Method of stockpiling wastes into accumulator
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and utility plants and may be used for non-polluting stockpiling of various wastes. Horizontal piezometer is arranged at accumulator foundation. Then, dam is dumped. Cell-like forms are arranged on foundation surface to be filled with ash concrete. Thus, anti-filtration ash concrete shield of foundation is produced. Ash concrete shields are made on inner slopes of said dam by laying ash concrete bulk in layers. Then, gas-escape drainage is installed on anti-filtration shield to be built up as accumulator comes filled layer by layer. After dumping next layer of wastes, intermediate ash concrete layer is dumped thereon. Waterproof shield made from ash concrete is created on the surface of filled accumulator to be covered by soil reclamation layer.
EFFECT: improved environmental conditions.
The invention relates to energy & utilities and can be used for environmentally safe storage of different types of waste - solid waste, ash, sludge, etc.
There is a method of joint disposal of sewage sludge and solid waste, including the formation of the pit, the side walls and the base of which is covered with a waterproof screen and drainage, and construction of pressed pellets of solid waste wire frame filled with sediments of wastewater [RF patent №2115492, IPC6WV 1/00, published 20.07.1998].
The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of building a plant for briquetting of solid waste, the absence of exhaust gases from the store and the high cost of the screen from the plastic film.
The closest in technical essence to the proposed method is a process involving the formation of coatings on the drives, mainly household waste by dumping, layer-by-layer levelling, compacting and grading layers of coal ash, before sealing and layout top layer of coal ash on it stack equal to the mass of the compacted layer of activated sludge and mixed with ash, for example, by milling [RF patent №2151235, IPC7EV 7/06, 3/16, W 1/00, published 20.06.2000].
The disadvantage of this method is the low resistance to wind and water erosion, which leads to environmental pollution.
The technical result of the invention is the reduction of environmental pollution in the storage of household and ash wastes, in particular, eliminates the dusting otsypannoy ash and pollution of groundwater.
The technical result is achieved in that in the method of waste disposal in the drive, mainly household, including filling, layer-by-layer levelling, compaction and layout of the filled layers according to the invention at the base of the drive set horizontal piezometer, then occiput tailings dam, on the surface of the base of the scaffolding in the form of cells that fill Solomona, so get cutoff Solovetsky screen base, on the inner slopes of the tailings dam perform Solomonia screens, putting ash mass in layers, then on membrane screen of the base install suction drains and then increase them as a layer filling the drive, after dumping another layer of household waste on its surface occiput intermediate layer of ash, and on the surface of the filled drive create hydroisolation the initial screen, made of Solomona, over which is applied a soil recultivation layer.
Figure 1 shows a cross section of the drive; figure 2 - is a plan of the drive.
The method is as follows.
At the base of the drive to establish horizontal piezometer 1 to control the shielding effect of the screen, followed occiput from local soil tailings dam 2, then on the basis of 3 set of wooden formwork in the form of cells of 5×5 m, which is not extracted and further performs the functions of sedimentary seams (see figure 2). The cells are then pour Solomona prepared on the storage area in avtobetonomikser using the ash, which is characterized by a high content of free calcium oxide and the presence of clay minerals, in consequence of which has such an important feature as the ability to cementation when wet. The possibility of acquiring hardening ashes in the ratio of water in the range from 1:0.4 to 1:1.5 to low values of permeability (A·10-5÷A·10-7and high mechanical strength (2,7 MPa). So get cutoff Solovetsky screen 4, which consists of two layers of thickness 0.15 m; approximate ratio (by weight) of dry ash and water loaded in automatonlike, can be assigned to 1:1. Technology in the execution Solomonovo screen on the inner slopes of the dam 5 accept under the scheme, providing layer-by-layer stacking hardening vodonaevoi mixture along the slope in a wooden or metal climbing formwork. After creating impervious Solomonic screens of the base and the inner slopes of the tailings dam on the screen of the base install suction drains 6, which provide access to the atmosphere and control the composition of the gases formed by the decomposition of organic material in the layers of waste, and then increase them as a layer filling the drive. For the better preservation of the layers of waste occiput intermediate layers 7 of ash thickness 0.25 m; approximately the thickness of a layer of waste 8 is equal to 1 M. After filling the drive up to the design elevation create surface waterproofing Solovetsky screen 9 of a thickness of 0.3 m, over which is applied a soil recultivation layer 10 with a thickness of 0.2 m
Precipitation received at the surface of the embankment during construction, accumulate in the voids of the mound and are preserved in it. After the erection of the mound of waste at full height entrance of precipitation prevents surface waterproofing solomyanny the screen.
The advantage of the proposed method in comparison with the known is the fact that the use of Solomona as impervious screen on the establishment and sides of the drive, as well as the surface of the waterproofing of the screen provides a more secure warehousing and storage waste, excluding dusting otsypannoy ash. The proposed method allows you to virtually eliminate the pollution of the environment, particularly groundwater. This is achieved by reducing the cost of constructed memory.
The storage of waste in storage, mainly household, including filling, layer-by-layer levelling, compaction and layout of the filled layers, characterized in that the base drive install horizontal piezometer, then occiput tailings dam, on the surface of the base of the scaffolding in the form of cells that fill Solomona, so get cutoff Solovetsky screen base, on the inner slopes of the tailings dam perform Solomonia screens, putting ash mass in layers, then on membrane screen of the base install suction drains and then increase them as a layer filling the drive, after pouring the next layer of waste on its surface occiput the intermediate layer of ash, and on the surface of the filled drive waterproofing create a screen made of Solomona, over which is applied the ground recultivation the hydrated layer.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for burial of harmful and toxic wastes, in particular, chrome-containing ones. The method to bury chrome-containing wastes includes combination and layerwise refinement of a waste massif onto an upper insulation layer, a working layer, a protective adsorption layer, a lower insulation layer. The protective adsorption layer is represented by non-toxic industrial vegetable wastes, such as lignin, husks or chips. Insulation layers are industrial wastes of mineral origin, for instance, a lime cake (a mineral waste of sugar production) or slag of a waste incineration plant with an adsorption capacity by a chrome ion of at least 0.56 mg/g and low filtration coefficient. The ratio between the height of adsorption layer and the height of the lower insulation layer must make from 3:1 to 4:1.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to minimise carryover of toxic chrome ions from a massif of a chrome-containing waste, their negative impact to environment and a landfill body, to eliminate the necessity to use containers and warehouses for preliminary stacking and accumulation of huge masses of non-toxic wastes in areas of their occurrence, to increase duration of landfill operation.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 25 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to processing and storing of solid domestic wastes and may be used in communal services for disposal, transportation and burial of solid domestic wastes. Proposed method comprises briquetting of solid wastes, their transportation to location of burial, filling underground cavities via borehole extending to surface and bridging said borehole by backfill material. Casing is fitted in borehole. Briquetting is carried out with the help of device wherein solid domestic wastes are compacted and arranged in metal container made up of two hinged thin-wall semi-cylinders to be carried to location of burial Filled borehole is bridged by backfill material to drill new borehole above underfilled underground cavity whereto frame with mechanisms and lift crane for described cycle to be repeated unless exhausted gas deposit is completely filled.
EFFECT: expanded operating performances due to reuse of briquette containers.
8 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological reclamation of refuse tips and to methods of environmental protection against contamination by solid household wastes and may be used for afforestation. Refuse tip is inspected, cleaned of detected metal subjects, tip surface is leveled and 20 cm-thick layer of humus is applied on garbage. Then, 10 cm-thick layers of potentially fertile soil is applied thereon. Soil is compacted, disked, harrowed, herbaceous and lignosa vegetation are sown and filtrate collection channel is arranged along site perimetre.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and lower labor input.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to oil industry, particularly, to method of hydrocarbons-containing wastes disposal and recovery of mineral resources as well as to device to this end. In compliance with proposed method, packing material is fed via stowing oriented well into free subsurface space. After filling, said space is shut down. Proposed device comprises unit for grinding of fed packing material, mixer of ground packing material with water, pump station and pipeline with gate valve for feeding pulp into free subsurface space.
EFFECT: neutralisation of industrial and household wastes, better ecology.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: planting method involves formation of the substrate from decomposing wastes at the surface of the wetlands and bedding plants. Planting stocks is carried out on the surface of substrate layer of solid domestic wastes. Root system of stocks is powdered with fertile soil, and an elevation is formed. Alternatively, planting stocks can be carried out in deepenings made in a layer of the substrate for the stock root system of 15-30 cm tall. After that, the root system of plants is powdered with fertile soil. Layer of the substrate of domestic wastes is formed on the selected area of surface of wetlands with height of 0.5-2.5 m which is sufficient for passage of track machines on the layer of wastes. For penetration of the roots of plants stocks into the layer of wastes and moisture supply to the roots of stocks at least one hole is made at a depth of 0.5-1.5 m in a layer of waste. After that, part of the roots of the stock is placed in the hole made in the layer of household wastes.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the survival rate of stocks on wetlands that can improve ecological purity of landscapes and effectiveness of domestic wastes disposal.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to disposal of organic wastes directly at location of their accumulation or formation, particularly, on solid household wastes polygons. Proposed polygon comprises foundation and band erected thereon from wastes, forest shelter belt arranged around the polygon at no more than 50 m therefrom and of width not smaller than 10 m, as well as natural or artificial water-resisting bed jointed with the system of drainage pipes communicated by collector wherefrom said wastes are fed in processing apparatus. Artificial pyramid-shaped bank of wastes is erected with faces covered by vegetable layer of filled-up ground. Bank is reinforced by horizontal intermediate isolation layers inclined layers made from, for example, processed scrap metal wastes to make meshes or grid. Isolation layers on bank top layers are cross-inclined to help retain garbage trucks and other equipment of polygon.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of disposal and recovery.
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: method involves installation in an immediate proximity from inflammable reservoirs and/or storages, in a water-filled natural impounded body and/or artificial foundation pit, a suction dredge used to supply a pulp made of mixed water and nonflammable disperse grounds from a body bottom and coast and/or a foundation pit bottom and borders by a branched quick-assembled pipeline system presented by pulp lines; a protective layer of the disperse grounds is deposited on a surface of potential or actual seats of fire; a solid mass of combustible materials is soaked with barring oxygen thereto simultaneously. The pulp lines are lengthened as the protective layer is formed, and simultaneously cavities formed by ignition of combustible materials are washed away. The pulp lines are lengthened both in frontal, and in flange directions with disassembling the pipes of the pre-assembled branches of the pipeline system which are not used for fire suppression, and their transmitting onto new fire fighting areas.
EFFECT: invention provides prevention of self-ignition of the inflammable combustible materials during drought, fast fire extinguishing in case of their ignition, and also organic fuel preservation.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and reclamation. The method includes removal of segregated wastes outside the residential area and their stacking. At the same time initially a layer of segregated domestic wastes is formed on the surface of marsh lands. Then a layer of wood ashes is formed on the surface of the wastes layer with height of 0.2-1.0 cm, and then the third layer is applied from fertile land with capacity of 5-15 cm, where grasses are sown with high generative productivity, for instance, leguminous plants - yellow sweet clover, Hungarian sainfoin, which assist in saturation of wastes and soil with nitrogen and reduction of marsh lands acidity.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to improve marsh lands with simultaneous usage of marsh lands.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to collection and recovery of solid household wastes and other garbage, as well as to environmental protection. Proposed method comprises wastes sorting, clearing them outside residential block and placing. Recovery comprises producing layered substrate to grow plants in forming several uniform-height layers on surface of low-land areas with water-saturated soil, namely, layers of wastes, second porous layer of minced indecomposable wastes, and third surface layer of fertile soil. Then, willow cuttings are planted out in prepared substrate in bores made for entire height of substrate layers. Plants extract harmful elements from soil to reduce their concentration in time.
EFFECT: ruling out wastes blowing in wind, facilitating air cleaning.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and operation of dumps and landfills. The method consists in the fact that upper parts of previously formed dump frame and surface of cutback section or section cleaned from solid waste are exposed to vertical planning, and incline is made towards the cutback or cleaned section. Further a dam is erected along the bottom contour of the planned cutback or cleaned section with the height of 0.5 m higher than the level of the internal dump man-induced aquifer from soils of cutback or cleaned section layout. An antifiltering screen is erected along the planned surface of the dump body and the cutback or cleaned section, the inner slope and top of the dam, and the screen forms the internal dump filtrate accumulator equipped with drainage pipes laid along the inner slope of the dam with an incline towards the head pipe that connects drainage pipes with the external reservoir of the filtrate accumulator.
EFFECT: invention may be used to safely stock wastes and to reduce their negative effect at environment components due to reconstruction of existing dumps and their conversion into engineering structures.
FIELD: treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field of treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes, in particular, to joint stacking of domestic solid waste products and the bioadditives produced on the basis of the settling sewage, the surplus active sludge of sewage treatment plants and the filling agents - composts from the factories for the domestic solid wastes processing. The technical result is an increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes and increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination. The method includes introduction of the bioadditives produced on the base of a mix of sludge of waste waters of the sewage treatment plants and composts from a factory on processing of the domestic solid wastes. At introduction of bioadditives in amount of 5-7 % of the total mass of the placed waste products, the contamination of which by microflora - decomposer makes 108 - 1010 cells/g. Intensification of the process of decomposition of organic components of placed waste products takes place and due to that increased their sedimentation. At that the value of sedimentation of the layers of the placed waste products is determined by formula: , where Hsed - a value of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; h - initial value of height of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; τ - time of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in day; Т - time constant of the process of sedimentation of the layers of the placed solid domestic solid wastes, in days. The time of a maximum sedimentation is determined by the formula: t = 3 ·T, where t - time during which the sedimentation process falls into a zone of 5 % from the value of maximum sedimentation of the layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, that is the time of termination of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of the introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes, increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination.
FIELD: equipment for neutralizing range proving grounds for storage of solid domestic wastes by extracting of biogas for further utilization thereof.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has collector, perforated gas collecting pipes, condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler, switching-off device, conveyance pipeline, and compressor station. Branches of perforated gas collecting pipes are connected to collector through flexible inserts. Stoppers are located at free ends of gas collecting pipes and collector. Condensate collector, flow rate meter, sampler and switching-off device are mounted on collector which is connected by conveyance pipeline through compressor station to cogenerator. Conveyance pipeline is equipped with compressed gas outlet.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and increased efficiency of biogas collecting apparatus.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: dumping solid waste.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises trenching during the period of the beginning of soil freezing and laying heat and hydraulic insulation on the trench bottom and over the trenches during the period of the beginning of defrosting soils. The trenches are then filled with solid waste, and during the next period of freezing, the trenches filled with solid waste are trenched from both sides.
EFFECT: improved environmental protection.
FIELD: protection of environment, in particular, disinfection of industrial and domestic dumps, including shaft rock dumps and piles of other kinds.
SUBSTANCE: method involves leveling dump surface; placing onto leveled dump surface the following materials: clay in volume sufficient for constructing of low-permeable 0.5 m thick shield; sand in volume sufficient for constructing of drainage and leveling layers of 0.5-0.6 thickness; clay layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; bird dung layer kept for at least one year and meeting sanitary and microbiological norms, said bird dung layer having thickness of at least 0.1 m; providing biological recultivation process, with top layer being preliminarily mixed through depth of 0.3 m.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in disinfecting of various kinds of dumps.
FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: methods for temporary or constant disposal of sewage water sediment, in particular, for preservation of toxic bottom oil sludge and other kinds of sludge from storage pools in oil refining and chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sequentially laying and compacting water-and-oil impermeable screen formed from drilling sludge and wastes which had been preliminarily dehydrated to residual moisture content of 5-30%; covering said sludge and wastes with water-and-oil impermeable screen, compacting, spilling layer of soil-plant ground thereon and planting. Dehydration of said sludge and wastes to residual moisture content is provided by evaporation in open air.
EFFECT: simplified disposal of toxic industrial wastes.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: the invention refers to insulating materials.
SUBSTANCE: it may be used at burial places of toxic industry wastes of the third and the fourth degree of danger including solid domestic wastes. The material contains clay, sediment of staked lime or sludge of chemical water purification in quality of used lime waste material, bottom, floating oil-slime or soil polluted with mineral oils in quality of oil-slime at the following content of components, mass%: clay- 1-60, used lime waste- 15-40, oil-slime- 25-50.
EFFECT: allows to improve quality of insulating material and expand resources of raw materials.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in mixing of the "tuilings" of the concentrating mill with carbonates with a subsequent storage of them without construction of a dam. Crumbs of brucite, as well as products of wood chemical processing of wood - lining are additionally introduced in the mixing, the place of storage is coated with a layer of an isolating water-proof film, 2 mm thick, withstanding without any rupture the action of the wheeled and caterpillar machinery. Shower and snowmelt waters are discharged by a water - way trench to the underlying area of the valley with a subsequent cleaning of them.
EFFECT: reduced danger of contamination of the ecosystems in the process of assimilation of mineral resources.
FIELD: environmental protection; methods of the environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the environmental protection, in particular, to the methods of decrease of the soil, ground and atmosphere pollution in the places of formation of the uncivilized dumps of the domestic and the industrial wastes and the adjoined territories and may be used at realization of the nature- protective and nature conservation measures. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and quality of the environmental protection: the soils, the ground and the aerosphere from pollution caused by the domestic and industrial wastes at liquidation of the uncivilized dumps due to prevention of propagation of contaminants on the territory adjacent to the dumps, permeation into the ground and the underground water-carrying layers and propagation in the air. The substance of the invention consists that prior to the beginning of the process of the dumps liquidation conduct the pilot survey of the territory abutting to the uncivilized dump and determine the character and the degree of pollution of the soils and the deep ground layers, as well as the availability and the parameters of the water-carrying layer; then they form the protective barrier around the dump in the soil and on the surface; at that in the soil the protective barrier is made to the depth of the of the penetrated pollution, and at availability of the water-carrying layer - up to the water confining layer, and on the surface - up to the height equal to the height of the dump. Then conduct removal of the wastes by their loading with the help of the loading mechanisms into the garbage trucks with the subsequent transportation to the garbage-processing works or to the civilized polygon of the solid wastes. Then the polluted soils and the ground of the dump territory is cut and removed into the depth of the pollution and their transportation to the special polygon remote from the habitation settlements, the rivers and basins for stacking, or to the operational civilized polygon of the solid waste for utilization as the intermediate insulating layer. Then the upper part of the indicated barrier is removed.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and quality of environmental protection.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: environmental protection; decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the environmental protection, in particular, to the decontamination of the solid domestic and industrial wastes and may be used for collecting and withdrawing of the biogas formed in the depth of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW) polygon. The technical result of the invention is expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the DIW and decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment due to reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts in the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap. For this purpose on the polygon of the solid domestic and industrial wastes perform the preparation of the foundation, mounting of the system of the vertical gaseous drain from the net of the located on the polygon area wells with the perforated walls and the external filtrating earth-bank formed with the help of the sliding sheathing, the layer-by-layer placing of the wastes with the intermediate insulating layers, raising the wells in height of each layer of scrap; withdrawal of the biogas from the wells of the vertical gaseous drain is realized using the tubular drains of the horizontal drainage in the foundation of the DIW polygon. At that the lower links of the tubes of the wells of the of the vertical gaseous drain connect with the drainage wells of the horizontal tubular drains, and the upper ends of the wells of the vertical gaseous drainage shut by the plugs, which are installed after each cycle of the raise on the upper end of the sliding sheathing.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities at degassing of the domestic and industrial wastes (DIW), decreasing of the harmful effect on the environment, reduction of the harmful biogas outbursts into the air and withdrawal of the biogas for utilization at the DIW polygon operation simultaneously with allocation of the scrap.
3 cl, 1 dwg