Device and method to monitor efficiency of tunnelling

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: tunnelling combine (90) for horizontal mines comprises a rotary cutting head (93), where there are many cutting assemblies (10) installed as capable of rotation. Multiple units of instruments (50) are connected with a rotary cutting head, at the same time each unit of instruments comprises a distal end in contact with the appropriate cutting assembly. Units of instruments comprise multiple sensors, including an accelerometer (32), a magnetometer (33) and a temperature sensor (34) to monitor the appropriate cutting assembly. Sensors are installed at the remote end of units of instruments pressed for contact with a cutting assembly. Units of instruments comprise a wireless transceiver and are connected to each other into a circuit of data transfer or a peer-to-peer network. A source (176) of power supply, such as a battery pack, is provided for each unit of instruments. Sensor data may be used to control operation of a tunnelling combine for horizontal mines and/or for monitoring condition of cutting assemblies.

EFFECT: enhancing effectiveness and reliability of tunnelling operation.

27 cl, 7 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates

This invention relates generally to the field of mechanical drilling and, in particular, to a device and method for monitoring and controlling the efficiency of the digging machine for horizontal tunnels.

The level of technology

Continuous miner for horizontal tunnels is a device for tunneling, usually used for the formation of circular tunnels in different layers of soil and rocks. Conventional continuous miner for horizontal tunnels creates a smooth wall circular tunnel usually with minimal collateral destruction. The breakthrough that made the tunneling machines for horizontal tunnels efficient and reliable, was the invention of the rotating head, designed by James S. Robbins. Originally in the tunneling processor for horizontal tunnels Robbins was used thick rotating spikes, but the spikes broke down often. He found that by replacing these abrasive studs with longer service life of the rotating cutters can significantly reduce this problem. Therefore, all subsequent modern tunneling machines for horizontal tunnels have rotating cutting nodes.

With the first use of roadheaders for Gori is ostalnyh workings operators and manufacturers of these harvesters wanted to understand and monitor the interaction of the cutting device with patent material. Data performance obtained in real time, allow the operator to improve the efficiency and reliability of operations of tunneling by controlling the specific operating parameters and time to perform maintenance. For example, costly downtime due to failure of components can be prevented by monitoring the digging machine for workings in real time, in order to quickly identify problems, allowing the operator to initiate appropriate steps for correction.

Additionally, manufacturers of combine harvesters can change the design of components on the basis of these data. Previous attempts to develop rational operation and maintenance schedules for roadheaders for horizontal workings included the use of theoretical mathematical models containing or containing no simple device for measuring forces and logical conclusions about the interactions with additional evidence, asked the working conditions of the harvester. Illustrative tunneling machines for horizontal tunnels are disclosed in U.S. patent No. 4548443 and in U.S. patent No.'RE 31511, the full content of which is included in this description. Additional illustrative tunneling machines for horizontal Virab the current disclosed in U.S. patent No. 5205613 and in U.S. patent No. 6431653, the full content of which is included in this description. In U.S. patent No. 5303151 (Sugden and others) disclosed another type of mining combine with cutting elements which are supplied with voltage sensors of the shaft of the cutting element for the measurement of direct load one or more roller assemblies. One or more shafts of the cutting elements provided with a voltage detector for the measurement of direct pressure roller node. However, a simple measurement using voltage sensors do not provide the desired information about the operational characteristics and the characteristics of rotation of the roller assemblies.

There remains a need for systems capable of real-time monitoring of individual cutting elements digging machine for horizontal tunnels that can be used to provide early detection of problems with the individual cutting elements, to obtain information that can be used to control the harvester and eliminating unnecessary wear and/or monitoring the status of the species and other materials to be sinking.

The invention

The essence of the invention is to provide a selection of concepts in a simplified form, details of which are described below in the section detailed description. It is not intended to be the Jena to identify the key features of the proposed facility and for use as an aid in determining the scope of the subject invention.

According to one aspect of the invention, a device for monitoring the digging machine for horizontal tunnels during operation, which includes multiple devices associated with cutting elements of the digging machine for horizontal workings. Each block devices supported in contact with a corresponding cutting element and includes a sensor that monitors the cutting element, for example, an acceleration sensor, temperature sensor, magnetometer, etc. the Distal end of block devices is in contact with the cutting element, for example, the retained part of the cutting element. Direct contact provides accurate data for the corresponding cutting element, for example, vibration, temperature and rotation speed. Control panel sensors in the block devices receives data from the sensors and transmits the data wirelessly to a remote receiver. Data can be used, for example, to monitor the status of the cutting element and/or the digging machine for horizontal tunnels, to detect wear or a suitable adjustment of the operating parameters digging machine for horizontal workings. The power supply provides power to the sensors and control panel. The device contains a means of dscipline block devices on the tunneling processor for horizontal tunnels.

In versions of the devices block devices includes a multi-axis accelerometer and/or the second accelerometer.

In versions of the device, each cutting site digging machine for horizontal tunnels has one or multiple devices associated with it. Block devices can be connected wirelessly to the Protocol of the data network or peer-to-peer network.

In versions of the devices block devices includes a base plate having a distal lever portion which supports the sensor and is in direct contact with the respective cutting element. May be provided by a spring clamped distal lever portion of the base plate in the direction of the respective cutting unit.

In one embodiment, the bracket fixed on the tunneling processor for workings, for example, is stationary on the housing of the cutting site, and block devices includes a removable portion, which slide is engaged with the mounting bracket.

There is also a way to work digging machine for horizontal tunnels, which includes the provision of multiple blocks of devices containing sensors for monitoring respective cutting unit, the control panel sensors, which receives data from tchikov, and the power supply, the block devices directly in contact with the respective cutting unit and wirelessly transmits the received sensor data to the remote receiver, and use of data transmitted to the remote receiver to control the operation of the digging machine for horizontal tunnels.

Created as a continuous miner for horizontal tunnels containing a rotating cutting head supporting rotatably a lot of cutting units, each of which includes a shaft support with the possibility of rotation of the cutter ring, block devices, each of which is connected with the cutting unit, and means for fastening the blocks of the devices heading on the harvester for horizontal tunnels.

Brief description of drawings

For a better understanding of the above aspects and expected benefits of the present invention below is the detailed description with reference to the accompanying drawings, which schematically shows the following:

figure 1 depicts a continuous miner for workings with the image of some common components and sensors for monitoring of cutting nodes digging machine for horizontal tunnels according to this invention;

figure 2 - the cutting unit roller type sinking comb is in for workings, shown in figure 1, partially in exploded isometric projection;

figure 3 - the cutting unit according to figure 2 with a partially remote for clarity housing, in isometric projection;

4 is a block devices for cutting tool shown in figure 2, in an exploded isometric projection;

5 is a graphical diagram of the monitoring system of the cutting site digging machine for horizontal openings, shown in figure 1;

6 is a second embodiment of block devices according to this invention;

Fig.7 - block devices according to 6 in an exploded isometric projection.

Detailed description

Below is a description of the relevant parts of the digging machine for horizontal tunnels with the cutting units and the corresponding block devices for monitoring of cutting nodes according to this invention with reference to figures, in which similar parts are denoted by similar positions. For specialists in the art will understand that the invention can be implemented in various types, and specific details disclosed here should not be interpreted as limiting, but merely as a basis for personnel to implement and use the present invention.

Figure 1 shows in side view to illustrate a continuous miner for 90 Hori is the rest of openings, with cutting nodes 10, according to this invention. Shown as an illustration of the continuous miner 90 for horizontal tunnels is occupying the whole front part of the cutting head 93 on which they are supported rotatably many cutting nodes 10 of the roller type. Although shown only three cutting site for professionals in the art will understand that a typical continuous miner for horizontal tunnels contain 20, 50, 100 or more cutting nodes 10 are located with the possibility of rotation of cutting head 93.

When working cutting head is pressed against the surface 91 (shown in dashed lines) so that at least some cutting nodes 10 are in engagement with the surface 91. In the shown embodiment, the one or more anchor shoes 94 are pushed outward by hydraulic cylinders 95 to enter into engagement with the wall of the production with the purpose of anchoring the digging machine 90 for horizontal workings. Then the cutter head 93 is fed forward to the surface 91 with the thrust of the cylinder 96. Cutting head 93 is rotated around the longitudinal axis so that the cutting nodes 10 with the force pressed against the surface 91 and roll on the surface 91, thus cutting the nodes 10 are crushed, loosen, break, remove and/or destroy the materials surface 91.

The piano is D.2 shows one of the cutting nodes 10 and related installation components and components for monitoring according to this invention. The assembled node shown in figure 3, with some components for clarity, are not depicted. The cutting unit 10 includes a cutter ring 15 located on the hub 12, which is installed rotatably around the shaft 13. On the shaft 13 is typically mounted bearing units (not shown) to allow rotation of the hub 12 and the cutting ring 15 around the axis 13. In this embodiment, the one or more magnets 16 (3) installed in a rotating hub 12, the purpose of which will be explained below.

The opposite ends of the shaft 13 is fixed in the chopping housing containing spaced apart mounting parts 20L, 20R of the housing, each mounting portion forms a L-shaped channel 21. The cutting unit 10 is installed by sliding cutting tool 10 so that the shaft 13 slides along the channels 21 in the mounting parts 20L, 20R of the hull and then shifted in the lateral direction in the recess formed L-shaped shoulder of the channels 21. After such positioning of the cutting unit 10 between the mounting parts 20L, 20R housing the cutting unit 10 is fixed with a wedge-locking system, which is designed for coupling with shaped ends of the shaft 13. For specialists in the art will understand that there are various other methods of setting the cutting sites for rotating the head about Odeska harvesters. The above description refers to the currently used method of installation through the "load cutting elements behind". This invention can also be used with other mounting systems, such as the loading of the cutting elements in front.

The locking wedge system includes a wedge 22, the clamping block 24 and the tubular sleeve 28 that is located between them. The wedge 22 is located with an emphasis in peripheral face near one end of the shaft 13 of the cutting tool 10, and the clamping unit 24 comes engages and rests on the surface 25 on the mounting portion 20L or 20R chassis. A bolt 23 passes through the wedge 22, the sleeve 28 and the clamping block 24 and is fixed with two nuts 26 and washers 27. Therefore, when tightening the bolt 23 by rotation of the nuts 26 in accordance with the specification) the wedge blocks 22 is stationary cutting head 10.

Block devices 50 are attached to the cutting site 10 (as will be explained in more detail below) to monitor the appropriate cutting tool 10 during operation of the digging machine 90 for horizontal workings. In a preferred embodiment of block devices 50 contains topological modular element, such as a semi-Autonomous computing, communication and sensing device, as will be explained below. In this embodiment, the block devices 50 mounted on one of Klinova the different locking units with mounting console 39.

In this embodiment, the block devices 50 includes a wedge-shaped outer housing 51 having a proximal end 52 and distal the top 53. Block devices 50 has a size and is positioned so that the distal top 53 is in contact and held with a grip to the holder 14 of cutting unit 10. Spacers or the like (not illustrated) can be installed on site to ensure correct positioning block devices 50. In the shown embodiment uses at least one Belleville spring washer or similar compression mechanism, for example, between the bushing 28 and the wedge 22, to ensure the desired landing compression. After installing the unit devices 50, the clamping block 24 is placed on the bolt 23, install the nut 27 and tighten the two nuts 26 on the bolts 23 with the specified torque.

The outer body 51, essentially surrounds the electronic and mechanical components of the unit devices 50. Figure 4 shows in an exploded isometric projection of the block devices 50. In this embodiment, the block devices 50 includes the node 31 of the control panel sensors with the processor element 35, which is connected with one or more accelerometers 32 with at least one magnetometer 33 or magnetic sensor and at least one temperature sensor such as a thermocouple 34. It is also possible that the power instrument is 50 includes additional sensors, for example, a strain gauge, acoustic or optical sensor, a chemical sensor or the like, the Node 31 of the control panel, sensors further includes a wireless transceiver 36, which transmits signals to radio waves via the antenna 37 to the remote receiver (not shown). Electronic sensors 32, 33, 34 and the wireless transceiver 36 supplied from the battery pack 38 is installed on the node 31 of the control panel and the sensors.

The outer body 51 after the installation comes into contact with the holder 14 of the cutting unit so that the distal top 53 is pressed or held with a grip to the holder 14. Therefore, through this point of contact accelerometers 32 are subjected to accelerations of cutting unit 10. The accelerometers 32 measure the vibration cutting unit 10 during operation during rotation of the cutting ring 15 along the surface 91. In one embodiment, the optional provides the reference accelerometer (not shown), which is not in direct contact with the cutting unit 10, with the purpose of the filtering is not associated with the cutting of the vibrations caused by the operation of the digging machine 90 for horizontal workings. Vibration measured reference accelerometer, not in contact with the cutting unit 10, ask the reference vibration, so that the difference between the reference vibration and vibration is smirennimi accelerometer 32, associated with specific cutting unit 10, give the magnitude of vibration of the respective cutting unit 10.

Monitoring the load applied to the cutting site 10 during drilling operations can also be performed using the accelerometer 32. It is clear that the reference nodes in the chopping node 10 perceive most of the load transmitted from the surface 91 of drilling and through the ring 15 and the hub 12. These pillars are a consumable part. To maximize the service life of bearings while ensuring good working parameters of the pillars have the limit load specified by the manufacturer. The accelerometers 32 can be used to avoid exceeding the limit load.

Although figure 2 shows only one block devices 50 of the cutting head 10, can be used according to this invention a few blocks of the devices 50 with some or all of the cutters 10. For example, if the blocks of the devices 50 located on both ends of the shaft 13 of the cutting site, have unequal load on either side of the shaft 13, it can be recognized by comparing the output signals of the accelerometers 32. Unbalanced load of cutting unit 10 creates a situation of fatigue, in which the components of the cutting unit 10 are subjected to cyclic loading, which may significantly shorten the life of mechanical components.

Other fur the technical phenomenon, arising during operation of the cutting unit 10 can be identified by analyzing the output signal of the accelerometer 32, for example the nuts 26 that holds in place the bolt 23. Vibration cutting unit 10 with a loose fastening will have significantly different characteristics than the cutting unit 10, is firmly fixed in the mounting parts 20L, 20R of the housing. In addition, the nature of the vibration is changed, when the bolt 23 is loosened on the same side on which the block devices than weakened the bolt 23 on the opposite block devices 50 side.

In this embodiment, the one or more magnets 16 are installed in the hub 12 before installing the cutting tool 10 in the mounting parts 20L, 20R of the housing. During the rotation of the cutting ring 15 and the hub 12 around the shaft 13, the magnet (magnets) 16 detected by the magnetometer 33 in the corresponding block devices 50. The time intervals between successive passages of the magnets 16 can be used to calculate the speed of rotation of the cutting ring 15. Then, knowing the position of a particular cutting tool 10 for cutting head 93 and the rotation speed of the cutting head 93, you can use the data time intervals or speed to detect slippage or blocking of the cutting ring 15 or to calculate the present diameter of the cutting ring 15, assuming the absence of the slippage between the cutting ring 15 and the surface 91. The real diameter of the cutting ring 15 is a measure of the amount of wear or erosion of the ring 15 during the operation of drilling the tunnel. For specialists in the art it is clear that the determination of the amount of wear of the cutting ring 15 is very important. For example, maintenance digging machine 90 for horizontal tunnels often defined in accordance with the need to replace the cutting unit 10, i.e. on the basis of the percentage of wear of the cutting ring 15.

The speed of rotation of the cutting ring 15 and, in particular, the change in time speed is also desirable to know, because it is an indicator of smooth rolling. Constant speed of rotation of the cutting ring 15 during rotation of the cutting head 93 with constant velocity shows that the bearing of the cutting site is working correctly. Changing the speed of rotation of the cutting ring 15 shows that it is slipping, and therefore indicates that the bearings are defective and requires replacing. As an alternative solution to changing the speed of rotation of a significant number of cutting rings 15 may indicate the need to change operating parameters of the digging machine 90 for horizontal tunnels in order to achieve optimal performance. For example, if the rotation speed for a certain number R of the driving ring 15 is unstable, this may indicate that the cutter head 93 is pressed too tightly against the surface 91.

The temperature of the cutting ring 15 is another indicator of how correctly the cutting unit 10. The friction between the cutting ring 15 and the surface 91 creates heat. If the cutter ring 15 rotates relatively freely, then the measured temperature reaches a constant level. However, if the cutter ring 15 rotates freely, but instead rubs or slides on the surface 91, the temperature of the cutting site is significant and growing rapidly. Similarly, if the bearing of the cutting ring is subjected to excessive friction, the temperature of the bearing increases, causing an increase in the temperature of cutting unit 10. In any case, the temperature monitoring of cutting unit 10 provides to the operator an early indication of the existence of the problem, so what can be done automatically or through operator corrective actions, such as shutting down the processor or the purpose of the maintenance before causing much harm.

In one embodiment, one or multiple devices 50 (referred to in the subsequent reference block devices) includes a biaxial accelerometer (not shown) in addition to the above sensors. Biaxial accelerometer method is to measure the acceleration, including the earth's acceleration in two directions, usually oriented in orthogonal directions. Functionally dual-axis accelerometer includes a first accelerometer that is oriented perpendicular to the second accelerometer is usually in the horizontal plane, for example, one axis is oriented in the radial direction of the cutting head 93, and the other axis is oriented along the tangent to the cutting head 93. Biaxial accelerometer performs measurement when rotating cutting head 93, and it can be used to create a reference point for positioning separate cutting nodes 10.

For specialists in the art it is clear that to determine the location by using a biaxial accelerometer to the support block devices is possible through analysis of the measured accelerometer values as follows. The relative position of the biaxial accelerometer cutting head is known. For example, you can create a reference map of the locations of the cutting site. Biaxial accelerometer generates a positive or negative values of the earth acceleration based on the specific orientation of the accelerometer. Therefore, it is possible to determine the rotational biaxial orientation of the accelerometer relative to gravity. Rotational orientation of biaxial accelerometer and its relative position on ajusa head 93 determine its position relative to other blocks of the devices 50 of the cutting site. Knowing the reference position of the cutting element, you can determine the location of other cutting elements on the base reference map of the provisions of the cutting site. When the cutting unit 10 is subjected to abnormal working conditions, it is desirable to know its location in the cutting head 93 for his inspection.

In other embodiments, execution of each block devices 50 measured using accelerometers 32, magnetometers 33 and the sensor 34 and the temperature data is converted into digital signals by the processor 35 in the node 31 of the control panel and the sensors. Then, these digital data are transmitted via the antenna 37 to the remote receiver, which is typically located in another place the digging machine 90 for horizontal workings. In a preferred embodiment of each of the cutting unit 10 digging machine 90 for horizontal openings provided with one or two blocks of the devices 50, which provides the most accurate indication of drilling conditions. This combination of multiple device units 50 is known as the network of sensors.

Data from the network of sensors can be transmitted to the display operator digging machine 90 for horizontal workings. Displaying data from each block of the devices relative to the location of every other block devices 50 allows the operator to make the conclusions about the structure of the breed and to adjust operating parameters in order to achieve maximum efficiency. For example, measuring the vibration of each block devices 50 used in connection with mapping sensors allow you to display a map of the surface rocks and the status of the species, including, but not limited to, the hardness of the rock, the degree of cracking and any localized geological structures. This mapping can be used effectively to increase productivity digging machine 90 for horizontal tunnels, through the provision of individual cutting nodes 10 closer to their design limits. Without this system, the operating range of modes for the safe operation of each cutting unit 10 must be selected in the average value of the total load of the processor, what leads to reduce the overall operating parameters. Local state changes of the breed before each individual cutting unit 10 cannot be assessed without this system, since the only available data is the average full load. Through the use of a separate sensor system can detect extreme events and you can adjust the operating parameters to achieve the maximum load for each individual cutting unit 10.

In this embodiment, the used node 31 of the control panel sensors, which are able to transmit data Kramnik two transmission routes. Transmission can be carried out using a Protocol point-to-point communication in which data of each block devices 50 are transmitted directly to the receiver, or the transfer can be performed in accordance with the Protocol of the data network, in which blocks of the devices 50 can work together and act as repeaters data. Modern blocks of the devices 50 are able to transmit and receive RF signals via the antenna 37. When such dual capability of each block devices 50 can receive data from other device units 50 and to transmit these data to the receiver. The advantage of the Protocol of the data network is the fact that most remote from the receiver units of the devices 50 can be used closer to the receiver units of the devices to transmit their measured data in case of insurmountable interference. The disadvantage of the Protocol of the data network is a higher load of batteries and perhaps a greater exchange of signals. To mitigate the load on the battery system can be used in energy generation, which uses dynamic movement to generate electrical energy. This may eliminate or reduce the need for the battery pack 38.

Figure 5 shows a graphical diagram of a method of operation of the digging machine 90 for horizontal myrabo is OK equipped with blocks of the devices 50, according to this invention. Blocks devices 50 mounted on the stage of 70 on the respective cutting the nodes 10, with one end of each block devices 50 is in direct contact with the respective cutting unit 10.

When using the reference dual-axis accelerometer of the cutting element (specified above) it starts or controlled after the installation at the stage 70, i.e. before the initiation of rotation of the cutting head 93. When the signals of the two-axis accelerometer change under the influence of gravity, the cutting head 93 is rotated. Block devices 50, containing supporting dual-axis accelerometer of the cutting element, in this case transmits the signal to the receiver indicating that the cutter head 93 is rotated. The receiver, which can also be a transceiver then transmits a signal initiation in other blocks of the devices 50 to start collecting data. This is the stage 71 of initiation on the block diagram. It is clear that if the reference biaxial accelerometer is not used, it is possible to use any other suitable signal to detect or determine the rotation of the cutting head and for the initiation stage 71 data collection, as it is clear to experts in the field of technology.

The node 31 of the control panel, sensors block devices consumes enough energy on what I monitoring signals, transmitted from the receiver. When the signal initiation shall block devices 50, block devices 50 begins at stage 72 to collect the corresponding data.

The logic stage 72 of data collection for each of the sensors 32, 33, 34 different. For example, in a system using a reference accelerometer, as mentioned above, in addition to the accelerometers 52 block devices 50, signals are sent to the node 31 of the control panel, sensors, and the signal of the reference accelerometer is subtracted from the detected signal of the accelerometer of the cutting element. The temperature sensor 34 reads the temperature periodically with a given frequency. Magnetometer 33 continuously collects data from the magnetic field so that the magnetic field is measured with the passage of the magnets 16 in the hub 12 near magnetometer 33. When the measured magnetic field exceeds the specified limit, the node 31 of the control panel and the sensors registers count and calculates the instantaneous speed of rotation of the cutting unit 10 on the basis of the time elapsed since the last detection of the passage of the magnet 16. For example, the rotation speed can be calculated using the following equation : RPM=(n/T)60, where T is the time in seconds elapsed between the magnetic samples, and n is the number of magnets 16, are mounted in the hub 12. When the rotation speed of the cutting unit 10 is known, tomono to calculate the diameter of the cutting ring 15 in the form: D=(2rd)/R, where r is the rotation speed of the cutting head 93 (rpm), d is the distance of the cutting ring 15 in the Central plane from the center of the cutting head 93 and R is the measured speed of rotation of the cutting tool 10, calculated as stated above.

The data measured by the sensors are transmitted to the node 31 of the control panel, sensors, where they are encoded - 36 transceiver in the radio signals and transmitted on the stage 73 via the antenna 37. To conserve batteries, the transceiver is not constant. Data measured and recorded with predetermined time intervals, and the intervals of transmission are also selected with a frequency suitable for measurement of dynamic characteristics of cutting. The intervals of data acquisition and transmission are not fixed values, but they can be adjusted via programming sensitive devices. There is no single ideal data collection period, since the drilling of the tunnel vary greatly, based on the parameters, including the characteristics of the breed, the material of the cutting ring 15, the speed of the cutting load and capacity of the digging machine for horizontal workings. The flexibility inherent in a wireless system that allows you to change the conditions of data collection during drilling, in order to achieve the best resolution and most long life sensor is s.

In this embodiment, the block devices 50 selected accelerometers are ultra-compact three-axis linear accelerometer with low energy consumption, which includes the sensor element and the integrated interface, such as LIS302DL company STMicroelectronics Company, Geneva, Switzerland. The selected accelerometer capable of providing measurement data of acceleration for external use via the serial interface I2C/SPI. The selected temperature sensors 34 are thin-film resistive temperature sensors, for example, HEL-700 series Thin Film Platinum RTD Honeywell International, Inc. Morritson, NJ. The selected temperature sensors provide excellent linearity, stability and interchangeability. Selected magnetometers 33 are magnetically sensitive sensors, such as position sensors 2SS52M, Honeywell International, Inc.

The accelerometer is selected on the basis of its low cost, very low energy consumption, availability of digital interface and data handling capabilities. As an alternative solution you can use also designed for more acceleration, consuming more energy device, or you can use a dampening device to bring the values of acceleration in accordance with the sensor. The temperature sensor selected on the basis of the range of the temperatures and low energy consumption. However, these devices are interchangeable and you can use other temperature sensors as an alternative solution.

You can use different topologies due modular sensors for this system according to this invention.

For example, blocks of devices may be connected in mnogolinkovuyu network, so if the wireless transceiver 36 is not able to communicate directly with the receiver, the signal can be transmitted to the receiver through the other blocks of the devices 50. For example, was tested Protocol for mnogolampovoy chain with 20, 50 and 99 nodes, where each node contains or represents the block devices, and a single base station or receiver. During the test sites were located at a distance of about 1.5 feet (0.45 m) from each other and about 30 feet (10 meters) from the receiver. To improve the quality of service or capacity management, network reliability, network can be operated with a confirmation of receipt of messages, the node continues to transmit its signal until you return the confirmation message reception. Although the network topology is good for small number of nodes, communication becomes more complicated with increasing number of nodes up to 99, with, of course, complexity is increased by the use of acknowledgment.

In other realisitically network, wireless data network includes a peer-to-peer topology network in which wireless transceivers 36 communicate only directly with the receiver, that is, each node in the sensor sends signals directly to the base station. When performing tests each sensor node allocate a time interval within a window of communication. This allows each node to transmit the message to the receiver or base station with the minimum probability of collision with another transmitting node. For specialists in the art it is clear that the topology of the P2P provides much longer battery life, because the transceiver 36 do not need to perform reception/transmission. The topology of an ad hoc network can be used as a confirmation of receipt and in the confirmation of the acceptance. Tests have shown that the topology of the peer-to-peer network is more reliable than the topology mnogolampovoy network, in particular when a large number of nodes. However, it is clear that if a node or block devices 50 is in a dead zone of radio frequencies, such individual will perform poorly.

A very low rate of loss of signals from the packet was received with the topology peer-to-peer network with confirmation of receipt, so that each node can re-send the message up to 6 times if there is no acknowledgment from the receiver. When testing the network with 99 nodes with the topology of an ad hoc network with acknowledgement was received average signal loss from packages only 3.5%.

Tests showed that nagaragawa network has clear advantages reliability compared with the synchronized time-network peer-to-peer network when the number of nodes up to 50, but the cost of energy approximately 26 times higher. When the number of nodes is more than 50, the reliability of the network peer-to-peer network is still very good, while the work mnogolampovoy the network is significantly reduced. In addition, it can be expected that the problem of "dead zones"that reduce the reliability of networks peer-to-peer network, is reduced by moving the digging machine for horizontal tunnels.

Another alternative embodiment of the block devices or package 150 sensors for monitoring cutting tool 10 according to this invention is shown in Fig.6, with the outer housing 151 is depicted by the dashed lines. Block devices 150 is shown in an exploded isometric projection 7.

In this embodiment, it is assumed that the block devices 150, mounted on the chopping node 10 includes the same or similar sensors that block devices 50, described above. For example, in some embodiments, the execution not used reference dehose the second accelerometer for measuring during rotation of the cutting head 93 and provide a reference point for positioning of the sensors. Instead, the measurement of rotation and defining a reference point can be performed, for example, by locating two additional sensors in the system. One sensor is located on one of the drive motors (not illustrated) digging machine for horizontal tunnels for measuring the speed of rotation of the motor shaft. Measuring the speed of rotation can be performed by setting the magnet on the drive shaft and using a magnetometer or using an optical sensor, or using other well known from the prior art tools. By using information about a transmission ratio of the harvester and measure the speed of rotation of the motor shaft, you can determine the speed of rotation of the cutting head 93.

The second sensor may be provided to detect the passage of a magnet mounted on the cutting cylinder 93, using the magnetometer encased in a protective housing. Each of these two additional sensors transmit data to the base station.

Block devices 150 is designed for installation directly on the housing of the cutting element of the respective cutting unit 10. The advantage of direct installation is that block devices 150 does not interfere with the standard installation and removal of the cutting elements. The bracket 139 supports BL is for devices 150 on the chopping node 10 and may be mounted stationary or withdraw directly on the mounting parts 20L, 20R chassis (figure 2). For example, the bracket 139 may be welded to one of the mounting parts 20L, 20R of the housing or fixed by means of conventional fastening means.

The bracket 139 includes a bottom surface 140 that are located opposite each other, the side walls 141 and the retaining lug 142 having a locking hole 143. Protective spacer element 110 is located on the bottom surface 140 of the mounting console 139. Retaining bracket 132 secured near the proximal end of the mounting console 139, and the spring element 134 is fixed near the distal end of the mounting console 139.

The removed part of block devices 150 includes a base plate 160 having a distal shoulder 162 passing up the tab 164, which is intended to enter into engagement with the respective cutting unit 10. The distal end 162 supports the sensors of the cutting site, such as the accelerometer 32, magnetometer 33 and the sensor 34 and temperature. Sensors connected to node 31 of the control panel sensors, which receives sensor data and transmits them to the remote receiver, as indicated above.

The base plate 160 further includes a positioning tab 163, which has a size and is for entry into the locking hole 143 retaining lug 142. Saddle 172 pushes the base plate 160 in a desired position within the mounting konso and 139, and sliding the clamp 170 Rethimno is engaged with the retaining bracket 132. The base plate 160 secured to the outer housing 151 by means of several screws 174. The housing 151 includes a main portion 154 of the housing defining the opening 152 for battery, and the distal lever portion 152, which is superimposed on the distal shoulder 162 of the base plate 160. The distal lever portion 152 includes end-channel 158, which takes slidable protrusion 164, passing upward from the base plate 160.

You can see that the spring element 134, as stated above, is attached to the mounting console 139, includes angular lever portion 133, which abuts or is in engagement with the distal end of the arm 162 of the base plate. The spring element 134 has a size and are made so as to provide elastic force to the distal shoulder 162, so that the protrusion 164 of the base plate 160 is elastically pushed in the direction of the respective holder 14 of the cutting element (3). The elastic deformation of the distal shoulder 162 allows you to maintain constant contact protrusion 164 with the respective holder of the cutting element, even when the cutting element is subjected to wear in the range of wear.

The holder 175 battery is designed for holding one or more batteries 176 (there are two) to ensure power supply for the sensors 32, 33, 34, knot the 31 control panel, sensors and related electronic components via terminals 178.

In this embodiment, the outer housing 151 is made of a plastic material and the bracket 139 and the base plate 139 is made of metal, although you can use other materials, including, for example, composite materials or the like, it is Clear that the block devices 150 must be made of resistant materials to withstand harsh conditions near the cutting nodes 10. All electronic components of the sensors are enclosed in a housing with the use of vibration damping material surrounded by sensors. Metal base plate 160 secured to the outer housing 151, and the vertex of the outer coating is protected by a metal tip 164 on the base plate 160. The environment includes the Department 175 to enable replacement of the battery 176 in place. This unit 175 for batteries includes a switch to activate the batteries in parallel or sequentially, allowing to use both alkaline and lithium batteries.

In this embodiment, the removed portion of the block devices 150, including a base plate 160 (and different installed components on it) and the outer housing 151, can be removed by opening the sliding clamp 170 and moving the removed portion of the mounting console 139.

Although there have been shown and described illustrative embodiments, it is clear that the possibility of the NY various changes without departing from the idea and scope of the invention.

1. Device for monitoring the digging machine for horizontal tunnels, containing a number of cutting nodes having a rotating part mounted on a cutting head containing multiple blocks of devices, each of which is associated with one of multiple cutting sites and contains the distal end in contact with the respective cutting unit and contains multiple sensors for monitoring respective cutting unit, the control panel sensors connected with many sensors and contains a transceiver that is designed for wireless data transmission, as measured by the number of sensors in the remote receiver, and a power supply connected to the control panel sensors, for electricity, and means for mounting each set of blocks of devices on the respective cutting site.

2. The device according to claim 1, wherein the multiple sensors include an accelerometer, a temperature sensor and a sensor for measuring the speed of rotation of the rotating part corresponding to the cutting site.

3. The device according to claim 2, in which a sensor for measuring the speed of rotation of the rotating part includes a magnetometer.

4. The device according to claim 2, in which the accelerometer is a multi-axis accelerometer.

5. The device according to claim 2, in which multiple sensors additional content is at the second accelerometer.

6. The device according to claim 1, in which multiple devices contains at least one block devices for each of the multiple cutting sites.

7. The device according to claim 1, in which multiple blocks of devices contains two sets of instruments for each of the multiple cutting sites.

8. The device according to claim 1, in which multiple devices are connected to each other wirelessly in the network Protocol data.

9. The device according to claim 1, in which multiple devices are connected to each other wirelessly in an ad hoc network.

10. The device according to claim 1, in which multiple sensors are installed at the distal lever portion of the base plate and which further comprises a spring, clamped distal lever portion of the base plate in the direction of the respective cutting unit.

11. The device according to claim 1, in which the power supply contains a replaceable battery.

12. The device according to claim 1 in which the means for mounting each set of blocks of devices on the respective cutting site contains the bracket, fixedly mounted on the tunneling processor for horizontal tunnels and block devices includes a disposable part containing many sensors and controls sensors.

13. The device according to item 12, in which the removed part includes a base plate having a distal growling is ing part, supports multiple sensors, and which further comprises a spring element, clamped distal lever portion of the base plate in contact with the respective cutting unit.

14. The way the digging machine for horizontal tunnels with lots of cutting units, each of which contains a rotating part, which contains the following stages: providing multiple device units, each of which is associated with one of multiple cutting sites and contains multiple sensors for monitoring respective cutting unit, control panel, sensors, receiving data from multiple sensors, and power supply, while block devices directly in contact with the respective cutting unit; transmitting wirelessly received from multiple sensors data to the remote receiver; using the data transmitted to the remote receiver to control the operation of the digging machine for horizontal tunnels.

15. The method according to 14, wherein a set of sensors (accelerometer, temperature sensor and a sensor for measuring the speed of rotation of the rotating part corresponding to the cutting site.

16. The method according to item 15, in which a sensor for measuring the speed of rotation of the rotating part includes a magnetometer.

17. The method according to item 15, in which the accelerometer contains m is gooseboy accelerometer.

18. The method according to 14, wherein a set of block devices contains at least one block devices for each of the multiple cutting sites.

19. The method according to 14, in which multiple devices are connected wirelessly to the network Protocol data.

20. The method according to clause 15, further containing an elastic preload of the distal lever portion of the block devices in the direction of the respective cutting unit for holding the block devices in contact with the respective cutting unit.

21. Continuous miner for horizontal tunnels containing a rotating cutting head supporting rotatably a lot of cutting units, each of which includes a shaft support with the possibility of rotation of the cutter ring; multiple devices, each of which is connected with one of the many cutting nodes and contains the distal end in contact with the respective cutting unit and contains multiple sensors for monitoring respective cutting unit, the control panel sensors connected with many sensors and contains a transceiver that is designed for wireless data transmission, as measured by the number of sensors in the remote receiver, and a power supply connected to the control panel sensors for electric power supply, and a means to increase the population of each set of blocks of devices on the respective cutting site.

22. Continuous miner for workings on item 21, wherein a set of sensors (accelerometer, temperature sensor and a sensor for measuring the speed of rotation of the rotating part corresponding to the cutting site.

23. Continuous miner for horizontal tunnels under article 22, in which a sensor for measuring the speed of rotation of the rotating part includes a magnetometer.

24. Continuous miner for horizontal tunnels under article 22, in which the accelerometer includes a multi-axis accelerometer.

25. Continuous miner for workings on item 21, in which multiple devices contains at least one block devices for each of the multiple cutting sites.

26. Continuous miner for workings on item 21, in which multiple devices are connected to each other without wires in the Protocol of the data network or Protocol peer-to-peer network.

27. Continuous miner for workings on item 21, in which multiple sensors are installed at the distal lever portion of the base plate and which further comprises a spring, clamped distal lever portion of the base plate in the direction of the respective cutting unit.



 

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The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the system of automatic control and drive control of the Executive body of the front of the unit

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6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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3 dwg

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Tunneling method // 2259479

FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.

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4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

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2 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to a shield tunnel construction and can be used mainly for conducting small diameter tunnels

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 4 dwg

Tunneling method // 2259479

FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.

SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating ground with cutting tool; regulating kentledge pressure in rotor chamber and backfilling annular tubing space. Kentledge pressure is automatically adjusting with that of enclosing ground exerting pressure on shield case by means of membranes. The membranes are installed in shield case and are permanently subjected to actual enclosing ground pressure. Backfilling operation is performed through end part of shield case immediately after shield case movement.

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4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: tunnel construction, particularly devices to construct hydroelectric power plant floodgates and to build motor roads and rail roads in mountains.

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EFFECT: possibility to regulate electric current power and graphite mass to select necessary excavation regimes.

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