Method of evaluating changes in structural state of water after physical action
SUBSTANCE: samples undergo crystal structure analysis after drying at temperature 25°C. Changes in the structural state of water are indicated by differences between crystallographic images of dried droplets before and after physical action, which depend on content of liquid-crystal associates.
EFFECT: fast detection of qualitative changes in liquid water under the effect of different factors.
2 ex, 3 dwg
The invention relates to medicine, in particular to hygiene. It can be used in the hygiene analysis to identify changes in the structural state of water after physical effects.
Known methods of studying the structure of water and its solutions.
The method of nuclear magnetic resonance is to measure the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the revolution of the magnetic moments of nuclei oriented in a strong constant magnetic field. This method registers the mobility of the protons in different energy States. The hydrogen atoms in structured water are at different energy levels, in contrast to the hydrogen atoms in free water. These levels are measured and recorded in the form of the NMR spectrum (Gunther X. Introduction to NMR spectroscopy. - M., Nauka, 1984. - 478 S.).
Geofizicheskii method uses the properties of structured water to disintegrate during phase transformations in low temperature region emitting gas fraction. This method of assessing the status of water is applicable only to measure the proportion of structured water, bearing a negative charge (Savostikova I. Hygienic assessment of the impact of structural changes in the water on its physicochemical and biological properties. Abstract. dis. on saisc. exercises. step. Caen. the honey. Sciences. - M: - 2008. - 26 S.).
Dilatometric method is based on the properties of water to increase in volume at the transition into the crystalline state. In the water, as in a heterogeneous system, close-Packed water crystallizes and provides in accordance with its content, increase volume, ice-like structured clusters do not change its state during freezing of water. To increase the amount of crystallized water and calculate the content of its liquid fraction (Tarasuk NF, Rachmaninov Y.A. Water, the structural basis of adaptation. / Smolensk - Moscow. - 2004. - 180 C.).
Method of infrared spectroscopy allows to determine the presence of different fractions of water with different strength of binding, and their stabilizing effect on the structure of molecules according to the spectral characteristics of the absorption of infrared radiation, but it is not possible to determine the amount of structured water (M. Miyazaki, A. Fujii, T. Ebata, and N. Mikami Infrared spectroscopic evidence for protonated water clusters forming nanoscale cages // Science - 2004. - P.1134-1137).
The disadvantages of the above methods of determining is greater duration, high complexity, require trained personnel and thorough preparation of each experiment.
The known method crystallographic studies of biological fluids (serum, lymph, bile, gastric fluid, spinal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and so on), based on special admission dehydration drop, which is a fixed thin "slice"of the investigated liquid (V.N. Shabalin., Shatokhina S.N. Morphology of human biological fluids. - M.: Chrysostomos, 2001. - 304 S.). It is the fact that normally there is a natural order automanual activity, which is recorded in facies in the form of certain structures with appropriate qualitative and quantitative parameters. Under pathological conditions, there is a significant violation of this order, reflected in the loss biocidally ability to generate physiological patterns. As a result, the crystallographic pattern acquire new characteristics that are considered to be pathological. This crystallographic study of biological fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, is conducted according to the following scheme: by lumbar puncture from odpowiedniego space remove 0.5 ml of the liquor into a clean tube. The resulting liquor with the help of micropipette put on a glass slide, after which it is placed in a thermostat at 37°C for 1 hour. A day after applying liquor on a glass slide to produce images obtained facies through the microscope using a digital camera "Nikon coolpix 775", situated in the mode of microsemi objects (patent RF №2258932, the priority of inventions 04 October 2004).
But this method was not used for water research, in particular to assess changed the second structural state of water.
The aim of the invention is the rapid qualitative detection of changes in liquid water under the influence of various factors, to identify rationality future use complex quantitative methods.
The essence of the proposed method lies in the fact that they crystallographic analysis of water samples after drying at a temperature of 25°C, and identifying differences in crystallographic drawings dried drops before and after exposure to physical factors, depending on the content of the liquid crystal associates, judge changes in the structural state of water.
Our proposed method is as follows.
Using a micropipette on pre-fat slides put 3 drops of each sample of water. The distance from the tip of the micropipette to the slide 1 see Drops dried in a thermostat at 25°C. After which the crystallographic picture photographing in 7×40 magnification with a microscope MICMED-2 by LOMO with photographic attachment camera Nikon COOLPIX 4500 with a blue filter, processed in ACDSee 7.0. To identify the crystallographic features of the picture are doing and analyze images of six drops of each sample of water.
If the images in Bristow water before and after exposure differ from each other by the nature of crystallization, it is possible to judge that the content of liquid crystal associates in the samples varies under the influence of physical factors.
The impact on the analyzed liquid BIOPTRON lamp-CD (BIOPTRON COMRACT III, manufacturer, Switzerland) was performed in accordance with methods described in the invention Nppharmacy (No. 2262485 from 20.10.05, Bulletin No. 29).
Polarized light bulb BIOPTRON - CD significantly increases the amount of liquid crystal associates in the water after 30 seconds exposure with 3,10±0,18% to 6.90±0,23% (p<0,05). Longer exposure resulted in the destruction of the formed structures.
Crystallographic study of the water.
In untreated tap water salts precipitate appears in the form of coarse and irregular formations (figure 1).
In water, treated with BIOPTRON lamp, salt crystallization starts from the edge of the drop. This is clearly visible crystalline uniformly distributed precipitates of salts, the size of the crystals throughout the drop is almost the same (figure 2).
Water was subjected to classical music ("pastoral" Beethoven) for 5 minutes. A glass of liquid was at a distance of 5 meters from the stereo (to avoid exposure to electromagnetic radiation) and was wrap the black paper (to eliminate the influence of ambient sunlight).
For the determination of liquid crystal associates in pure water was used capillary dilatometric method.
The content of liquid crystal associates in tap water and in tap water after exposure to music was not significantly changed and were 3.42±0,21% 3,51±0,43%, respectively.
Crystallographic study of the water.
In the original tap water (figure 1) and in water after exposure to music (3) changes in crystallographic pattern is not detected.
Laboratory studies were performed on 30 samples of water, subjected to physical shock - scattered sunlight, direct sunlight, material utensils for water storage (glass, crystal, glazed ceramics, unglazed ceramics, aluminum, stainless steel, silver, Nickel silver, steel, enamel, plastic, transparent, plastic painted), radio frequency fields of mobile phone, microwave-field electromagnetic radiation of CRT computer monitor, polarized light bulb BIOPTRON-CD, minerals of different origin (powders of synthetic and natural diamond, CBN, activated carbon, diamond crystals morphological type "Board", shungite, quartz sand), freezing and heating, classical music, the human biofield. The control group, were settled and the water from centralized systems of drinking water supply gsmarena.
All the samples were tested crystallographic method, and then a comparison was made of the results obtained with data on capillary dilatometric method. The difference in the crystallographic pattern of the dried drops before and after physical effect correlates with data on the content of the liquid crystal associates, received in the respective water samples dilatometric method.
For the determination of liquid crystal associates in pure water was used capillary dilatometric method NF of Parasuco (Tarasuk NF Method of quantitative determination of structural fractions of water. // Proceedings of the Congress AQUATECH-2004. Sixth international Congress " WATER: ECOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY. Part II. - Moscow 1-4 June 2004. - S).
For data obtained from the dilatometric method, used parametric method: t-student test for comparison of two samples. When the statistical processing of the samples was calculated arithmetic mean value (M), standard error of the mean (m) and 95% confidence interval of the arithmetic mean (ε).
The use of the proposed method for the assessment of changes in the structural state of water after physical action has the following advantages:
1. The technique is technically simple;
3. The method can be used to study the structure of water, because the process of self-organization drops of water when drying will depend on the content of liquid crystal composites and ionic hydrates;
4. The difference in the crystallographic pattern of the dried drops before and after physical effect correlates with data on the content of the structured fractions obtained in the respective water samples dilatometric method;
5. The proposed method provides a rapid qualitative detection of changes in liquid water under the influence of various factors, to identify rationality future use complex quantitative methods.
The method of estimating changes in the structural state of water by her studies before and after treatment physical factor, wherein spend crystallographic analysis of the samples after drying at a temperature of 25°C and at identifying differences in crystallographic drawings dried drops before and after exposure to physical factors, depending on the content of the liquid crystal associates, judge changes in the structural state of water.
SUBSTANCE: equipment system includes measuring devices connected to a computer. In the system, consisting of one or more sensors, an amplifier, an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) and a computer, each sensor is a tensoresistor sensor mounted on a horizontal base inside a protective housing and having the end of a flexible elastic sensor plate protruding from the housing, said plate being meant for connection with the top valve of the tested mollusc. The output of each sensor is connected to the input of the amplifier consisting of a zero balancing device, an analogue signal amplifier and a signal shift device connected in series. Each sensor is connected to the bridge circuit of the zero balancing device. The output of the amplifier is connected to the input of a 10 bit ADC whose output is connected to the input of an interfacing device which transmits a digital signal to the input of the computer having special software.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of detection as well as simple design.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: isolated during bacteriologic analysis of quality of water for various purposes pathogenic bacteria, additionally potentially pathogenic bacteria with their further identification and normalised indicators of water quality estimation are taken into considereation with further implementation of process of generalisation into a single assessement of microbial risk thresholds, which is performed by calculating first weighted coefficients by formula: An=(P1·V1+P2·V2+…+Pn·Vn). After that, the data obtained are used to calculate integral index by each sanitary and hygienic factor by formula: Estimation of risk by three-level classifier is considered high if values of Rfac are from 0.4 to 1.0 including 0.4 and 1.0, medium if values of Rfac are from 0.2 to 0.4 and low if values of Rfac are from 0 to 0.2, including 0. Estimation of risk by five-level classifier is considered to be very high if values of Rfac are from 0.6 to 1.0, including 0.6 and 1.0, high if values of Rfac are from 0.4 to 0.6, including 0.4, medium if values of Rfac are from 0.2 to 0.4, including 0.2, low or acceptable if values of Rfac are from 0.15 to 0.2, including 0.15 and very low if values of Rfac are from 0 to 0.15. After that the obtained results are used to calculate generalised index of risk of sexually transmitted bacterial intestinal infections CA by formula by three-level classifier it is considered high if values of CA are from 0.4 to 1.0, including 0.4 and 1.0, medium if values of CA are from 0.2 to 0.4, and low if values of CA are from 0 to 0.2, including 0. Estimation of risk by five-level classifier is considered very high if values of CA are from 0.6 to 1.0, high if values of CA are from 0.4 to 0.6, including 0.4, medium if values of CA are from 0.2 to 0.4, including 0.2, low or acceptable if values of CA are from 0.15 to 0.2, including 0.15 and very low if values of CA are from 0 to 0,15.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce or prevent morbidity associated with bacterial semination of water.
1 ex, 8 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bacteriological analysis of water by normalised indicators is performed with determination of pathogenic bacteria, additionally during water analysis determined are potentially pathogenic bacteria and their pathogenic and virulent properties, obtained data are used to estimate probability of infectious process development in people by formula: Hpatogen =(C•(100-Pt)•V•v/r)•T. After that, calculated is integral index of probability of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way with direct release of causative agents isolated and identified during microbiological analysis of water by formula: After that, risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is carried out, it is considered to be acceptable if its value does not exceed 1x10-5, and microbial risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is considered to be low. If its value is from 1x10-5 and lower, microbial risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is considered to be high. If its value constitutes more than 1x10-5, risk of water contamination with pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora is estimated at population level by formula: Rp=Rv•100000.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce or prevent development of intestinal diseases and makes it possible to predict probability of BII development with direct release of bacterial causative agents from water for various purposes, taking into account their species composition and biological properties.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves collecting samples directly in the region of functioning of the pond and in the control zone, and then determining content of chemical compounds in the samples and determining main quantitative indicators of components of the aquatic ecosystem based on said content. Quantitative indicators of the biota - number and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos - are also determined in the samples from the control zone and the region of functioning of the pond. The ratio of the quantitative indicators of the biota in the pond region to those in the control zone is then calculated. A reference table of ranges of the calculated chemical indicators of the ratios of components of the aquatic ecosystem is then created while adding rows with ratios of quantitative indicators of the biota into the table. By comparing the calculated ratios with ranges of identical ratios in the reference table, the effect of the pond on the state of the aquatic ecosystem is then determined.
EFFECT: high reliability of results.
1 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: during realisation of the method the test objects are soaked in tested solutions, parameters of test objects survivability are registered, and using them, threshold concentrations of tested pesticide toxicity are calculated, besides, pathomorphological modifications are registered in test objects, the average percentage of malformations is calculated, and the threshold concentration of teratogenic impact is established as the pesticide concentration with minimum teratogenic impact at test objects, and extent of pesticides toxicity is estimated on the basis of the threshold concentration coefficient, which is calculated using the formula Kn emb - coefficient of threshold concentrations of pesticides toxicity taking into account their teratogenicity, LC16 - limit concentration of pesticides toxicity causing death of 16% embryos, EterC16 - threshold concentration of teratogenic effect of pesticides. At the same time if values of the coefficient Kn emb >10, the class of pesticides hazard is established as I, i.e. extremely hazardous, 5-10 - the class of pesticides hazard is set as II, i.e. highly hazardous, 1-5 - the class of pesticides hazard is established as III, i.e. hazardous, <1 - the class of pesticides hazard is IV, i.e. moderately hazardous. Test objects are embryos of sturgeons.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and validity of assessment.
2 cl, 1 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: enteroviruses are concentrated by introduction into an analysed water sample of a magnetic sorbent microparticles coated with polymeric silicon dioxide with amino poropyl groups in proportions 1:1000-3000 of water sample volume. It is incubated at constant stirring for 1-2 hours. The sorbent is collected with a magnet, a supernatant is removed, and a sorbent-enterovirus complex is produced. Enteroviruses are eluted by 0.5M NaCl and 0.05M Tris (pH-10.5) solution. Enteroviruses are identified by immunochemical, cultural and molecular methods.
EFFECT: high degree of virus concentration in the eluate, decreased amount of the eluating solution.
SUBSTANCE: fixed and mobile monitoring sites equipped with measuring instrumentations are located. Various environmental parameters are registered and subjected to analysis. More specifically, hydrophysical field signals are being registered, chemiluminescence, chromatographic, ion-selective, spectral and radiometric analysis is performed. Besides, bed acoustic impendance is registered, molecular spin interactions of seawater protons are detected, artifacts resulting from the magnetohydrodynamic, bioelectric and concentration effect are detected, synthetic surfactant content in the aquatic environment, chlorophyll concentrations, microorgasnisms, phytoplankton, zooplankton is determined. The collected data is further transferred to the archivers and modeling is performed. In the course of modeling the industrial facility environment and infrastructure is divided into a number of areas and a material balance model and a forecast model are created for each of them. For the purposes of the method implementation a system comprising a water withdrawal line equipped with hydrophysical field sensors, a filtering plant for chlorophyll concentration, a filtering plant with a Seitz funnel for microorganisms sampling, a Nageotte chamber for counting the phytoplankton content, a Bogorov Counting Chamber for enumerating zooplankton, a centrifugal apparatus to determine chlorophyll content, a geophone, spectral sensor of proton spin echo is proposed. Besides, the proposed system comprises devices for chemiluminescence, chromatographic, ion-selective, spectral and radiometric analysis, a radiation spectrometer, an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an X-ray fluorometric analyser, TV sensors, infrared sensors, heat sensors, a metrological module, a sidescan sonar, multiple-beam echo sounder, water quality evaluator by TropoSample parameters and bed deposits characteristics, a lidar (a light radar), a penetrometer, methane and hydrogen detection sensors.
EFFECT: enhanced functional capabilities.
2 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of concentrating salicylic acid from aqueous solution, involving extraction with trioctylamine oxide solution in hexane, deposited on foamed polyurethane tablets in amount of 75-80% of the weight of foamed polyurethane.
EFFECT: invention increases concentration coefficient of salicylic acid.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: system for rapid biological monitoring and indication consists of measurement-detection, analytical and signal units. The measurement-detection unit is n apparatus for measuring reactions of aquatic indicator organisms, where n=2, 3, 4, for two or more aquarium in which there are indicator organisms, into which water enters from a distributing aquarium, said water being pumped by a pump from the tested underwater horizon of the water body or from water pipe. Parameters of functional characteristics of the indicator organisms are calculated from signals of measuring apparatus coming into the analytical unit which comprises a computer with software, containing a data base of parameters of the state of functional characteristics of different indicator organisms under normal conditions, configured for constant population and editing. Values of the measured parameters are continuously processed by the computer in real time, separately for each individual indicator organism. Upon deviation of average values from standard values, the signal unit is automatically switched off and a three-step alarm signal is generated - upon deviation from the standard on one parameter, on three parameters and on all parameters for all indicator organisms.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of continuous indication of the quality of water.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: processing procedures.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in analytic chemistry for sorption concentration and successive determination of heavy metals in water solutions. The procedure for production of sorption material consists in impregnation of surface of a cellulose filter with an analytic reagent wherein thio-semi-carbazone of picoline aldehyde is used as such. Impregnation is carried out with conditioning cellulose material in solution of the reagent in ethanol containing 2.5 % of cetyl alcohol with successive extraction and drying in air. Produced cellulose material is applied for sorption-roentgen-fluorescent analytic determination of heavy metals in water solutions. Metals are extracted with cellulose material for roentgen-fluorescent determination at pH 7.5-10.5, preferably, at pH 10.0.
EFFECT: simple and safe procedure for production of sorption cellulose material used for efficient concentration of heavy metals with successive determination of each of them separately and in whole.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises: sampling, acidifying samples with HCl/H2SO4 mixture, adding Ce(SO4)2 as oxidant and removing its excess with reducing agent NH2OH·HCl, adding rhodamine C as organic reagent, extracting resulting complex, separating organic phase from aqueous phase, and measuring optical density. Extraction is performed with carbon tetrachloride/methyl isobutyl ketone mixture at 5:1 volume ratio and extractant-to-sample volume ratio 1:1 under dynamic conditions by way of washing away complex with extractant. Content of antimony is judged of from difference of optical densities of extractant and mixture.
EFFECT: lowered measurement threshold to values comparable with allowable limits, increased reliability, reduced analysis time, and automated analytical procedure.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hygiene and sanitary of freshwater reservoirs and is meant to be used for microbiological testing of condition of water source in an agricultural enterprise effluent zone, in particular in the effluent zone of poultry factories and pig-breeding farms. For this aim, water is sampled at least in two zones: in the effluent zone of agricultural enterprise and in the zone, where influence of agricultural enterprise effluent over different periods is excluded. Then, contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities of urease-carbamidamidohydrolase in samples are measured. Obtained data are processed: contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities in different samples are compared to each other and dynamic of changes in data in samples taken from different zones are compared.
EFFECT: enabled quick testing at high accuracy in estimations and minimized labor and means involved.
FIELD: toxicology, in particular determination of water flea sensibility to toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes detection of water flea death time (min) caused by water-soluble chemicals, wherein concentration (C, mol/l) of chemical under consideration fluctuates according to logarithmic scale with interval of 0.1. Plot of Y versus X is made, wherein Y-axis represents average death time with scale of 1 point = 1 min; X-axis represents reverse concentration (1/C) of chemical under consideration; and scale is proportional to log increasing by 0.1. Water flea sensibility to toxic effect (tgα) is calculated according to equation: tgα = TL(min):1/KL = TL(min)xKl (I), wherein α is inclination of straight line to X-axis; TL(min) is death time (min) being determined according to point of hypothetical crosspoint of straight line with Y-axis; KL is lethality constant (mol/l) defined as chemical concentration wherein water flea death time is equal to 2TL(min).
EFFECT: Method allowing evaluation of toxic effect evolution dynamics and comparison of toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals in equal concentration ranges.
2 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods in industrial sanitation.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages bringing solution to be analyzed into contact with potassium bichromate, sulfuric acid, and mercuric sulfate, ageing resulting mixture and allowing it to cool to ambient temperature, adding ferroin indicator, titration of excess of potassium bichromate with 0.125 n. Moor salt solution, and calculating chemical oxygen demand value from amount of Moor salt consumed in the titration. Method is characterized by that initial solution is preliminarily homogenized until diameter of suspended particles therein become as large as 0.03 mm, after which solution is allowed to stay for 4 min.
EFFECT: reduced determination inaccuracy.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns estimation of environmental pollution using bioassay methods. In particular, method is accomplished through bioindication of controlled area using, as bioindicators, internals (muscles, kidneys, liver) of wild hoofed animals (elk, dear, wild boar). One determines content of heavy metals in these organs placed within an area, compares thus obtained data with maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in foods, and estimates heavy metal pollution level of the area from resulted difference. Existence of long-term pollution of a region is judged of from excess concentration of heavy metals in wild hoofed animal kidneys and existence of single release of mercury and lead from that in muscles and liver.
EFFECT: enabled multiple estimation of considerable areas at reduced effort.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental protection and toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: subject of invention is drinking, natural, and waste water quality monitoring. Toxicity of aqueous medium is determined from variation in activity of animal brain plasma membrane Mg2+-ATPase activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions. In one embodiment of invention, toxicity of aqueous medium is determined by mixing above plasma membranes with test aqueous medium adjusted to physiologic pH with phosphorus-free buffer followed by addition of solution containing Tris-ATP and magnesium ion source as well as chloride and/or bicarbonate ion(s) source, incubation until inorganic phosphorus is formed, and determination of toxicity from concentration of inorganic phosphorus. Brain plasma membranes used as indicator contain Mg2+-ATPase capable of being activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions.
EFFECT: extended functional possibilities of method and use of reagent, increased sensitivity, and enabled determination of toxicity at lower concentration of various-type toxicants.
20 cl, 6 tbl
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns evaluation of pollution of areas with pesticides involving bioassay techniques. To that end, area under control is subjected to bioindication using wild hoofed animals (mainly elks, deer, wild boars) as bioindicators. Within specified period of time, animal internals are sampled, pesticide content therein is determined, and thus obtained results are compared with maximum permissible pesticide levels for food products. Comparison data are used to estimate quality of media.
EFFECT: increased representativeness of monitoring results, enabled evaluation of a vast region or local area or local agrocenosis at lower effort.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: chemistry, water quality control, method for quantitative estimation of organic substance properties in aqueous solutions.
SUBSTANCE: indicator plate is immersed in aqueous solution and according to alteration of aqueous solution composition chemical activity of organic substances in this solution is determined. In clamed method tree vessels are used. Two vessels contain aqueous solution to be tested and the third vessel contains control aqueous solution free from organic contamination. In aqueous solutions containing in the second and third vessels indicator plates are immersed, then aqueous solutions in all vessels are heated up to 95-105°C, held at this temperature for 55-65 min, cooled to 15-25°C, filtered though membrane filter with pore size of 0.46 mum, then iron content is measured in all vessels and chemical activity of organic substances in aqueous solutions is calculated according to equation ka=ΔFe/Fe1, wherein ΔFe = Fe2- Fe1- Fe3; Fe1 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the first vessel; Fe2 is iron content in the tested aqueous solution of the second vessel; and Fe3 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the third vessel.
EFFECT: simplified method with enhanced functionality.
3 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: ecological engineering, particularly river monitoring with taking into consideration river pollution with sewage water within the limits of cities and other inhabited localities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves choosing river observation points relative single pollution source or pollution source array; aligning one observation point with single pollution cross-section or pollution cross-section array; taking water samples; conservation the samples and preparing thereof for following analysis; cultivating test-organism, namely one-celled green algae - Chlorella vulgaris, inside cultivator at temperature of 36±0.5°; measuring optical density thereof in red light; analyzing and estimating the measurement results. The observation points are transversal to river and set in front of single sewage pollution source or sewage pollution source array, in center of each source and behind them. All three observation points are located within the limits of a city or other inhabited locality. The optical density is measured before and after one-celled green algae cultivation in water samples. After measurement termination overall river water pollution index is determined.
EFFECT: possibility to compare overall river water pollution index obtained in particular observation point with that obtained from pollution source on river bank; extended functional capabilities and extended range of application.
5 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with testing biological activity of water, preliminary treatment of water, division into control and tested portions, ionization of tested portion with silver ions, detection of the quantity of sprouted wheat grains per time unit pre-impregnated in both mentioned portions and calculation of relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water according to the following ratio: where d - relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water, %; Ntested - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in tested portion of water, pcs.; Ncontrol - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in control portion of water, pcs. Moreover, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being above 0 means increased biological activity of water, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being below 0 means its decrease, and equation of the mentioned relative alteration to 0 means intact nature of biological activity of water being different by the fact that pre-treatment of water should be carried out due to precipitation for 23-24 h at 23-26 C.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of investigation.