Method to recognise leather and leather-like materials

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: at the first stage the organoleptic analysis of tested samples is carried out. At the second stage the microscopic analysis of the material structure is carried out. At the third stage the chemical analysis of the tested samples is carried out by means of their treatment with an organic dissolvent selected from the group: butyl ether of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol at the ratio of sample-dissolvent equal to 1:(10-15) at the boiling temperature of the selected dissolvent for 20-30 minutes. If a sample has dissolved fully, the conclusion is made that is pertains to leather-like materials, and if a sample has not dissolved, it is identified as leather.

EFFECT: accurate and reliable recognition of leather from leather-like materials.

2 cl, 3 ex

 

The invention relates to light industry, and is intended to identify the natural leather and recognition from their leather imitation materials.

Synthetic leather or artificial leather (leather imitation materials), production of which every year more and more improved, it is very difficult to distinguish from genuine leather, especially uneducated in such matters to the consumer. But it is no secret that leather is less durable, less environmentally friendly and, accordingly, its cost is much lower, therefore, the task of quickly and accurately determine the natural leather is now an urgent task for customs, certification bodies and Metrology, wholesalers footwear and ordinary consumers.

The actual problem of today is a fast and reliable way to recognize genuine leather from leather imitation materials.

There are many types of leathers, which differ according to the types of raw materials (hides and skins of different animals), methods of processing and finishing (Chemistry and technology of leather and fur. / Fears I.P., Shestakova I.S., Cutside D.A. and other M: Light industry, 1979, s). Natural leather has a unique, non-reproducible artificially fibrous structure of the dermis of the skin of the animal: the uniqueness lies in the infinite structure vzaimoneperesekayuschihsya collagen fibers is army.

In order to get the natural leather, animal skins first can, then remove the hair, the tan, it is greased and paint. Now tanning exercise combined methods - mineral, vegetable and synthetic tannins (Chemistry and technology of leather and fur. / Fears I.P., Shestakova I.S., Cutside YES. and other M: Light industry, 1979, s).

Technology soft artificial leather is quite diverse, but we can distinguish three main stages: preparation of the fibrous basis, the application of polymeric coatings, finishing (Andrianova G.P., Polyakova K.A., Falchikov A.S. and other Technology recycling of plastics and elastomers in the manufacture of polymeric film materials and artificial leather, Part 1, 2, - M: Colossus, 2008 - part 1 - 367 C. part 2 - 447 S.).

As the fibrous basis use fabrics, knitted fabrics, paper, and various non-woven materials made of natural, artificial or synthetic fibers. Properties of soft imitation leathers are largely determined by this important design element from the substrate depend on such quality finished leather, as strength, elongation in different directions, the ability to drape, etc. To impart greater strength and density of the fibrous basis impregnated with a polymeric compositions. C is on the surface of the fibrous bases coated - from melts, solutions and dispersions of polymers using various technological methods and equipment.

As methods final finishing using different techniques: grinding, mate, embossing, coating of lacquer or a matting layer, the printing pattern, etc. of the Finished material can mimic the texture of the fabric, natural leather and suede, there are multicolor skin and change their color so-called "chameleons"skin color "metallic" and other

An intermediate option between natural and artificial skin is the so-called pressed (or composite) leather - a material produced under pressure from the waste of natural leather: scraps and shreds of chrome shavings, leather dust and other waste. In the molded skin also has a binder. They can be made of any synthetic material: polyester, polyamide, polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, polyethylene and other polymers. When heated, they melt and stick together all the "pieces" together (Andrianova G.P., Polyakova K.A., Falchikov ASI other Technology recycling of plastics and elastomers in the manufacture of polymeric film materials and artificial leather, Part 1, 2, - M: Colossus, 2008 - part 1 - 367 C. part 2 - 447 S.).

Genuine leather (tanned dermis of the skin of the animal), available is infinitely interwoven collagen fibers not able to dissolve (without hydrolysis of collagen fibers) in any organic and inorganic solvents.

There is a method of dissolving collagen in 1 M acetic acid solution with volume ratio (LCD = 15-30 of the initial mass) after hours alkaline-saline treatment (Golovteev A.A. and other Laboratory of chemistry and technology of leather and fur. - M: Legprombytizdat, 1987. p.47 - 50).

The disadvantages of this method are its limited functionality, as it provides a dissolution only nedubrovo collagen.

There is a method of dissolving tanned collagen in 15%sulfuric acid solution at 100°C for 24 h the Disadvantage of this method is that it is not the dissolution of the collagen to the fibrous structure, and the full hydrolysis to low molecular weight substances (Golovteev A.A. and other Laboratory of chemistry and technology of leather and fur. - M: Legprombytizdat, 1987. - s).

There is a method of recognition of natural leather by burning, because genuine leather is the only material that does not burn and glow, but this method has low accuracy, as modern leatherette char as well as natural. Already invented composition, giving artificial leather smell of genuine cowhide leather-makes the th skin (http://www.obuvnoi.ru/adv/adv6.htm).

There is a method of recognition of natural leather by analyzing the structure of the material using a microscope, determining the nature of the fibers. Features microscopic patterns allow you to install the sample belonging to the leather imitation material or natural leather (Golovteev A.A. and other Laboratory of chemistry and technology of leather and fur. - M: Legprombytizdat, 1987. - 312 S.).

The disadvantage of this method is its low accuracy.

The known method of identification of natural leather with the help of the device non-destructive testing, namely, that the test sample is subjected to vibration loads and vibration transducer readings determine the physico-mechanical properties of the investigated sample (Patent RU 2138803, op. 27.09.1999).

The disadvantages of this method are its limited functionality.

The most closest to the claimed method prototype is the way to recognize genuine leather and leather imitation materials using sensory analysis samples (www.kozhinfo.ru). Organoleptic analysis based on the study of external characteristics of the skin. For example, when the contact of the test sample with the inner surface of a person's palm leather is heated, it starts to transmit the palm warm and gives a nice warm od is the same, while artificial leather lightly moisturize hand, will give a chill and after removing the hands will remain a small totalist. Upon contact with water genuine leather absorbs moisture and becomes darker in contact with a drop of water, and artificial - remains unchanged. Edge genuine leather more rounded and thicker than the leather imitation material, and the inside is fluffy. Genuine leather has a specific smell, peculiar only to it. On the basis of organoleptic analysis constitute the conclusion of belonging to the sample to leather imitation material or natural leather.

The disadvantage of this method is its low accuracy, since modern technologies allow to get leather imitation material, effectively simulating on the main sensory characteristics of natural leather.

An object of the invention is to develop accurate and reliable methods for capturing genuine leather and leather imitation materials.

The technical problem is solved by the proposed method lies in the following.

At the first stage of recognition of genuine leather and leather imitation materials conduct sensory analysis samples.

The second stage of the recognition performed microscopic analysis of the structure of the material defining characteristic is cter fibers.

In the third stage recognition carry out chemical analysis of samples of the skin. For this purpose, the samples are cut into pieces the size (10-15)×(10-15) mm and placed in a heat resistant flask filled with an organic solvent selected from the group of butyl ester of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol in a ratio of sample to solvent is 1:(10-15). Dissolution samples is carried out at the boiling temperature of the selected solvent for 20-30 minutes under stirring. When the complete dissolution of the sample identify as leather imitation material, and if the sample does not dissolve, its identify as natural leather.

The method is simple and allows you to reliably and unambiguously identify the natural leather from leather imitation materials. The method can be used in any chemical laboratory with standard equipment.

The defining difference of the proposed method from the prototype are:

- conduct comprehensive testing of samples, including organoleptic, microscopic and chemical analysis of samples, which improves the detection accuracy of leather from leather imitation materials;

- phase chemical analysis of the samples treated with organic dissolved the LEM, selected from the group of butyl ester of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol, when the ratio of sample to solvent is 1:(10-15), at the boiling temperature of the selected solvent for 20-30 minutes, which allows to improve the accuracy and reliability of the method.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples of specific performance.

Example 1

At the first stage of recognition of genuine leather (leather imitation material) the samples received from customs, was investigated using organoleptic analysis: the presence of the reinforcing substrate (fabric) made it possible to relate the material to leather imitation.

In the second stage recognition conducted a microscopic analysis of the material structure on the basis of which established the identity of the sample to leather imitation materials.

In the third stage recognition carried out chemical analysis of samples. For this purpose, the samples were cut into pieces of size 10×10 mm was placed in a vessel with reflux condenser filled with dimethylformamide, at a ratio of sample to solvent of 1:10 at a temperature of 153°C for 20 minutes under stirring. The analyzed sample is completely dissolved, what was the basis for attributing it to the leather imitation materials.

Example 2

At the first stage of recognition n turalei skin (leather imitation material) tested samples, received from the testing laboratory NCSM, was investigated using organoleptic analysis. Identified material type: genuine leather.

In the second stage recognition conducted a microscopic analysis of the structure of the material, based on which you installed the sample belonging to the natural leather.

In the third stage recognition carried out chemical analysis of samples. For this sample was cut into pieces measuring 15×10 mm and placed in a tank filled with tetrahydrofuran in a ratio of sample to solvent of 1:15 at a temperature of 66°C for 30 minutes under stirring. The sample is not dissolved, what was the basis for attributing it to natural leather.

Example 3

At the first stage of recognition of genuine leather (leather imitation material) the samples received from trade organizations, was investigated using organoleptic analysis. Identified material type: genuine leather.

In the second stage recognition conducted a microscopic analysis of the structure of the material, based on which you installed the sample belonging to the natural leather.

In the third stage recognition carried out chemical analysis of samples. For this sample was cut into pieces the size of 15×15 mm and placed in a tank filled with dimethylketone, the ratio is AI sample-solvent, equal to 1:12, at a temperature of 56.5°C for 25 minutes under stirring. The sample was dissolved, which was the basis for attributing it to the leather imitation material.

Example 4

At the first stage of recognition of genuine leather (leather imitation material) the samples received from trade organizations, was investigated using organoleptic analysis. Identified material type: genuine leather.

In the second stage recognition conducted a microscopic analysis of the structure of the material, based on which you installed the sample belonging to the natural leather.

In the third stage recognition carried out chemical analysis of samples. For this sample was cut into pieces the size of 15×15 mm and placed in a tank filled butyl ester acetic acid, in the ratio of sample to solvent of 1:10 at a temperature of 118°C for 20 minutes under stirring. The sample was dissolved, which was the basis for attributing it to the leather imitation material.

Example 5

At the first stage of recognition of genuine leather (leather imitation material) the samples received from trade organizations, was investigated using organoleptic analysis. Identified material type: genuine leather.

In the second stage recognition conducted a microscopic analysis of the structure of the material at the core is the training which you installed the sample belonging to the natural leather.

In the third stage recognition carried out chemical analysis of samples. For this sample was cut into pieces the size of 15×15 mm and placed in a tank filled with furfural, the ratio of sample to solvent is 1:12, at a temperature of 162°C for 20 minutes under stirring. The sample was dissolved, which was the basis for attributing it to the leather imitation material.

Example 6

At the first stage of recognition of genuine leather (leather imitation material) the samples received from trade organizations, was investigated using organoleptic analysis. Identified material type: genuine leather.

In the second stage recognition conducted a microscopic analysis of the structure of the material, based on which you installed the sample belonging to the natural leather.

In the third stage recognition carried out chemical analysis of samples. For this sample was cut into pieces the size of 15×15 mm and placed in a tank filled with cyclohexanol in a ratio of sample to solvent of 1:15 at a temperature of 161°C for 30 minutes under stirring. The sample is not dissolved, what was the basis for attributing it to natural leather.

The use of the proposed method will allow to accurately, reliably and quickly identify natural skin and to distinguish them from infesting ROS is the Iisko market leather imitation materials. The proposed method can be useful in territorial control organizations, testing laboratories, customs, etc.

1. The way to recognize genuine leather and leather imitation materials, including the preparation of the samples, their organoleptic analysis and drawing conclusions about the ownership of the sample to leather imitation material or natural leather, characterized in that the analyzed samples are additionally subjected to microscopic and chemical analysis, while the latter is treated with an organic solvent selected from the group of butyl ester of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol in a ratio of sample to solvent is 1:(10-15) at the boiling temperature of the selected solvent for 20-30 minutes and when complete dissolution of the sample make a conclusion about his belonging to leather imitation material, and if the sample does not dissolve, its identify as natural leather.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the prepared sample size (10-15)×(10×15) mm



 

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1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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