Method of forming brittle coating on surface of articles made from light-stabilised polyethylene
SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-activation of surfaces of an article and a film. The article then pressed to the surface of the film made from non-light-stabilised polyethylene and then exposed to UV radiation until a brittle layer forms.
EFFECT: formation of a coating on an article, which is adhesively bonded to the surface of the article.
The scope to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to the field of experimental determination of the stress state products using fragile coatings and can be used to create a fragile coating on the surface of light-stabilized polyethylene.
The level of technology
The known method (1. RF patent №2345324 "the Way of the study of deformations and stresses" / Wondermega, N.A. Makhutov, Lbirary), namely, that on the analyzed surface is applied fragile testcountbytesinfile floor and carry out the installation of the module with sensors of acoustic emission transducers.
The disadvantage of this method is that it is only used for metal parts.
The closest is a technical solution (2. Vshah. Reference guide for the testing of plastics and analysis of the causes of their destruction. / Lane. from English. under. edit Alameldin. - SPb.: Scientific bases and technology, 2009. - S), in which for the application of brittle coatings on plastics using a substrate that provides the necessary adhesion and minimizes the problems associated with compatibility of materials.
The disadvantage of this method is the practical impossibility of matching of the substrate, providing the necessary adhesion of the brittle layer to the surface of the of olyethylene, because he has a weak adhesion, which makes it almost impossible for coating the surface of the polyethylene coating from any other material.
Disclosure of inventions
The aim of the invention is to develop a way to create on the surface of the light-stabilized polyethylene fragile coating, adhesively associated with the surface of the product.
The technical result to be obtained by use of the invention is the application of the method of brittle coatings for the experimental determination of the stress state of the products of the light-stabilized polyethylene.
The essential features that characterize the invention.
Restrictive: exercise unilateral activation of the surfaces of articles of sototallyrandom polyethylene (CSPE) and films nesvetailova polyethylene (NCCPA). Applied as a coating compatible material film from NSPA. Embrittlement of the film surface of NSPA spend ultraviolet radiation.
Distinctive: the process is conducted without the use of the substrate, while the fragile coating on the surface of the light-stabilized polyethylene create ultraviolet irradiation of films of nesvetailova polyethylene.
It is known that mesotartaric the integration of (normal) polyethylene can be Krupkin by brief exposure to ultraviolet radiation (3. Feasance, Upozila, Vaselov. The temperature dependence of the strength heterogeneous aging of polymeric and composite material // Mechanics of composite materials. - 1987. No. 2. - S.353-355). Surface activation products can be performed in various ways, for example by flame gas burners, electric heaters, etc. (4. Acheiria. About the determination of the free surface energy of polyethylene // Zavodskaya laboratoriya. - 1983. No. 9. - P.67-68).
The implementation of the invention
The method is as follows. Preliminary surface of SSPA and film from NSPA thickness of 150 μm activate the electric heating device, then press until a snug fit. Clamping surface must be metal to ensure rapid heat dissipation and reduce the degree of thermal effect on the product. The necessary adhesive strength of the connection (layer NCCPA the surface of SSPE), which excludes the exfoliation layer from the surface of the product is achieved, primarily, by minimizing the problems associated with compatibility of materials. The surface layer nesvetailova polyethylene irradiated by a source of ultraviolet radiation of a mercury arc tube lamp CES-1000 with a wavelength of 240 nm for 48 hours before the formation of fragile glass is anyone covering.
A method of creating a fragile coating on the surface of light-stabilized polyethylene, including pre-activation of the surfaces of the product and the film clip to the film surface of nesvetailova polyethylene and irradiating it with ultraviolet light before the formation of the fragile layer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing a specimen, irradiating the specimen with a predetermined spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, recording the interaction between the specimen and the electromagnetic radiation in a data packet and determining at least one characteristic parameter in the recorded data packet. Radiation intensity values assigned to different areas of the surface of the specimen, where said radiation interacts with said surface areas, are recorded in the data packet. The determined characteristic parameter describes air content in the specimen and/or resin content in the specimen. The assigned intensity values coinciding with a predetermined intensity range are added together to determine the air content and/or the resin content in the specimen. Analysis can also be performed to determine resin distribution and/or air distribution in the sample and homogeneity of distribution of assigned intensity values coinciding with the predetermined intensity range with respect to different areas of the surface.
EFFECT: possibility of analysing specific characteristic parameters.
6 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: when boiling collagen, linear dimensions of leather tissue are measured before and after collagen boiling. The structure-to-structure distance is determined using difference of the sample thickness after boiling and the rated thickness of the sample before boiling, which is produced as a product of the sample thickness before boiling and a coefficient of layers number defined as a quotient from division of a lengthy sample length into the length of the sample after boiling. Invention makes it possible to realise the specified method objective.
EFFECT: method improvement.
4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sorption of pharmacy drug derinate, representing sodium deoxyribonucleate in micropanel holes is carried out. After that analysed sample, which contains component C1q with unknown activity, is introduced into holes. Incubation is carried out and after washing and drying of panel into holes introduced are conjugate of enzyme with antibodies against component C1q and substrate of said enzyme. Activity of component C1q is calculated by amount of formed product of enzymatic reaction. Set contains flat-bottom micropanel with sorbed derinate, conjugate of enzyme with antibodies to human complement component C1q, substrate buffer and standard with known C1q activity.
EFFECT: method application makes it possible to increase reliability of determination C1q component with application as activator of available and stable preparation derinate.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling the surface of soot with a polymer and determining the polymer adsorption value of the soot, where the polymer used is rubber. Soot dispersion is mixed with a rubber solution. Sieve diametres of the soot aggregates are determined. The specific surface of the soot is determined and relative wear resistance of the rubber is calculated from the given relationship.
EFFECT: faster and high information content of analysis.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medicine, rescue facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to evaluation of protective properties of materials of facial parts of gas masks with respect to β,β'-dichlorethylsulfide by application of its simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide. Method includes application on one side of material of gas mask facial part of simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide drops with further analytic determination of the moment of accumulation in sample of limiting amount of simulator. Butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide in tested sample is caught by sorption substrate Quantitative determination of simulator is carried out with application of photocolorimetric method of analysis Limit of sensitivity of detecting butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide constitutes 1·10-3 mg/ml with inaccuracy not exceeding 15%.
EFFECT: technical result lies in possibility to carry out evaluation of protective properties of not only rubberised fabric, but also materials of facial parts of gas masks (rubbers) of various thickness, with increase of evaluation method safety
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of measuring a set of technological parametres of a chemical process taking place in a chemical reactor. The method of determining at least one technological parametre of a chemical process taking place in a reactor 2, involves passing a sample of the process medium of the chemical process into a lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36) and isolation of the said sample from the remaining process medium in the said reactor; circulation of the said sample in the said lateral circuit and its thermal processing therein to the required temperature; taking measurements of at least one technological parametre of the said sample, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and/or taking spectrometre measurements with provision for spectrometric data at the required temperature; controlling the chemical process based on the determined at least one technological parametre. The method is realised in a system which has an output 18 and an input 28; lateral circuit (20, 22, 24, 26, 34, 40, 42, 36), connected to the reactor 2 through output 18 and input 28, which enable passage of the sample of process medium from the said reactor 2 to the said lateral circuit and back to the said reactor; a device 30 for circulating the said sample; valves V1, V2, V4, V5 for isolating the said sample in the said lateral circuit from the remaining process medium in the said reactor 2; a device for thermal processing 46, 50, 52, V7 the said sample in the said lateral circuit to the required temperature; and a device for measuring 38 at least one technological parametre, chosen from viscosity, pH, conductivity, turbidity; and/or apparatus for measuring spectrometric data at the required temperature in the said lateral circuit and apparatus for controlling the chemical process based on the measured technological parametres.
EFFECT: invention allows for taking a large number of measurements of different technological parametres, accurate measurement at temperatures different from temperature of the reactor, fast switching between measurements taken in inline and online modes, as well as prevention of clogging of equipment of the system.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to production of rubber-containing products, namely, to methods designed to control vulcanisation. Proposed method consists in correcting vulcanisation time depending upon that required for producing maximum modulus of rubber mix shear in vulcanising the specimens at flow metre and departure of rubber extension modulus in finished products from preset magnitudes. This allows processing disturbing effects on vulcanisation in compliance with tuber mix production and vulcanisation.
EFFECT: higher stability of mechanical characteristics of rubber-containing products.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in qualitative and quantitative evaluation of degree of both structural and deformational heterogeneity of such elastomers as oriented polyethylene terephtalate (PETP) or high-pressure polyethylene (HPP), using device for sample heating. As researched polymer sample, preliminary oriented PETP or HPP plate or film is used. Sample is placed on polished substrate, and a sheet of foil made of heat-conducting material is placed on the top of sample surface. Sample is heated through the foil with flat heating element at temperature 1.5-2.5 times higher than upper limit of operating temperature Top., during 2-15 seconds and under pressure of 3-4 g/cm2. Then pressure is reduced to 0.3-0.4 g/cm2, keeping heating element on sample during 1-15 seconds. After that, heating element is removed and sample is air-cooled. Degree of heterogeneity is determined visually both on sample surface and in the volume. After shrinkage change of form of investigated material sample is studied, followed by investigation of tension of compression and stretching in detected sections of higher and delayed deformations respectively in the form of deflection of positive and negative signs, in samples of investigated PETP. Also structure-formation at over-molecular level of different sample sections is studied.
EFFECT: detecting structural heterogeneity at the level of over-molecular organisation, visualisation of heterogeneities, simplification and acceleration of detection and investigation method.
FIELD: rubber technology.
SUBSTANCE: method is characterised by that, a sample is prepared for analysis during the vulcanisation process, for which 25 cm3 of toluene is added to a precise batch of the sample, with subsequent keeping the rubber mixture-toluene for 4 hours, after which gel-sol analysis is carried out. To carry out gel-sol analysis, the obtained system is filtered. The residue is dried until a constant mass is obtained. The content of gel in the system and concentration of polymer in the filtrate is calculated and its characteristic viscosity is determined. A graph is drawn with coordinates of characteristic viscosity - vulcanisation time and gel content - vulcanisation time, and from the character of the obtained graphic dependence the parameters of the vulcanisation process are determined. Two regions on the graph of the relationship between the characteristic viscosity of solutions and vulcanisation time are marked. On the first region, characteristic viscosity increases during the vulcanisation time of the sample in an almost linear relationship. In this case, the system contains gel, which shows that, in this period there not enough intermolecular transverse bonds in the sample to form a spatial structure, while the increase in characteristic viscosity is only a result of change in the length of caoutchouc macromolecules. The beginning of the vulcanisation process is shown by the increase in the characteristic viscosity of the investigated solution by 5% relative its minimum value. Content of gel increases from 0 to 100% in the second region. At the point with 90% gel content the sample is completely insoluble in toluene.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and efficiency of determining vulcanisation parameters on the initial stage of the process.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing 10x10 cm large sample of material under test into measuring device for determining elasticity modulus Eel1 or super- elasticity modulus Esl1 of the sample. Then, the sample is kept in artificial sweat solution at room temperature during 3 days and then dried under natural conditions during 22-24 h and elasticity modulus Eel2 or super- elasticity modulus Esl2 are determined with the device. Sweat resistance value is calculated as P=(Eel2/Eel1)*100 or (Esl2/Esl1)*100, where Eel1 is the elasticity modulus of a sample in initial condition, in MPa; Eel2 is the elasticity modulus of a sample treated in artificial sweat solution, in MPa; Esl1 is the super-elasticity modulus of a sample in initial condition, in MPa; Esl2 is the super-elasticity modulus treated in artificial sweat solution in MPa.
EFFECT: high accuracy of obtained results.
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.
EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.
FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d1 and internal d2 washer diameters for each batch, relative compression Ecp deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd1, Δd2 and Ecp, while as allowed values Δd1, Δd2 ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ Ecp ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation Ecp are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where ki - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I1 - II12, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, Tn - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, fpδ=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.
EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.
EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.
FIELD: light industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex