Method of surface watering
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, anti-helminth agents piperazin or diethyldiamine are applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.
EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress pathogenic helminths in watering water.
The present invention relates to irrigation, and more specifically to methods of surface irrigation wastewater.
The known method of furrow irrigation by cutting irrigation furrows and supply of water in them, described in the book: Sthaviravada and other Workshop on agricultural drainage. - M.: Kolos. 1970. P.30-31.
The disadvantage of this method of irrigation is lost to evaporation from the water surface and slope of the furrow.
The closest in technical essence and purpose of the proposed technical solution is the method of surface irrigation by processing strips the surface of the irrigated plot with simultaneous coating of synthetic film, submission under the film of irrigation water that is described in patent No. 2365095. IPC A01G 25/00 (2006.01), EN published in bull. No. 24, 27.08.2009.
In the way there is no possibility of suppression in irrigation water pathogenic helminths.
The aim of the invention is to expand the functional capabilities of the irrigation system by creating conditions for suppression in irrigation water pathogenic worms.
This goal is achieved by the fact that before coating strips of the surface irrigated area synthetic film on part of the surface of the film facing the heads of the bands of the surface irrigated area, put drugs - piperazine or diethylenediamine.
For implementing the method loosened environments is their part and seal the sides of the strips of the surface irrigated area. Each band covers a synthetic film, the edges of which are buried in the soil. Before coating strips on part of the surface of the film facing the heads of the bands of the surface irrigated area, are a means of combating weeds, piperazine (diethylenediamine). Then under the film serves irrigation water. The drug is dissolved in the irrigation water and suppresses the worms.
The drug is applied to the film in the form of granules or powder encapsulated adhesive polymer hydrogels based on N-vinylpyrrolidone, polyamines, cellulose. On tape, the drug can be applied in two steps. In the first stage, on film put a layer of sticky polymer hydrogel, and then the particles of the drug. Polymer hydrogels do not have a negative impact on the quality of irrigation water, plants, soil and do not reduce the effectiveness of deworming drugs. The length of the zone of deposition of the drug in the head band take no more than 1/3 of the length of the irrigation strip. Increasing the length of the zone of application of the drug for more than 1/3 reduces the uniformity of distribution of the drug along the length of the irrigation strip. Reducing the length of the zone of application of the drug increases the complexity of setting dispensers.
The rate of the drug is set by reference to the normative literature, in accordance with the kind and amount of pathogenic helminth. To configure the feed is of Satarov the rate of the drug in units - % concentration in irrigation water are converted to units of pounds per irrigated strip. The conversion performed by the formula:n=(M·a·l·s)/1000000wherenthe rate of the drug, kg/lane;M- irrigation rate, m3/ha;and- the distance between the axes of irrigation bands, m;l- the length of the irrigation strip, m; s is the concentration of drug in irrigation water, %. For example, the concentration of piperazine in irrigation water 3% by suppression of pinworms. Irrigation rate - 1200 m3/ha. the distance between the axes of irrigation strips length 89 m is 0.6 m Feed dispensers set up by the consumption of the drug (1200·89·0.6·3)/1000000, kg/lane.
The length of irrigation bands take from 75 to 120 m Simultaneously with the processing of the irrigation strip covered synthetic film, the longitudinal edges of which are buried in the soil. The edges of the film in the minds of irrigation strips fixed on the underground culverts distribution pipes. In the head irrigation lanes flow rate of 0.25 l/s served under the pressure of the water. The magnitude of the pressure is taken in the range 0.4-0.6 m of the water column (0.04-0.06 ATM). When the pressure is less than 0.4 m of water. senior dramatically reduces the speed of water moving along the length of the irrigation strip. When the pressure of more than 0.6 m of water. Art. a possible breach of synthetic films.
The width of the irrigation bands take in the range from 0.2 to 0.4 m With a width of irrigated strip less than 0.2 m increases substantially about aiternate irrigation by reducing the area of absorption of irrigation water. If the width of the irrigated strip more than 0.4 m, the formation of a misbehaving flow and water erosion of soils.
As a synthetic film is rational to apply opaque reclamation film thickness of 120-150 microns.
The proposed method of irrigation strip surface irrigated area extends the functionality of the method-analogue by applying an anthelminthic drugs, piperazine or diethylenediamine
on the part of the surface of the film facing the heads of the bands of the surface irrigated area, providing suppression of pathogenic helminths in waste irrigation water and contamination of soil.
Irrigation method, comprising processing strips the surface irrigated area, cover bands synthetic film and submission under the film of irrigation water, characterized in that the front cover bands surface irrigated area synthetic film on part of the surface of the film facing the heads of the bands of the surface irrigated area, put drugs - piperazine or diethylenediamine.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, weed control agents sodium trichloroacetate or treflan are applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.
EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress weeds in rows of crops.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, a pest control agent Trichlorfon is applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.
EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress crop pests.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, antimycotic agents zineb or polycarbacin are applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.
EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress pathogenic mycotic microflora for crops.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of strips of an irrigated area surface, covering of strips with a synthetic film and supply of watering water under the film. Prior to coating of irrigated area surface strips with a synthetic film, antibacterial preparations of benzolsulfatechloroamine-sodium or N-Dichloro-para-carboxybenzolsulfamide are applied on a part of the film surface. The film surface faces heads of irrigated area surface strips.
EFFECT: technology will make it possible to expand functional capabilities of watering by development of conditions to suppress pathogenic microflora in watering water.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a pumping station, a pressure distribution pipeline, a transport truck with a drum, a flexible irrigation pipe from the articulated sections with racks with sprinkling devices for positional irrigation of agricultural crops. The flexible irrigation pipe after irrigation is wound on a drum, without dismantling to sections. The barrels of the sprinkling devices are folded automatically, with each having a flexible element in its bottom. The flexible element is mounted on an adapter-hydrant of the irrigation pipe and secured on it with combined eye lugs and a finger. At the upper part of the barrel of the sprinkling device two supports with pushers are pivotally mounted. The pushers are attached to the protective casing. The casing is automatically thrust over the sprinkling device when reeling the irrigation pipe and yanking the supports.
EFFECT: this design enables to reduce irrigation erosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method involves loosening the soil to a predetermined depth. At that, loosening the soil is carried out by air flows created by the system of perforated pipes laid to a given depth.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of tillage, to reduce energy consumption due to reducing metal consumption and reducing the number of machines for soil treatment.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture and reclamation. The method involves planting of forest belts along the edges of the irrigated area, the irrigated area watering via irrigation furrows traced along the stationary beds edges with trenches filled with vegetal remains arranged in the middle of the beds. The trenches are filled with a mixture of charcoal and charred wood, manure and vegetal remains; in some beds rows of fruit trees and bushes are planted. The spacing between the trees is selected so that the shading they ensure does not impair photosynthesis processes in the plants grown in the beds, at the same time preventing the plants burning with sun rays. The system contains an irrigation source, an undershoot water wheel, a drip line with microhydrants for supply of water into the irrigation furrows located along the stationary beds edges. In the middle of the beds there are trenches with vegetal remains arranged with forest belts planted along the edges. Mounted on the undershoot water wheel is a rotary filter. Under the bucket located at the undershoot water wheel rotation apex point there is a tray installed connected, via the to pressure pipe, the cock mounted on the inlet of the drip line with microhydrants for supply of water into the irrigation furrows. The trenches arranged in the middle of the stationary beds are filled with a mixture of charcoal and charred wood, manure and vegetal remains. In some beds there are fruit tree and bush belts planted.
EFFECT: invention enables decrease of greenhouse gas inflow from the soil into the atmosphere, improvement of soil aeration, soil subsurface stratum microclimate, atmospheric moisture condensation into the soil, creation of an area with enhanced moisture absorption capacity within the bed, soil flora and fauna vital activities invigoration, enhancement of soil fertility and the cultivated crops yielding capacity.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to a system of watering the plants. Passive watering can contains a tube of cellophane with wetted material placed inside. One end of the wetted material is placed in the reservoir, and another - on the ground. The tube is equipped with additional cellophane tubes placed in it. The additional tubes are placed parallel to each other. In each additional tube wetted material is placed.
EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to create irrigation system that does not require connection to the pumping system and has the possibility of more even water supply of irrigation areas.
SUBSTANCE: irrigation system includes a water source, the device of pulsed water supply, distribution pipeline and irrigation pipeline with drainage outlets. The drainage outlets are made in the form of birecurvate tubules. One end of the birecurvate tubes is connected to the irrigation pipeline across its upper surface. The other end of birecurvate tubes is fixed vertically at a height exceeding the height of the upper surface of the irrigation pipeline. The second end of the birecurvate tubes is provided with branch pipe mounted to be movable in the vertical plane.
EFFECT: design enables to ensure an even distribution of water between the irrigated pipelines along their length and uniform wetting of irrigated area.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler includes a cylindrical body and a lid. The cylindrical body comprises slotted turnouts in the middle part. In the lid opening a finely divided spray is set. Annular grooves are made on the inner surface of the body, above and below the slotted turnouts. In the annular grooves O-rings are placed. The lid of the sprinkler has a ring bearing collar. The annular bearing shoulder comes up inside the body to the upper ring groove. In the lower part of the body a mechanism of switching modes of operation of the sprinkler is placed. The mechanism of switching modes of operation of a sprinkler consists of locking drum commensurate with the inner diameter of the body with O-rings coming into the grooves. At the bottom of the locking drum holes are made. In the center of the locking drum a lead-trough tube is mounted with a spring mounted on it. The spring passes through the hole in the lid to its outer surface. The finely divided spray consists of a deflector with a calibrated channel and the sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface. The deflector with a calibrated groove is fixed by screwed connection in the upper part of the tube of the locking drum at the exit of the body. The sparger of the stream with a spiral groove on the surface has a diameter of the deflector channel, and installed with a bracket on the body lid at the exit of the deflector coaxially with it.
EFFECT: design enables to mechanise switching of working modes of sprinkler and flushing of the finely divided sprinkler.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: forestry, particularly for fighting fires in high-capacity and medium-capacity peat beds.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes a number of water drainage channels with control-and-shutoff valves, manifold with drain lines connected thereto and intercepting channel located above drained peat bed and communicated with water inlet. Intercepting channel is provided with control-and-shutoff means to accumulate surface water flow and to create water reserve. Intercepting channel is connected with manifold head part by means of pipeline having valve gate. Manifold is provided with movable partition. Intercepting channel has antifiltering shield.
EFFECT: possibility of fire localization without operation stoppage and without underflooding surrounding territories and, as result, reduced economic losses.
FIELD: amelioration and water supply system.
SUBSTANCE: ameliorative system has irrigation, water supplying systems and discharge systems, water intake and detachable backwater regulating constructions. Ameliorative system is equipped with flexible collecting tanks-enclosures connected with drainage systems-sedimentation tanks equipped with membranes-type filters and moistener-type filters. Cassette filters are arranged along perimeter of massif to be irrigated to provide for delivery of clean water into water intake. Water supplying systems are furnished with closure system for preventing water evaporation and with metrological analyzers adapted for determining quality of inflow water delivered into water intake and of discharge water.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by avoiding violation to ecological balance of basic agricultural landscape.
FIELD: agricultural amelioration.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting furrows by means of tillage tool; supplying water or liquid fertilizer into furrow and covering furrow with soil; before plowing, providing deep plowing of field to be irrigated to 1.1-1.4 m depth, with space between adjacent plowing zones being within the range of 1.1-1.4 m; providing direction of tillage during plowing within the range of 15-45 deg with respect to following plowing directions during forming of furrows by means of tillage tool. Water or liquid fertilizer is supplied by flooding or during advancement of mobile unit equipped with vessel for transportation and distribution of said liquids.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of fertilizers applied, reduced power consumption, simplified labor management and increased ecological safety of animal sewage water and solved organic fertilizers applied into soil.
FIELD: irrigation amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: injector has water outlet, porous casing with stopper at lower end and replaceable porous member positioned in casing and in stopper. Replaceable porous member is made in the form of parts of cylinder joined to one another with their diametrical surfaces. Channels are formed on cylindrical surface of each cylindrical part. Upon joining of cylindrical parts along cylinder, channels define vertical channels. Cylinder may have one, two or three detachment surfaces. Helical channels are formed on cylindrical parts of replaceable porous member. Helical channel pitches in parts of cylinder to be joined are not multiple one another. Water outlet is equipped with float valve arranged inside water outlet above pressure suppressing chamber. Stopper at lower end of porous casing is equipped with accumulating chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to selective dispensing of water to plant roots.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: irrigated agriculture, in particular, equipment used for watering of perennial plants.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing and cover with inlet and outlet branch pipes, respectively, throttle and elastic balancing member with openings. Throttle is made in the form of hollow biconcave lens and positioned in casing cavity above elastic balancing member. Spherical segment-shaped slot is formed in cover body below inlet branch pipe. Radius of spherical part of said slot is equal to radius of throttle lens spherical part. Similar slot is formed in bottom part of casing above inlet branch pipe. Radius of said slot is greater than radius of spherical part of throttle biconcave lens part by value equal to thickness of balancing member. Channels are formed on casing bottom part surface and on slot surface to define spiral branches. Holes are made on peripheral part of elastic balancing member.
EFFECT: simplified construction and improved watering quality.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing equipped with inlet and outlet openings, main float-type regulating members and additional regulating member, said members being located inside casing. Main float-type regulating member is made as biconcave lens formed in spherical layer of waterproof material having density below 1 t/m3. Additional regulating member is made in the form of elastic membrane with central opening. Protrusions made as parts of spherical segments are disposed in casing cavity below inlet opening and above outlet opening. Radius of upper protrusion spherical part is equal to radius of spherical part of biconcave lens. Radius of lower protrusion spherical part is less than radius of spherical part of biconcave lens by value equal to thickness of elastic membrane. Radial channels are formed in apex part of lower protrusion. Apparatus provides for normal operation in the process of drop irrigation with water without preliminary cleaning thereof.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, uniform and high-quality irrigation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: irrigation equipment mounted on mobile sprinkler units for drop or fine-dispersion sprinkling systems.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has frame made in the form of three-dimensional construction comprising pipes mounted on vehicle equipped with pumping station and intake hose. Flexible water supply pipeline with sprinkler apparatuses is fixed on frame by means of cables. Water supply pipeline is made sectioned. Each section has segment and flanges connected with one another by means of carrier member made in the form of bent C-shaped profile or rolled part. Sections are connected with one another through adapter member made in the form of hollow spherical shell with disk arranged in meridian plane and with the help of fastening means. Adapter member is arranged in cavities at inlet end and at outlet end of adjacent segments of flexible water supply pipeline. Fastening means are made in the form of pins inserted into axially aligned openings of flanges and disks. Adapter member disk is connected through cable with frame of three-dimensional construction.
EFFECT: simplified construction, reduced metal usage, increased efficiency and improved distribution of artificial precipitation along flexible water supply pipeline.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agricultural irrigation equipment used in mobile sprinkler units.
SUBSTANCE: boom-type sprinkler unit has frame made in the form of three-dimensional construction composed of pipes and mounted on vehicle equipped with pumping unit. Flexible water pipeline with sprinkling apparatuses is secured on frame by means of cables. Flexible water pipeline is made sectioned. Each section has flexible pipeline segment positioned on carrier member made in the form of pair of longitudinal supports having bent C-shaped profile and flat rings at their end portions. Wide strips of pair of bent C-shaped profile are arranged at an angle to horizontal plane and perpendicular to one another. Said profiles define, in conjunction with rings, trough of carrier member. Adjacent carrier members are connected with one another by means of connecting parts through spacer bushings. One, two or three spacer bushings are made in the form of brackets for connecting cable ends to join with frame. Ends of flexible pipeline segments are mutually joined via transition portion made in the form of bushing. Ends of transition member have conical entrance portions. Annular portion formed on transition member surface is joined with ends of adjacent segments and pairs of yokes on their surface. Cable ends joining brackets are equipped with eye ring receiving slots and mounting openings. Diameter of carrier member rings exceeds outer diameter of transition member by 1.5-1.9 times.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: irrigation systems used for automatic watering of plants on restricted area plots.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.