Composition of stowing mixture
SUBSTANCE: composition of stowing mixture contains the following in wt %: ground granular blast-furnace slag 10.20-12.70, sodium hydroxide 1.10-1.35, nickel sludge 0.1-0.5, burnt rock 72.91-75.01, water - the balance.
EFFECT: high strength, low labour input, low cost owing to use of secondary resources.
1 ex, 2 tbl
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for the elimination of vertical excavations in existing and liquidated mining enterprises.
At mine closure, there are several geological and ecological problems: earth surface subsidence, flooding areas, the possibility of breakthrough of mine waters in the adjacent operating mines, the extraction of harmful gases and release them on the surface and others. In the Russian Federation to develop a draft mine closure permitted only design organizations licensed by RTN. Liquidation of mines requires mandatory implementation of the following works: fill breed failures, craters, grooves, gullies, trenches, and other excavations associated with the activities of the mine.
Vertical shafts, and the shafts and pits with an angle more than 45° with poor support should be completely filled with non-shrink waterproof material to the level of the earth's surface. Received backfill array must prevent hydraulic connection between aquifers, the output of the mine gases on the surface and the formation of gaps adjacent to development areas.
The currently accepted as the primary method of elimination of vertical and inclined shafts, sbec pits, and the other is their workings by simply filling blown rock experience shows that differs unreliable their liquidation, which further leads to significant deformation of the surface, the formation of failures and the emergence of environmental problems.
The most practical and affordable way to eliminate vertical mine workings is their bookmark hardening mixtures.
In the case of bookmarks vertical mine workings is compression of filling the array, i.e. its seal under load without the possibility of lateral expansion, so the strength and other mechanical properties of the backfill material are very important.
Basic requirements for hardening mixtures, the minimum average density of the material, high resistance, i.e. the permeability of less than 0.001 m/day, the minimum amount of compression that is achieved by high strength backfill mix [Backfilling in mines / Dambrosio and others, Ed. by Dambrosia, Menzyanova. - M.: Nedra, 1989. - 400 C.].
Known stowing mixture (patent RF №2270921, IPC E21F 15/00, publ. 27.02.2006), including cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, ground diabase, chopped straw, taken in the following ratio, wt.%:
|ground granulated blast furnace slag||15,21-16,914|
The disadvantage of the mixture is low strength, complexity and the presence of costly and scarce cement.
Closest to the claimed invention is a composition of the filling mixture (patent RF №2186989, IPC E21F 15/00, publ. 10.08.2002), including cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, amorphous precipitation neutralization of sulfuric acid with limestone, hydroconsult iron (III), the water taken in the following ratio, wt.%:
|ground granulated blast furnace slag||a 9.7-16,5|
|amorphous precipitation neutralization of sulfuric|
|acid limestone||31,7 of 40.8|
The disadvantage of this is mix is the low mechanical strength, additional pre-treatment of the amorphous precipitation in an aqueous solution of gidroksosulfat iron (III), which increases labor costs in tab vertical shafts, the complexity of the mixture, and the use of expensive and scarce cement.
The technical result achieved by the invention is to increase the strength of the filling mixture, reducing labor costs during the laying of vertical shafts and reducing cost through the use of secondary material resources - sodium hydroxide, Nickel sludge, burnt rocks.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that the composition of the filling mixture containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and water, according to the invention further comprises a waste chemical plants - sodium hydroxide, Nickel sludge and burnt rock used as aggregate in the following ratio, wt.%:
|ground granulated blast furnace slag||10,20-12,70|
Mixing ground granulated blast furnace slag with sodium hydroxide receive slag binder M400 and above.
Use as a binder of ground granulated blast furnace slag with sodium hydroxide becomes possible because the ground granulated blast furnace slags have a chemical composition similar to cement. The zatvoreniem ground granulated blast furnace slag with sodium hydroxide leads to the formation of low-soluble natural minerals mixed sodium-calcium silicates, hydrogenated, zeolites, thermoreceptors of hydrosilicates [Wedgebase Grantability. - Kiev: Gastrolyzer the USSR. - 98 C.].
The chemical composition of ground granulated blast slag Kuzbass are shown in table 1.
The bulk of ground granulated blast furnace slag is an isotropic porous glass, which determines the hydraulic activity of slag. The contents of the glass in the studied slag is within 88,0-95,0%.
The second component slag binder is a sodium hydroxide (caustic soda, caustic soda), which is produced at the Kemerovo production Association "Khimprom" as secondary material resources.
Nickel sludge - chemical production waste, is a fine black powder with a specific surface area 3000-3500 cm2/g, a true density of 3.5-3.7 g/cm3the average density of 2.6-2.7 g/cm3. The sludge contains Nickel oxide 92-93%, aluminum oxide 5-6%, insoluble residue 2-3%, calcined residue of 85%aqueous extract PH 8-9.
Introduction Nickel sludge promotes intense hydration process slag binder, especially in the initial setting period, the period of formation of structure of the material is accelerated by 30-36%. High specific surface area of the Nickel slurry allows it to be distributed over the surface of the grains of ground granulated blast furnace slag thin monomolecular layer and enter into the chemisorptive interaction with the formation of new complex hydrated compounds - water alkaline silicates and alkaline hydrosilicate with substitution [Al2O3] on [Ni2About3]. These processes contribute to the rapid growth of crystalline formations, which accelerates the hydration process, the amount of hydrated compounds increases and increases the strength of the hardening filling mixture.
As a placeholder for bookmarks vertical mine workings used burnt rocks rational grain composition [Isayenko V Assessment and development of technologies bookmarks vertical workings of burnt rocks, reinforced binding: author. dis. Kida. technology. Sciences: 25.00.22 / Kuzbass state technical University. - Kemerovo, 2006. - 22 S.].
Characteristics of the physical-mechanical properties used burnt rocks Kuzbass have the following meanings [Isayenko A.V. assessment and development of technologies bookmarks vertical workings of burnt rocks, reinforced binding: author. dis. Kida. technology. Sciences: 25.00.22 / Kuzbass state technical University. - Kemerovo, 2006. - 22 S.]:
|the average density, kg/m3||1400-2500|
|bulk density, kg/m3||1050-1400|
|water absorption by weight, % by weight||12,0-23,1|
|the limit of compressive strength, MPa||10,0-88,0 and more|
|frost resistance, cycles||10-1000|
All burnt rocks have a high GI is Pavlichenko activity and not subject to any of the types of decay - glandular, lime, silicate.
High alkalinity environment slag binder activates grain burning rocks from the surface and they come in chemisorptive interaction with the slag binder. On the surface of grains of burnt rocks formed a slightly basic hydrosilicate with high adhesion and the grains of burnt rocks and alkaline wagamama, resulting tensile and compressive properties of hardening filling mixture greatly increased.
To resolve prescription-technological tasks get the stowing mixtures used probabilistic-statistical, including mathematical methods of planning and processing experiments.
Example. Crushed in a ball mill to a specific surface, Sbeats=3500 cm2/g ground granulated blast furnace slag mixed with burnt rock, added Nickel sludge and shut sodium hydroxide, the mixture was thoroughly mixed. The resulting mixture was sformovani samples-cubes of size 70×70×70 mm, One day, the samples were verdeli in the forms, then they were resalable and kept under a layer of wet sawdust within 90 days, after which determined the mechanical strength using a hydraulic press. Similarly prepared and tested different formulations of filling mixtures. Table 2 shows the source with Tavi backfill mixes and the results of testing the mechanical strength of the samples, prepared from these mixtures.
|The results of studying the influence of the composition of backfill mixes strength test specimens|
|No. of experiments||Consumption in the manufacture of filling mixtures,|
|Strength specimens in compression, MPa|
|ground granulated blast furnace slag||cement||burnt rock||sodium hydroxide||water||Nickel sludge|
|2||to 11.79||0||74,50||1,10||12,50||0,11||to 6.80|
|The placeholder||16,37||of 6.73||31,7*||2,0**||43,20||0,00||4,35|
|* - amorphous deposits is neitralizatsii sulfuric acid limestone;|
|** hydroconsult iron (III).|
From table 2 it follows that the claimed technical result is to increase the mechanical strength of the backfill mixtures is achieved by replacing the expensive and scarce cement, as well as the absence of additional processing operations amorphous precipitation solution gidroksosulfat iron (III).
As the experiments showed, using as a binder filling mixture slag binder with the addition of Nickel sludge receive filling the array with higher strength, without the use of expensive and scarce at present cement. Use as a filler burnt rocks allows you to create a structural frame made of durable grains of burnt rocks, which takes care of all external loads, preventing lateral extension. As a result of applying the burnt rocks compression of the backfill material is missing, which is required during the laying of vertical shafts (compression backfill material compaction under load without the possibility of lateral extension).
High alkalinity environment slag binder translates Nickel sludge in the active state. The Nickel cations enter into redox processes of hydration of the binder, in achiev is Tate which accelerates the formation of new hydrated compounds in crystalline form, that increases the strength of the binder and the entire filling mixture.
Chemisorptive interaction of burnt rocks with slag binder provides vodovoroty filling mass, the permeability does not exceed Kf≤0.001 m/day.
The use of burnt rocks, Nickel sludge and sodium hydroxide will recycle the materials shaft of territorial and waste chemical production that will significantly improve the ecological situation of the shaft cities.
The composition of the filling mixture containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and water, characterized in that it further contains waste from chemical plants - sodium hydroxide, Nickel sludge and burnt rock used as aggregate in the following ratio, wt.%:
|ground granulated blast furnace slag||10,20-12,70|
SUBSTANCE: composition of a fill mixture comprising a ground acid domain pelletised slag, a superplasticiser SP-1, water and wastes of dressing of wet magnet separation of ferruginous quartzites, contained the following mixture as a binder - a mixture of jointly ground stale acid domain pelletised slag, current wastes of dressing of wet magnet separation and a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 49.8; specified wastes - 49.8; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.4, and an inert filler - stale wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites at the following ratio of components, wt %: binder -22.65; filler - 55.35; water - balance.
EFFECT: recycling of stale wastes of dressing and stale acid domain pelletised slag, reduced consumption of slag as a binding component, reduced water amount as mixture spread increases with preservation of required strength, increased recycling of dressing wastes to improve condition of environment in KMA region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: development is performed during winter period. First, vertical through wells with diameter of 0.5-0.6 m are drilled from surface above developed mine field, through which ice-water mixture is supplied; ratio of solid phase to liquid phase is 1:3 by volume. Filling mass is erected layer by layer; at that, each layer is frozen with forced blowing using cold atmospheric air from blowdown fan. Thickness of a single layer |Nlayer| is determined from the following ratio: Nlayer=1.5|tamb.|-20, cm, where: 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients; |tamb| - absolute monthly average ambient air temperature of months during winter period, °C.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing the time required for stowing operations and improving the stowing quality.
SUBSTANCE: method includes supplying pulp under excessive pressure via a safety device. The safety device is arranged as a tee, one end of which is connected to a bottomhole pulp line, the second one - to a sealer, and a safety membrane is installed on the third one. At the same time the output of wells in the backfilled chamber is arranged near its roof.
EFFECT: higher extent of chambers filling with a backfilling material with reduction of labour costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes layer filling of a mine with a backfilling material. The backfilling layer in the form of a cylindrical concrete block is previously made on the surface in an autoclave chamber. Concrete blocks are made with a cylindrical groove, at the same time the upper and lower surfaces are arranged as truncated. Installation of cylindrical concrete blocks in the shaft is carried out onto a hydraulic insulation putty. A gap between mine walls and blocks is solidified with a shrinkage-free water-resistant hardening concrete mix.
EFFECT: development of a water-resistant and shrinkage-free backfilling massif in a vertical mine to the moment of its backfilling completion.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to increase stability of a ceiling in downward slicing development of a deposit with backfilling includes serial tunnelling and backfilling of parallel mines - stope entries, leaving ore pillars with width equal to one, two or three spans of mines, backfilling of mines with a concrete mix, and after backfilling hardens, ore pillars left between concrete strips are mined. At the same time the vault of stope entries is arranged as deep, besides, ore pillars are left in the roof between concrete backfilling of adjacent stope entries.
EFFECT: higher stability of a mine ceiling.
SUBSTANCE: stowing mix, containing crushed granulated blast-furnace slag, an inert filler, water and ground limestone, includes the specified acid slag of III grade, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - at least 13%, the specified limestone, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - 45%, the inert filler is represented by rock refuse from wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites and additionally - a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 12; specified filler - 60; specified limestone - 10; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.5 of slag content; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of binders, higher strength of massif at the age of 28 days, wastes recycling, reduced contamination of environment.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device includes metal pressure shield in the form of rectangular parallelepiped consisting of four triangular prisms attached to each other, the bases of which have the shape of oblique right triangle, drain pipes with filters and sampling pipes with plug, door opening with door made in the shield, soft covers arranged on upper and lateral sides of shield, the height of which exceeds distance between shield and mine working section outline at their complete filling with compressed air. At bottom, on the side of filling mass the shield is equipped with rubber-coated canvas. Soft covers installed to lateral sides of shield are arranged on brackets attached throughout the height of connection strap to its side walls. Width of brackets is accepted equal to 2/3 of width of soft covers, and distance between brackets is determined from the following ratio: hmax>a>hmin, where a - distance between brackets, m; hmax - maximum height of soft covers at supply of compressed air to it, m; hmin - minimum height of soft covers after air discharge from it, m.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity at installation of connection strap, increasing efficiency and improving reliability of control of filling mass.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of reinforcing elements made in the form of mesh in filling chamber at the boundary with rock ore to be developed. Reinforcing elements are arranged at distance of 0.05b from each other, where b - chamber width. After installation of reinforcing elements the worked out space is filled with filling mass of various strength. Lower, central and upper part of chamber is filled at 1/10 of its height with curing mixture, and space between them with hydraulic fluid from fine material without binding agent.
EFFECT: reducing the costs; improving manufacturing capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of mine workings of the first order at an angle of 5-7° to horizon through pillars with width equal to one bay, their further stowing with stowing mixture and its solidification, driving of entry ways of the second order with their further stowing with stowing mixture. Entry ways of the second order are driven with the height increased in relation to entry ways of the first order by 0.7-1.0 m. Cavities under roof of adjacent entry ways of the first order are filled with stowing mixture of entry ways of the second order, thus providing their stowing and contact of covering mining thickness with stowing mass.
EFFECT: increasing ore development safety.
SUBSTANCE: composition of a filling mixture, containing cement, a surfactant, a filler and water, as a binder it additionally contains a ground blast-furnace granulated acidulous slag, containing particles of less than 1 mcm of at least 4.3%, the surfactant is a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is a mixture of wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferric quartzites with slag crushed stone at the following ratio of components, wt %: cement - 4.85; specified slag - 12.1; specified crushed stone - 10; specified wastes - 55; superplasticiser SP-1 - 1.0% from cement; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, increased strength of massif, recycling of mining and metallurgical industry wastes and wastes of ferric quartzites dressing, reduced contamination of environment for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation and well extraction of resources of chambers with partial backfill of extraction space. Blocks of upper level relatively to blocks of lower level are placed in staggered order, while blocks are made in form of a stretched upwards hexahedron. Resources of block within one hexahedron are separated on two chambers, one of which, placed along periphery of hexahedron, after extraction and removal of ore from it is filled by hardening backfill. Second order chamber is made of hexahedron-like shape, extracted and removed under protection from artificial block on all six sides of this chamber. Removal of ore from first order chambers is performed through one removal mine - end of level ort and cross-cut in lower portion of block and intermediate sub-level cross-cuts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of deposit resources by chambers through one of them, construction of ice-rock backfill in extracted space of primary chambers and following extraction of inter-chamber blocks. In inter-chamber blocks wedge-shaped slits are formed immediately in ceiling of deposit, space of slits is filled with ice-rock backfill, while slits are formed of inter-chamber blocks for 1/3 of width.
EFFECT: higher durability, higher effectiveness.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has surface composed of upper section with wedges and lower section and backfill material placed on said surface. Upper section is made in form of a rectangle, composed of rectangular triangle and rectangular trapezoid with possible displacement of trapezoid along triangle hypotenuse. Lower section is made of two plates, mounted on holder, fixed to pipe for feeding compressed air. Plate, positioned above the trapezoid, is mounted with possible counter-clockwise rotation around holder. Value of greater base of trapezoid hδ is selected from relation hδ = m - 0.9k, where m - bed massiveness, m, k - size of backfill material, m.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower laboriousness.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to develop mineral deposit along with backfilling of worked-out areas.
SUBSTANCE: backfill mix comprises cement, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag, filler and water. The backfill mix additionally has shredded straw. Grinded diabase is used as the filler. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): cement - 2.9-5.07, grinded granulated blastfurnace slag - 15.21-16.91, grinded diabase - 52.24-53.22, shredded straw - 0.02-0.076, water - remainder.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in development of minerals with systems involving filling mined-out space with solidifying stowing mix. The latter is composed of broken lime-containing binder in the form of active aluminosilicate material (5.6-33.2%) and fired carbonate rocks (1.0-16.7%), tempering water with phlegmatizer (10.6-27.5%), and filler. Carbonate rocks are fired at 900-1200°C, contain active calcium-magnesium oxides CaO+MgO at least 40% and not more than 9.1% based on the total weight of mix, which are broken to screen residue 0.08 mm not more than 15%. Active aluminosilicate material is fired marl or fired clay, or fired kimberlite ore concentration tails, or granulated blast furnace slag. Tempering water contains phlegmatizer in amounts found from formula [Ph] = (0.005-0.021)*Cr/Cw, where [Ph] amount of water in 1 L tempering water, kg; (0.005-0.021) coefficient taking into account proportion between phlegmatizer and fired carbonate rocks in mix; Cr amount of carbonate rocks in mix, kg; and Cw experimentally found consumption of tempering water with mix, L. When indicated amount of CaO+MgO in mixture is exceeded, CaO and MgO are converted into hydroxides by spraying with water in amount not higher than 20% of the weight of fired carbonate rocks (on conversion to active CaO+MgO). As carbonate rocks, host rocks of kimberlite deposits are used; as filler, sand and/or concentration tails, and/or broken aluminosilicate rock; and, as phlegmatizer, industrial-grade lignosulfonate or superplasticizer.
EFFECT: improved workability of mix and reduced cost.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining and underground building, particularly underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves double-stage mineral deposit development; erecting artificial rock-and-concrete supports of previously cut primary chamber roof rock in at least two adjacent primary chambers; extracting secondary chamber resources; filling space defined by cut rock with hardening material mix. Mines for drilling and/or filling operations performing are arranged in deposit roof over or inside ore pillars of secondary chambers. Primary chamber roof rock is cut by well undercharge method. Hardening material mix is supplied via cross headings located between mine and cavities and/or via undercharged well sections remained after rock cutting operation.
EFFECT: increased safety and economical efficiency due to reduced number of drilling and filling mines or accompanying mineral excavation, possibility to use drilling and filling mines at secondary chamber development stage for ore cutting, venting and roof condition control.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, particularly underground mineral mining with excavated space filling with hardening filling mix.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing grinded lime-containing binding agent, mixing water and filler; delivering the filling mix to area to be filled; filling mine space with the filling mix in several layers. The lime-containing binding agent is active silica-alumina material and burnt carbonate rock including at least 40% of active Cao+MgO. Above rock is grinded so that not more than 15% of grinded material remains on sieve having 0.08 orifice dimensions. Amount of the grinded burnt carbonate rock is selected so that active Cao+MgO is not more than 9.1% of filling mix mass. Water consumption for oxide Ca and Mg conversion in hydroxide is not more than 20% of burnt carbonate rock recalculated to active CaO+MgO. Retarder is added in mixing water in amount determined from R=(0.005-0.021)-Cr/Cw, where R is retarder content in 1 l of mixing water, kg; (0.005-0.021) is factor, which considers retarder-burnt carbonate rock ratio in the filling mix; Cr is burnt carbonate rock content in filling mix, kg; Cw is experimentally determined mixing water content in filling mix, l. Mine space filling rate is chosen from hardening time and self-heating degree of filing mass. The filling mix contains active silica-alumina material in amount of 5.6-33.2% by weight, carbonate rock burnt at 900-1200°C and containing active CaO+MgO of not less than 40% in amount of 1.0-16.7%, mixing water with retarder in amount of 10.6-27.5%, remainder is filler.
EFFECT: increased operational safety due to improved quality mine space filling, reduced costs and increased mine intensity.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to develop valuable mineral deposits along with goaf filling.
SUBSTANCE: fill mix comprises quick lime, grinded blast furnace slag, filler, industrial lignosulphonate and water. The fill mix additionally comprises trisodiumphosphate. All above components are taken in the following amounts (% by weight): quick lime - 1.61-4.8, grinded blast furnace slag - 10.79-14.4, filler - 60.85-62.14, industrial lignosulphonate - 0.016-0.11, trisodiumphosphate - 0.124-0.35, remainder is water.
EFFECT: increased strength and crack-resistance of fill mix over the full fill body.