Composition of stowing mixture

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition of stowing mixture contains the following in wt %: ground granular blast-furnace slag 10.20-12.70, sodium hydroxide 1.10-1.35, nickel sludge 0.1-0.5, burnt rock 72.91-75.01, water - the balance.

EFFECT: high strength, low labour input, low cost owing to use of secondary resources.

1 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for the elimination of vertical excavations in existing and liquidated mining enterprises.

At mine closure, there are several geological and ecological problems: earth surface subsidence, flooding areas, the possibility of breakthrough of mine waters in the adjacent operating mines, the extraction of harmful gases and release them on the surface and others. In the Russian Federation to develop a draft mine closure permitted only design organizations licensed by RTN. Liquidation of mines requires mandatory implementation of the following works: fill breed failures, craters, grooves, gullies, trenches, and other excavations associated with the activities of the mine.

Vertical shafts, and the shafts and pits with an angle more than 45° with poor support should be completely filled with non-shrink waterproof material to the level of the earth's surface. Received backfill array must prevent hydraulic connection between aquifers, the output of the mine gases on the surface and the formation of gaps adjacent to development areas.

The currently accepted as the primary method of elimination of vertical and inclined shafts, sbec pits, and the other is their workings by simply filling blown rock experience shows that differs unreliable their liquidation, which further leads to significant deformation of the surface, the formation of failures and the emergence of environmental problems.

The most practical and affordable way to eliminate vertical mine workings is their bookmark hardening mixtures.

In the case of bookmarks vertical mine workings is compression of filling the array, i.e. its seal under load without the possibility of lateral expansion, so the strength and other mechanical properties of the backfill material are very important.

Basic requirements for hardening mixtures, the minimum average density of the material, high resistance, i.e. the permeability of less than 0.001 m/day, the minimum amount of compression that is achieved by high strength backfill mix [Backfilling in mines / Dambrosio and others, Ed. by Dambrosia, Menzyanova. - M.: Nedra, 1989. - 400 C.].

Known stowing mixture (patent RF №2270921, IPC E21F 15/00, publ. 27.02.2006), including cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, ground diabase, chopped straw, taken in the following ratio, wt.%:

cement2,9-5,07
ground granulated blast furnace slag15,21-16,914
ground diabase52,24-53,22
chopped straw0,02-0,076
waterrest

The disadvantage of the mixture is low strength, complexity and the presence of costly and scarce cement.

Closest to the claimed invention is a composition of the filling mixture (patent RF №2186989, IPC E21F 15/00, publ. 10.08.2002), including cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, amorphous precipitation neutralization of sulfuric acid with limestone, hydroconsult iron (III), the water taken in the following ratio, wt.%:

cement4,0-6,8
ground granulated blast furnace slaga 9.7-16,5
amorphous precipitation neutralization of sulfuric
acid limestone31,7 of 40.8
waterrest

The disadvantage of this is mix is the low mechanical strength, additional pre-treatment of the amorphous precipitation in an aqueous solution of gidroksosulfat iron (III), which increases labor costs in tab vertical shafts, the complexity of the mixture, and the use of expensive and scarce cement.

The technical result achieved by the invention is to increase the strength of the filling mixture, reducing labor costs during the laying of vertical shafts and reducing cost through the use of secondary material resources - sodium hydroxide, Nickel sludge, burnt rocks.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the composition of the filling mixture containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and water, according to the invention further comprises a waste chemical plants - sodium hydroxide, Nickel sludge and burnt rock used as aggregate in the following ratio, wt.%:

ground granulated blast furnace slag10,20-12,70
sodium hydroxide1,10-1,35
Nickel sludge0,1-0,5
burnt rock72,91-75,01
waterrest

Mixing ground granulated blast furnace slag with sodium hydroxide receive slag binder M400 and above.

Use as a binder of ground granulated blast furnace slag with sodium hydroxide becomes possible because the ground granulated blast furnace slags have a chemical composition similar to cement. The zatvoreniem ground granulated blast furnace slag with sodium hydroxide leads to the formation of low-soluble natural minerals mixed sodium-calcium silicates, hydrogenated, zeolites, thermoreceptors of hydrosilicates [Wedgebase Grantability. - Kiev: Gastrolyzer the USSR. - 98 C.].

The chemical composition of ground granulated blast slag Kuzbass are shown in table 1.

The bulk of ground granulated blast furnace slag is an isotropic porous glass, which determines the hydraulic activity of slag. The contents of the glass in the studied slag is within 88,0-95,0%.

The second component slag binder is a sodium hydroxide (caustic soda, caustic soda), which is produced at the Kemerovo production Association "Khimprom" as secondary material resources.

Nickel sludge - chemical production waste, is a fine black powder with a specific surface area 3000-3500 cm2/g, a true density of 3.5-3.7 g/cm3the average density of 2.6-2.7 g/cm3. The sludge contains Nickel oxide 92-93%, aluminum oxide 5-6%, insoluble residue 2-3%, calcined residue of 85%aqueous extract PH 8-9.

Introduction Nickel sludge promotes intense hydration process slag binder, especially in the initial setting period, the period of formation of structure of the material is accelerated by 30-36%. High specific surface area of the Nickel slurry allows it to be distributed over the surface of the grains of ground granulated blast furnace slag thin monomolecular layer and enter into the chemisorptive interaction with the formation of new complex hydrated compounds - water alkaline silicates and alkaline hydrosilicate with substitution [Al2O3] on [Ni2About3]. These processes contribute to the rapid growth of crystalline formations, which accelerates the hydration process, the amount of hydrated compounds increases and increases the strength of the hardening filling mixture.

As a placeholder for bookmarks vertical mine workings used burnt rocks rational grain composition [Isayenko V Assessment and development of technologies bookmarks vertical workings of burnt rocks, reinforced binding: author. dis. Kida. technology. Sciences: 25.00.22 / Kuzbass state technical University. - Kemerovo, 2006. - 22 S.].

Characteristics of the physical-mechanical properties used burnt rocks Kuzbass have the following meanings [Isayenko A.V. assessment and development of technologies bookmarks vertical workings of burnt rocks, reinforced binding: author. dis. Kida. technology. Sciences: 25.00.22 / Kuzbass state technical University. - Kemerovo, 2006. - 22 S.]:

the average density, kg/m31400-2500
bulk density, kg/m31050-1400
porosity, %3,6-32,1
water absorption by weight, % by weight12,0-23,1
voidness, %22,0-44,0
the limit of compressive strength, MPa10,0-88,0 and more
frost resistance, cycles10-1000

All burnt rocks have a high GI is Pavlichenko activity and not subject to any of the types of decay - glandular, lime, silicate.

High alkalinity environment slag binder activates grain burning rocks from the surface and they come in chemisorptive interaction with the slag binder. On the surface of grains of burnt rocks formed a slightly basic hydrosilicate with high adhesion and the grains of burnt rocks and alkaline wagamama, resulting tensile and compressive properties of hardening filling mixture greatly increased.

To resolve prescription-technological tasks get the stowing mixtures used probabilistic-statistical, including mathematical methods of planning and processing experiments.

Example. Crushed in a ball mill to a specific surface, Sbeats=3500 cm2/g ground granulated blast furnace slag mixed with burnt rock, added Nickel sludge and shut sodium hydroxide, the mixture was thoroughly mixed. The resulting mixture was sformovani samples-cubes of size 70×70×70 mm, One day, the samples were verdeli in the forms, then they were resalable and kept under a layer of wet sawdust within 90 days, after which determined the mechanical strength using a hydraulic press. Similarly prepared and tested different formulations of filling mixtures. Table 2 shows the source with Tavi backfill mixes and the results of testing the mechanical strength of the samples, prepared from these mixtures.

Table 2
The results of studying the influence of the composition of backfill mixes strength test specimens
No. of experimentsConsumption in the manufacture of filling mixtures,
wt.%
Strength specimens in compression, MPa
ground granulated blast furnace slagcementburnt rocksodium hydroxidewaterNickel sludge
111,23074,451,1013,120,106,75
2to 11.79074,501,1012,500,11to 6.80
312,36 075,011,12of 11.260,257,42
412,68074,621,1611,240,307,54
512,69073,411,32to 12.440,146,93
612,70072,911,3312,900,166,98
710,20073,921,3514,310,227,20
810,63074,431,26of 13.277,60
911,14074,931,2112,270,457,68
1011,64075,001,3011,580,487,80
1112,15074,671,3111,380,497,83
1212,66074,781,2410,820,50of 7.90
The placeholder16,37of 6.7331,7*2,0**43,200,004,35
* - amorphous deposits is neitralizatsii sulfuric acid limestone;
** hydroconsult iron (III).

From table 2 it follows that the claimed technical result is to increase the mechanical strength of the backfill mixtures is achieved by replacing the expensive and scarce cement, as well as the absence of additional processing operations amorphous precipitation solution gidroksosulfat iron (III).

As the experiments showed, using as a binder filling mixture slag binder with the addition of Nickel sludge receive filling the array with higher strength, without the use of expensive and scarce at present cement. Use as a filler burnt rocks allows you to create a structural frame made of durable grains of burnt rocks, which takes care of all external loads, preventing lateral extension. As a result of applying the burnt rocks compression of the backfill material is missing, which is required during the laying of vertical shafts (compression backfill material compaction under load without the possibility of lateral extension).

High alkalinity environment slag binder translates Nickel sludge in the active state. The Nickel cations enter into redox processes of hydration of the binder, in achiev is Tate which accelerates the formation of new hydrated compounds in crystalline form, that increases the strength of the binder and the entire filling mixture.

Chemisorptive interaction of burnt rocks with slag binder provides vodovoroty filling mass, the permeability does not exceed Kf≤0.001 m/day.

The use of burnt rocks, Nickel sludge and sodium hydroxide will recycle the materials shaft of territorial and waste chemical production that will significantly improve the ecological situation of the shaft cities.

The composition of the filling mixture containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and water, characterized in that it further contains waste from chemical plants - sodium hydroxide, Nickel sludge and burnt rock used as aggregate in the following ratio, wt.%:

ground granulated blast furnace slag10,20-12,70
sodium hydroxide1,10-1,35
Nickel sludge0,1-0,5
burnt rock72,91-75,01
waterrest



 

Same patents:

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1 ex, 1 tbl

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FIELD: mining.

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1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: mining.

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1 ex, 1 tbl

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FIELD: mining industry.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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Backfill mix // 2270921

FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.

SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.

2 tbl

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.

EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.

5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.

EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.

EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.

6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg

Fill mix // 2282724

FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.

SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.

EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.

2 tbl

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