Method for explosion of rocks with solid inclusions

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling vertical main wells, definition of a contour in plan and soil elevations of solid inclusions along the depth of the main wells, drilling additional vertical wells inside the contour of inclusions, charging main and additional wells with explosive charges, with placement of explosive charges in additional wells inside their inclusions and their blasting. Selection of explosive charge parameters for charging additional wells is carried out by the value of product of explosive detonation speed and explosive charge diameter defined from the ratio.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of solid inclusions grinding.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, and in particular to methods of blasting rocks with solids in surface mining. Such inclusions can be represented by layers (layers) of solid rock in the host less hard rocks, different lenticular formations, including long-term (eternal) permafrost melt inside rock and semi-bedrocks, and other entities.

There is a method of blasting rock with solids in surface mining, including drilling of the main vertical wells, the definition is in the process of drilling the presence of solid impurities in the host less hard rocks, contour in plan and elevations of the roof and floor of these inclusions on the depth of the main wells, vertical drilling additional wells within the outline of the inclusions, the loading of the main and additional wells charges explosives (he) with the placement of the explosive charge in the additional wells within the inclusions and the blasting explosive charge [1]. The method is intended for blasting rocks with lenticular inclusions of permafrost, but can be extended to blasting rocks with other solid inclusions, for example, siliceous, or calcareous bearing lenses, randomly placed in the array of the rock.

This method does not provide the residual efficiency crushing various solids, as it does not involve the choice of a rational type BB for loading additional wells and does not take into account the totality of the basic properties of the host rocks, inclusions and applied CENTURIES.

The closest technical solution to the claimed is a method of blasting rock with solids in surface mining, including drilling of the main vertical wells, the definition is in the process of drilling the presence of solid impurities in the host less hard rocks, contour in plan and elevations of the roof and floor of these inclusions on the depth of the main wells, vertical drilling additional wells within the outline of the inclusions, the loading of the main and additional wells charges explosives (he) with the placement of the explosive charge in the additional wells within the inclusions and the blasting explosive charge, the choice of the parameters of the explosive charge for loading additional wells are carried out by the velocity of detonation CENTURIES, determined from the ratio

,

where Dspeed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading additional wells, m/s; D0speed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading the main wells, m/s;- tensile strength of rocks solids tensile, PA;- the tensile strength of the host rocks stretching, PA [2]./p>

This method takes into account the properties of the host rocks and inclusions, but the parameters of the explosive charge in the additional wells are expressed only through the speed of its detonation. At the same time is not taken into account such an important parameter of the explosive charge as its diameter, which greatly limits the choice of the parameters of the explosive charge. It is possible, in particular, to use primary and secondary wells of the same type BB with the same velocity of detonation, but change accordingly the diameter of the additional wells.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the blasting of rocks with various solid inclusions hosted in the host less hard rocks.

Achievable technical result is to increase the efficiency of crushing various solids by taking into account the basic properties of the host rocks, inclusions and applied CENTURIES, as well as the diameter of the explosive charge in the main and additional wells.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of blasting rock with solids in surface mining, including drilling of the main vertical wells, the definition is in the process of drilling the presence of solid impurities in the host less hard rocks, contour in plan and elevations of the roof and ground floor is x inclusions on the depth of the main wells, the vertical drilling additional wells within the outline of the inclusions, the loading of the main and additional wells charges explosives (he) with the placement of the explosive charge in the additional wells within the inclusions and the blasting explosive charge according to the invention the selection of the parameters of the explosive charge for loading additional wells carried out by the magnitude of the product of the velocity of detonation of EXPLOSIVES and the diameter of the explosive charge is determined from the relationship

where; d- the diameter of the additional wells, m; d0the diameter of the main wells, m; Dspeed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading additional wells, m/s; D0speed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading the main wells, m/s;- tensile strength of rocks solids tensile, PA;- the tensile strength of the host rocks stretching, PA.

In addition, additional wells are drilled deep

wherem;- mark of soil solids by the depth of the main wells between which there is a corresponding additional wells, m; n - number of main wells between which there is a corresponding additional borehole; - density loading CENTURIES, kg/m3;- isoentropic exponent CENTURIES in additional wells.

Specified in the independent claim of the set of features includes all features, each of which are necessary and together sufficient to obtain a technical result.

Definition drilling of the main wells in the presence of solid impurities, their contour in plan and elevations of the roof and floor of these inclusions in the depth of the wells allows you to set the parameters of occurrence of inclusions inside destructible array, including their capacity for the depth of the wells, and to adjust the design and parameters of the explosive charge in the main wells. The location of additional wells within the path in terms of solids, taking into account already found their occurrence, guarantee the placement of the explosive charge in the additional wells within inclusions throughout their area within the exploding block.

It is known that the choice of CENTURIES for loading wells primarily depends on the properties of the shattered rocks and rock properties of solid inclusions differ significantly from the properties of the host rocks. Therefore, improving the efficiency of crushing solids can be achieved either through the use of visual basic and additional wells CENTURIES with various the diversified key characteristics, the relevant properties of the host rocks and rock inclusions, either by drilling additional wells of different diameter. It is also known that the diameter (radius) zone adjustable crushing, and hence the efficiency of crushing, is proportional to the product of the diameter (radius) of the well and the velocity of detonation of EXPLOSIVES and inversely proportional to the square root of the compressive strength of exploding rocks in tension. These parameters are most significant when determining the radius of the zone controlled crushing and application of the most common industrial condensed EXPLOSIVES of similar density values. While tensile stresses are the major factors for the destruction of rocks, as the limit of the tensile strength is several times smaller than the shift, and on average an order of magnitude smaller than in compression. Thus, the choice of the parameters of the explosive charge in the additional wells on the magnitude of the product of the diameter (radius) of the well and the velocity of detonation of EXPLOSIVES determined from the specified in the claims ratio (1), allows to take into account the basic properties of the host rocks (), inclusions (and parameters of the explosive charge (d0D0dD).

With this in mind, the totality of all of the signs mentioned in samestate Inom the claim, really improves the efficiency of crushing various solids by taking into account the basic properties of the host rocks, inclusions and options explosive charge that solves the problem of the invention to achieve a technical result.

The determination of the depth of additional wells in accordance with the ratio (2) average marks of soil solids by the depth of the main wells between which there is a corresponding additional wells, and nedoponimanie additional wells to soil inclusion on the value ofequal to the radius of the zone of regulated crushing in solid inclusion, exclude the thrust of the explosion in the direction of the host rocks, with less resistance to blasting. Therefore, despite the decrease in the mass of the charges inside the inclusions, it also increases the efficiency of crushing. The lower end of the explosive charge in the additional wells must be from the soil inclusions on distance (figure 2). In principle, the top end of these charges must be below top of inclusions at the same distance. At smaller distances may directed action explosion in the direction of the host rocks, and at large - a significant decrease in the weight of the charges inside the inclusions, which in both cases will lead to lower e is the efficiency of crushing inclusions. In addition, when the depth of additional wells also reduces the amount of drilling operations.

The method is illustrated in the drawings. Figure 1 shows the exploded block ledge career in the plan, figure 2 - section a-a figure 1.

The method is carried out by sequentially perform the following operations.

Taking into account the specific conditions determined by publicly known methods or the results of previous explosions in similar conditions and parameters of the vertical borehole explosive charge without regard to the presence of inclusions. Based on the strength properties of the host rocks and solids, as well as the parameters of downhole explosive charge in the main wells determine the magnitude M

In accordance with the found values of resistance for bench bottom, the distance between the wells in a row, the distance between the rows of wells, the length (depth) of the well and the shape of the grid wells are drilling the main hole.

In the process of drilling the main well change the drilling speed, color and condition issued on the surface of products of destruction determine the presence, the circuit in terms of the level of the roof and the soil and the capacity of solids by the depth of each hole.

Inside the loop in terms of solid inclusions are drilling additional wells, which are located in the center of the quadrilaterals formed adjacent the main wells.

Diametricaly wells determined based on the value of M. If M is much greater than unity, and under the condition of equality of the diameters of the main and additional wells cannot find a BB with a corresponding velocity of detonation, it is necessary to increase the diameter of the additional wells that could allow you to decrease the speed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES in additional wells. If M is less than one, it is advisable to choose the diameter of the additional wells equal to the diameter of the main wells and only vary the speed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES.

The additional depth of the wells is determined by the relation (2):

m

wherem;- mark of soil solids by the depth of the main wells between which there is a corresponding additional wells, m; n - number of main wells between which there is a corresponding additional borehole;- density loading CENTURIES, kg/m3;- isoentropic exponent CENTURIES in additional wells.

This means that additional wells not gaboriaud to soil inclusion on the value of. Smaller values of these distances correspond to large diameter wells smaller inclusions and more of their fortress, and large values of the distances is smaller diameters with vain, more power inclusions and lower their fortress. This also determines the level of the roof and the soil and the capacity of inclusions in depth additional wells.

Next make loading and stemming the main and additional wells. The loading of the main wells produce those same CENTURIES, which are adopted in the enterprise for blasting the same species without the presence of solids. Loading additional wells carry EXPLOSIVES with different properties and for selecting these CENTURIES pre-determine the strength of the host rocks and rocks hard inclusions in tension. The choice of the CENTURIES for additional wells are carried out by the velocity of detonation of EXPLOSIVES determined from the relation (1):

dD=d0D0·M,

where; d- the diameter of the additional wells, m; d0the diameter of the main wells, m; Dspeed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading additional wells, m/s; D0speed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading the main wells, m/s;- tensile strength of rocks solids tensile, PA;- the tensile strength of the host rocks stretching, PA.

In the process of loading the main wells produce installation of downhole explosive networks, which carry out the method, n is inatum in the enterprise.

After loading the main wells produce them stemming.

Additional wells, charged with explosive charge which is placed inside cross them solids. The loading produced by the explosive charge is selected according to equation (1), the height of which at the same distance below the roof inclusions.

Additional wells may intersect solids (figure 1, figure 2 not shown). In this case, the loading of additional wells CENTURIES can be carried out to the full height of the intersection of inclusion and exclusion directional explosion in the direction of the less strong of the host rocks is applied, for example, a counter initiation of the explosive charge. Other embodiments of the loader additional wells when they cross solids, for example, stemming the bottom of these wells above the soil, and placement of the upper end of the charge below the roof enable [1] or with the use of explosive charge, the bottom end of which is located below the soil inclusions, and the top - above the roof enabled.

In the same way as when loading the main wells in the process of loading additional wells produce installation of downhole explosive networks, and at the end loader - stemming top uncharged part of the additional wells.

Any type suitable for the specific conditions follower who must perform the loading of the main and additional wells: after drilling; first basic, and then additional wells; individual rows of wells and other Stemming top uncharged parts of the wells may also be performed in a different sequence: immediately after loading each well of the explosive charge, after the loading of all core and additional wells or be coincident in time with the loading of separate groups of wells.

After the stemming of all core and additional wells produce mounting surface explosive network, its connection with intra-borehole blasting networks and borehole charges blasting EXPLOSIVES taken at one of the open-pit mining methods of blasting charges.

An example of the method

Produced blasting overburden at the quarry, developing phosphorite Deposit. The rocks are mainly clayey marls middle aisles of the compressive strengthand stretching30 and 1.75 MPa, respectively. Within these host rocks are deposited solids (layers, lenses, and other education) calcareous marl, having greater resistance to blasting and the average ultimate strength in compressionand stretching55 and 3.2 MPa.

These data allow to define what elite the value of M in equation (1):

.

Therefore, the diameter of the additional wells taken equal to the diameter of the main borehole and used in additional wells CENTURIES with lower velocity of detonation than granulite hanita: D=D0-0,912=2450·0,912=2334 m/S.

Cliff height H equal to 12 m Diameter wells dSLEequal to the charge diameter dZARwas 220 mm (drilling rig SBSH-N). The direction of the borehole is vertical. The specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES (granulit igdanit) for enclosing rocks - 0.67 kg/m3. Granulit igdanit has a velocity of detonation 2200-2700 m/s, on average, 2450 m/s Capacity 1 p.m. wells at a density of loading of 850 kg/m3- 32,3 kg For the main wells made the following parameters: the distance between the wells in row a - 6 m; the distance between rows of wells b - 6 m; the form of the well grid - square; depth of well lSLE- 13,5 m; the length of the tamping lZab- 4.5 m; length perebor llane1.5 m; the length of the charge lZAR- 9 m; the mass of the charge in the well - 290 kg

On exploding the block was drilled on a grid of 6x6 m key wells 1-20 (1, 2). In the process of drilling established that well 7-20 cross solid inclusion 21 calcareous marl (figure 2), the contour of which in figure 1 is shown in dashed lines. When this depth of each well were determined level of the roof 22 and 23 soil, turn 21 and the th power.

Next, on the basis of the results obtained within the path in terms of turn 21 drilled additional wells 24-31.

The depth of each additional wells were determined from the expression (2).

Mark soil inclusions to the main wells 16, 11, 12, and 17 through the inclusion of 21, was 7.8 and 7.6, and 8.4, and 8.6 m, respectively, when the power enable from 1.6 to 4.1 m Therefore for additional wells 28, placed in the center of the rectangle formed by these neighboring main wells, was made the minimum calculated value with equal 0,86 m In accordance with (2) drilling depth 28 was

.

Defined in the drilling of this borehole 28 mark of the roof of inclusion equal to 4,7 m Therefore, the switching power through the borehole 28 was 7,24-4,7+0,86=3,4 m As the upper end of the charge 34 CENTURIES in the well 28 is separated from the roof of the inclusion by the same distance s=0,86 m, the height h of the charge will 3,4-2C=3,4-2*0,86=1,68 m

As the distance from the edge of the ledge power solids increases and reaches 6.5 m for the primary bore 15. Therefore, additional wells 29, 30 and 31 were accepted values equal to 0.87, of 0.90 and 1.10 m, respectively, and similarly the calculated parameters of the explosive charge in the other wells.

Next, choose BB for the charger, side buttons is of additional wells in accordance with the expression (1).

Because M<1 and D=D0·0,912=2450·0,912=2334 m/s, the additional wells may use relatively cheap granulite C-2 with a velocity of detonation of 2000-2600 m/S.

Therefore, for loading additional wells have been adopted granulit C-2, which is safe, environmentally friendly, made for mechanized loading, cost-effective and is one of the most widely used explosives in the industry.

After the drilling of additional wells were loading all major wells 1-20 charges 32 granulite hanita (figure 2) with simultaneous installation of downhole explosive networks (figure 1, figure 2 not shown) and stemming the top uncharged parts 33 wells solid bulk Tabachnyk material (cutoff concentrator or other suitable material).

Additional wells 24-31 charged charges 34 granulite C-2, having previously found the height, and also carried out the installation of downhole explosive networks (not shown). Then made stemming top uncharged parts 35 additional wells in the same Tabachnyk material.

After the stemming of all wells, surface mounted explosive network (figure 1, figure 2 not shown), connected it with downhole explosive networks and carried out the blasting hole blasting charges adopted n is this career way.

Sources of information:

1. RF patent №2263877 class F42D 3/04, 2004.

2. RF patent №2400702 class F42D 3/04 (prototype), 2009.

1. Blasting rocks with solids in surface mining, including drilling of the main vertical wells, the definition is in the process of drilling the presence of solid impurities in the host less hard rocks, contour in plan and elevations of the roof and floor of these inclusions on the depth of the main wells, vertical drilling additional wells within the outline of the inclusions, the loading of the main and additional wells charges explosives (he) with the placement of the explosive charge in the additional wells within the inclusions and the blasting explosive charge, wherein the selection of the parameters of the explosive charge for loading additional wells carried out by the magnitude of the product of the velocity of detonation of EXPLOSIVES and the diameter of the explosive charge, which is determined from the relation
dD=d0D0·M,
where;
d- the diameter of the additional wells, m;
d0- diameter core holes, m;
Dspeed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading additional wells, m/s;
D0speed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES for loading the main wells, m/s;
- tensile strength of rocks solids tensile, PA;
- the tensile strength of the host rocks stretching, PA.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that additional wells are drilled deep

where- mark of soil solids by the depth of the main wells between which there is a corresponding additional wells, m;
n - number of main wells between which there is a corresponding additional borehole;
- density loading CENTURIES, kg/m;
- isoentropic exponent CENTURIES in additional wells.



 

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3 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: mining; construction industry; methods of breaking rocks from massifs with lenticular permafrost massifs.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mining and construction and is intended for breaking rocks from massifs with the lenticular permafrost spots. The technical result is improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting. The method provides for boring of the downward primary and additionally boreholes, their charging with explosive charges (explosives), stemming of boreholes and firing of charges of explosives. At that while boring the primary boreholes in the case of presence of the lenticular permafrost spots determine their contours in plane and marks of the roofing and soil of these lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the boreholes. The additional boreholes they drill inside the contour with a crossover of the indicated lenticular permafrost spots, but not deeper than the primary boreholes, At that determine marks of the roofing and soil of the lenticular permafrost spots by the depth of the additional boreholes, and at a charging of the additional boreholes the charges of explosives place inside the crossing lenticular permafrost spots.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the improvement of the quality of crushing of rocks with the lenticular permafrost spots and a capability to control the sizes of the crushing over the whole volume of the rocks shooting.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: mining art, applicable for mining by open method in rocky and semirocky rocks at placing of high benches on planned contour.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in collaring of inclined holes from the upper bench to be height of a doubled bench, for production of a cut-off slot at formation of the upper inclined part of the bench and contour vertical holes from the intermediate bench to the same depth for formation of the lower vertical part of the bench, loading and blasting. The novelty in the method is in the fact that the drilling of holes of the contour row from the intermediate bench is performed in three stages: initially in the first stage drilled is the part, of inclined holes from the initial to the final point of the section of sloping with one direction of inclination, in the second stage drilled are the inclined holes of the contour row having the same inclination and the same distance between the holes as in the first stage, but in the contrary direction, in the third stage between the mentioned inclined contour holes drilled are vertical contour holes, the inclined holes of the contour row are loaded by a permanent charge from the face to the mouth of the holes, and in the vertical contour holes positioned between the inclined contour holes, the amount of the charge is changed successively from the face to the mouth, corresponding to the minimum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench is the minimum charge in the vertical contour hole, which in proportion with removal from the bottom of the lower bench successively increases, reaching its maximum value at the bottom of the intermediate bench, at the maximum distance between the inclined and vertical contour holes at the bottom of the lower bench the value of the charge in the vertical contour hole from the face to the mouth is changed in the reverse order.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of sloping.

7 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining industry, applicable in driving of horizontal workings.

SUBSTANCE: compensation and blast holes are drilled in a rock mass over the entire length of the raise. The blast holes are charges partially or completely, and they are subjected to a short-delay blasting into compensation holes and then the formed compensation cavities. The interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession, depending on the detonation characteristics of the explosive, charge diameter, physico-technical properties of the rock mass, height and diameter of the newly formed compensation cavities should provide for breaking of the rock from the mass and full outburst of the rock mass from the cavity, i.e. to prevent the pressing effect of the rock mass in the contour of the raise.

EFFECT: determined the interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession with prevention of the rock mass pressing in the contour of the raise, which allows to increase the height of the blasted section and enhance the physico-technical properties of the raise driving.

1 dwg, 1 ex, 2 tbl

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