is made as formed, telescopic and hollow from inside, links and damping elements arranged inside the pile may move relative to each other and relative to the pile body in vertical and horizontal planes at the invariable vertical and horizontal position of the central support link - a plunger, which is rigidly connected to the building foundation, resting against quakeproof supports that are arranged along the foundation perimetre and under the building foundation bottom. In the formed telescopic pile at its end part there are two cylindrical seats of different diametre and different depth. At the bottom of the upper seat there is a polymer antifriction coating of circular shape in plan, on top of which there is a set of horizontally damping elements made of pressed wire spirals that are tightly pressed to each other in circumferential, radial and vertical directions, the external edge of which is provided along the circumference, the diametre of which is equal to the diametre of the upper seat, and the inner edge of which is also made along the circumference. Inside this set of horizontally damping elements there is a support movable sleeve tightly installed and resting against the polymer antifriction coating. At the bottom of the support sleeve there is a through cylindrical hole, inside the support sleeve there is a set of vertically damping elements made of pressed wire spirals that are tightly pressed to each other in circumferential, radial and vertical directions and tightly pressed to the bottom of the support sleeve, the external edge of which is provided along the circumference, the diametre of which is equal to the inner diametre of the sleeve, and the inner edge of which is made along the circumference. Inside this set there is a support plunger tightly installed, being rigidly connected to the building foundation, in the upper end part of the support plunger there is a dead seat, where an orifice is installed, being rigidly connected to the support elements of the building foundation. On the upper end part of the support sleeve there is a sealing sleeve tightly installed with seals, creating a cavity between surfaces of the support plunger and vertically damping elements. At the end surface of the telescopic pile there is a limiting circular orifice, and at the external cylindrical surface of the telescopic pile there are fixing ribs of channel-like shape rigidly installed with an even pitch along the circumference.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of the device by increasing its damping properties in the vertical and horizontal planes, increased strength and durability.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pendulum sliding support (1) is designed to separate soil (2) of the base from a structure (3), for instance, in case of base soil (2) movements caused by an earthquake or as an alternative for traditional deformed supports. The support (1) comprises the first support sliding plate (5) with the first concave sliding surface (5'), a support block (4), being in a sliding contact with the first surface (5'), and also the second support plate (6) with the second concave surface (6'), which contacts with the support block (4). The first sliding surface (5') provides at least in one position a stable position of the support block (4) balance, in which it returns independently after deviation caused by exposure to external forces. Antifriction material (9a, 9b) contains plastic with elastic-plastic compensating properties and with low friction coefficient, at the same time plastic has compensating properties, which make it possible to compensate for deviation of 0.5 mm from the specified plane of the specified sliding surface (5').
EFFECT: increased durability, strength and provision of most accurate return of a sliding element into balance position.
33 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: quakeproof building includes upper floors, a support board with slots, a foundation and intermediate elements. The foundation is arranged as a platform that is made of upper and lower boards with cavities, inside of which there are intermediate elements of a ball-like shape. The boards are installed relative to each other with a gap, and cavities have parallel horizontal surfaces in transverse and longitudinal directions with half-spheric ends. Shock absorbers are installed between a support board and a platform. Upper floors of the building are equipped with guy cables fixed in vertical supports, where ceilings are based, and the upper foundation slab is equipped with ledges arranged coaxially with the support board slots.
EFFECT: increased reliability and earthquake resistance of the building in case of considerable seismic exposure and reduction of material intensity and labour intensiveness of its erection.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: support of quakeproof structure comprises support parts, one of which is arranged with the possibility of fixation on a support board of a structure, and the other one - on a foundation, besides, support parts are connected to each other by means of a pendular traction rod. Each support part comprises a crossbar, where stands are fixed, free ends of which are arranged with the possibility of fixation on the support board of the structure or on the foundation, besides, each crossbar is located between the stands of the other specified support part. In the central part of the crossbar there is a hole, through which a pendular traction rod is pulled, being a double cardan Hooke joint. Outputs of the latter are hingedly connected each to an appropriate crossbar, with the possibility of rotation relative to the vertical axis.
EFFECT: higher technical and operational characteristics of a support with minimisation of horizontal loading of a protected structure.
9 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aseismic pad comprises the lower and upper parts in the form of stiff frames and an intermediate element, in the form of a flexible suspension. The flexible suspension is arranged with a piston, which is installed in the chamber with an elastic element and is configured so that the lower part of the pad with the foundation move during an earthquake relative to the upper part of the support, ensuring building protection against horizontal and vertical seismic impacts.
EFFECT: increased seismic stability of buildings and efficiency of capital investments in seismic areas, provision of seismic protection against horizontal and vertical seismic impacts simultaneously.
SUBSTANCE: building structure for protection of objects of civil and industrial construction against damage in case of sliding in unstable soils comprises horizontal and vertical parts of structure, connected to each other. Horizontal parts of structure are arranged by method of horizontal directional drilling in stable soils and are filled with concrete reinforced with metal frame, limiting sliding area and joined to each other by means of external sections of building structure through vertical wells filled with concrete reinforced with metal frame, to form a spacer grid.
EFFECT: increased reliability of construction and integrity of objects in unstable soils.
SUBSTANCE: seismic insulator of buildings consists of foundation. Foundation is arranged in the form of reinforced concrete board with sides, where grooves are provided for bearing structures of building, filled with granite sand by height of one metre.
EFFECT: reliable safety of structures, reduced material intensity, improved reliability of structure.
SUBSTANCE: in pit of appropriate depth, fragment of foundation and elements of seismic insulation made of loose materials are arranged, comprising seismic-insulation cushion under foundation and filling of pit pockets. Limit values of foundation vibration speed amplitudes, specified in process of design and permissible by conditions of its strength preservation, are determined. Explosion parametres are designed to obtain average amplitudes of foundation vibration speeds at the level equal to the limit values, for this purpose the expression VL=Vxyz=11.776X is used, with R2=0.815, where VL is vector speed of vibrations of average amplitudes of components (x,y,z) (Vxyz) of speeds transmitted by foundation soil through a layer of loose material of foundation, - reduced mass of charge, kg, R2 - coefficient of pairwise correlation, r - distance from explosion epicentre to the area of vibrations registration, m, h - depth of charge centre in well, m, QΣst - mass of charge in stage of explosion, kg, Knpc - coefficient that takes into account geological and relief conditions, varies from 1.0 to 3.0. On completion of explosive works, level of seismic action suppression is assessed, and if value of this characteristic is less than 2.7 points, thickness of cushion is increased, and/or composition of its material is chosen. Trials are repeated until amplitudes of foundation vibration speeds comply with conditions of its strength preservation.
EFFECT: improved reliability of building, structure seismic protection with reduction of capital and operational costs.
SUBSTANCE: seismic-insulating foundation consists of lower and upper parts and intermediate element, in the form of chamber filled with balls in viscous oil medium. Chamber is arranged with valves, which make it possible for the lower part of foundation and connected lower surface of chamber during earthquake to move both horizontally and vertically relative to upper part of chamber and connected upper part of foundation, providing for simultaneous protection of the building against horizontal and vertical seismic shocks.
EFFECT: improved seismic resistance of buildings and reduction of material intensity.
SUBSTANCE: method for seismic insulation of structure foundations includes development of pit, bottom surface of which is provided with a slope equal to 0.005-0.01, formation of drainage system on pit bottom connected to water-drainage network, filling of cushion at part of pit depth, arrangement of foundation blocks on cushion and filling of pit pockets. Lower level of predicted seismic hazard of foundation area is detected, afterwards, if lower level of predicted seismic hazard corresponds to level of vibrations of 4 points, filling of pockets and cushion is made of coarse-grained sand with cushion thickness of 0.5-2.0 m. If lower level of predicted seismic hazard corresponds to vibration level of 4.5 points, filling of pockets and cushion is made of gravel-pebble soil with cushion thickness of 0.5 m. If lower level of predicted seismic hazard corresponds to vibration level of 5.0 points, filling of pockets and cushion is made of crushed stone with size of up to 20 mm with cushion thickness of 0.1-0.15 m. If lower level of predicted seismic hazard corresponds to vibration level of 5.4 points, filling of pockets and cushion is made of crushed stone with size of up to 20 mm with thickness of cushion of 0.2-0.3 m. Upper level of vibration damping property for applied type of cushion is set as not lower than upper level of predicted seismic hazard, compliance with which for erected foundation is set on the basis of seismograms records by difference of values of two vibration levels (lower and upper ones) in system "base - cushion - foundation" from dissipation of seismic wave energy when passing through loose material cushion.
EFFECT: provision of reliable seismic protection of buildings, structures, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness in assessment of seismic insulation of foundations.
6 tbl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting pile-plate foundations for industrial buildings and structures, for instance for main buildings of heat power plants.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging drilled cast-in-place pile, grouting plate grillage and installing antivibration mounts. Anchorage reinforcement is placed in pile heads and arranged along marked building axes. Anchorage reinforcement is then grouted and resilient antivibration mounts are installed at pile heads. Resilient antivibration mounts are fixed in plane on anchorage reinforcement with the use of fasteners so that antivibration mounts may perform restricted movement. Installed on antivibration mounts is rigid metal foundation frame of upper building in which anchoring reinforcement for securing skeleton of building to be erected is installed. Reinforcement rods and supply lines are inserted in process orifices formed in foundation frame beams and frame is grouted to form panel grillage.
EFFECT: reduced work content, increased simplicity and speed of bearing grillage frame erection; improved building stability.
9 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly frame structures for civil and industrial buildings to be erected mainly on sinking territories or territories to be developed.
SUBSTANCE: method for connecting eccentrically loaded column with foundation by fixing thereof in orifice formed in foundation involves forming composite multi-stepped foundation having central, medium and outer steps and through wedge-like orifices made in each step, wherein orifices taper downwards with cone angle of 1/10 to 1/5 (5.7 - 11.3o) and each step and lower column end are also wedge-like and have cone angles of 1/12 - 1/6 (4.8 - 9.5o), steps are inserted one into another and wedge-like column end extends into central orifice of central foundation step; tightly installing pair of force mounting wedges in gap between wedge-like column end and foundation, wherein each mounting wedge comprises two levers pivotally connected by the first ends to change cone angle of wedge and to regulate column verticality; securing jack communicating with hydraulic pulsing pumping plant to one lever; filling gap between foundation steps and gap between wedge-like column end and foundation with solid powder material, particularly with crushed granite with particle dimensions of 5 - 10 mm; covering upper part of central orifice of central step with concrete plug of 40 - 50 mm thickness along column perimeter; arranging centering pads on concrete plug symmetrically about eccentrically loaded column; installing pair of jacks on centering pads; securing mounting device formed as split terminal including L-shaper rests pressed to column and connected one to another by means of two bars and pins with stressing nuts, wherein jack pistons cooperate with L-shaped rests from below to maintain design position of eccentrically loaded column and to solidify powder material in gap between column tip and foundation orifice wall.
EFFECT: provision of straightening column position relative foundation without connection unit damage; increased reliability of anchoring eccentrically loaded column in foundation.
FIELD: anti-seismic protective units for buildings and structures.
SUBSTANCE: proposed protective unit includes many modules laying in one plane at contact with each other; each module consists of two identical parts made from rigid plastic material and connected in center by means of silent-block; used automobile tire is placed between them, thus forming deformable elastic chamber filled with granule-like elements made from plastic material; granule-like elements possess hydraulic properties.
EFFECT: possibility of weakening, dissipating and dampening seismic wave.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to construct buildings and structures in earthquake zones or special-purpose objects.
SUBSTANCE: multistory earthquake resistant building includes upper spatially stiff stories defined by columns, crossbars, floor panels and well panels; ground or the first floor formed of kinematical posts with rounded upper and lower edges so that posts may perform stable swinging during earthquake along groves. The grooves are formed in upper framing members created as a part of floor panel or ground floor and in lower framing members made as a part of foundation bearers. Rounded post edges have variable curvature acting as lockable and releasable links and limiting large horizontal movement along with retaining post capacity to reduce seismic forces affecting on buildings and structures during earthquake. Kinematical posts are monolithic or composed of several parts without embedded members. Horizontal cross-section of each kinematical post define star with 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 … n points, wherein unrestricted number n of star points create stiffening ribs.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, strength and stability of the support under broad earthquake frequency spectrum.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect buildings and building structures on permafrost ground, which may thaw during building or building structure usage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging-out pit; filling the pit with nonfrost-susceptible material; introducing reinforcing members in the nonfrost-susceptible material and mounting foundations. The reinforcing member is made as rigid reinforced concrete panel arranged in compacted nonfrost-susceptible material layer. Distance between foundation bottom and panel top is selected to provide uniform load transmission from the foundations to the panel. Upper panel surface is formed of heat-insulation material and sloped parts inclined from panel center to panel periphery are created. Panel rigidity is related with thawing permafrost ground deformation extent.
EFFECT: reduced building deformation caused by non-uniform deformation of thawing permafrost ground.
FIELD: foundations for special purposes, particularly foundation platforms connected to tanks.
SUBSTANCE: reinforced concrete beams or trusses are installed between reinforced concrete panels of upper and lower belts of three-dimensional platform. Reinforced concrete beams or trusses have inclined upper face and are connected one to another in center by monolithic rigid core. The reinforced concrete panels have trapezoid or segmented shape in plane. Reinforced concrete beams or trusses with key connections are located in parallel between reinforced concrete panels of upper and lower belts. Tank walls and coverings have arched structure shaped as prismatic polyhedron inscribed in cylindrical surface defined by square parabola or another curve with generatrices parallel to beams or trusses of three-dimensional foundation platform.
EFFECT: increased structural efficiency due to increased reliability of three-dimensional foundation platform, reduced metal consumption and labor inputs.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly pile foundations including floating piles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves injecting hardening mortar via injectors driven in ground in area between the piles and at pile ends for depth exceeding 1-2.5 m, wherein the injectors are spaced 1.5-2.0 meters apart. The hardening mortar pressure gradually increases. The hardening mortar is injected up to creation of hydraulic fracture cavities having 1.5-2.0 m radii around each injector. Then the injection operation is preformed under constant pressure of 2-10 atm to consolidate and reinforce ground, compress the piles to multiply load-bearing capacity thereof by 1.5-2 times.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing pile capacity due to increased side friction and head resistance.
3 cl, 1 dwg