Capsule mixture

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pyrotechnic compositions used in cartridges or charges with circular ignition and specifically to capsule mixtures. The disclosed capsule mixture is free from lead, barium, peroxides and oxidants and contains one or more primers, one or more sensitising agents and/or one or more abrasive agents and from 0.01 to 2 wt % boric component, preferably boron and/or boron derivatives, preferably boron nitride and/or zirconium boride.

EFFECT: disclosed composition provides improved tribological characteristics of residual combustion products, high operational reliability and long service life of parts of weapons, cartridge-operated guns or for stunning cattle.

21 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

 

The subject of invention is a capsule formula and its application.

The remains of the burnt lead compounds and barium used in capsule mixtures, such as trinitroresorcinate lead (styphnate lead) as initiating explosives (he) and barium peroxide as oxidant, have the disadvantage that they are poisonous and harmful from an environmental point of view. In addition, adverse tribological characteristics of residual combustion products of the peroxide of barium impair the operability of the weapon or construction of the gun.

If stirrat lead it is possible to replace, for example, diazodinitrophenol or salts of dinitrobenzofuroxan, peroxide zinc, proposed as a substitute for barium peroxide in European application EP-A-0031045, although much less harmful to health or to the environment, yet has the disadvantage that its residual products of combustion have a corrosive or deteriorating performance impact on the weapons or materials of construction gun.

The present invention is to offer a capsule mixture, which has no inherent weaknesses of the current technical level, does not contain lead and barium, are characterized by high operational reliability and/or residual the combustion products which do not lead to disruption of the weapons or construction of the gun.

According to the invention this task is that all of a sudden, decide through items described in the main claim.

Feasible options presented in dependent clauses.

In particular, it has been unexpectedly discovered that this problem is solved by not containing lead and barium capsule mixture which does not contain an oxidant, in particular peroxide. In addition to initiating EXPLOSIVE sensitizer and an abrasive agent, capsule mixture according to the invention optionally may contain one or more additives.

In particular, the subject invention is not containing lead and barium capsule mixture without an oxidant containing initiator explosion or more initiating explosives. In order to improve the tribological characteristics of the residual products of combustion capsule mixture may contain boron and/or boron derivative. Apply capsule, the mixture can, for example, in cartridges with an annular ignition or charges for industrial purposes, examples of which are, in turn, is a construction and mounting guns or stun cattle.

Under oxidizing agents in the sense of the invention mean compounds having a positive oxygen balance. Examples of such substances are the nitrates of alkali and/or alkaline earth metal and/or ammonium perchlorate, the alkali and/or alkaline earth metal and/or ammonium, peroxides, alkaline earth metal and/or zinc or a mixture of two or more such compounds.

According to the invention preferred capsule mixture which, in addition to initiating EXPLOSIVE sensitizer and an abrasive agent and optionally one or more additives further comprises a boron component, such as boron and/or boron derivative, such as boron nitride and/or bored zirconium. This capsule mixture ensures high operational reliability and long service life of parts of weapons or construction of the gun exposed to mechanical stresses. The reason for this is primarily in the formation of metal oxides and boron, in particular when using kalininatomenergoremont borate potassium, which has a beneficial effect on the tribological characteristics of the residual products of combustion. Boron nitride also acts residual combustion products like grease.

The use of boron or boron derivatives in capsule mixtures such as are known, for example, from the publication of the international application WO-A-0140144. At the present technical level, however, boron or boron derivative is always used in combination with oxidizing agents, and in relation to these oxidants boron or boron derivative are reducing agents. Thus, in these capsule mixtures of b is R or derivatives of boron do not contribute to the improvement of tribological characteristics of residual combustion products.

According to the invention is particularly preferable to apply boric components as agents of formation of metal oxides and boron in stoichiometric amount relative to the formation of borates of alkali and/or alkaline earth metals in the residual combustion products.

In another preferred according to the invention embodiment, the capsule mixture, in addition to initiating EXPLOSIVE sensitizer and an abrasive agent and optionally one or more additives, additionally contains boron component, such as boron and/or boron derivative, such as boron nitride and/or bored zirconium, one or more substances which are suitable for improving the odor and give it a characteristic and capable of withstanding thermal load during the shot. An example of such odorization is vanilla.

As initiating explosives according to the invention can be applied individually or in mixtures):

diazodinitrophenol, salt dinitrobenzofuroxan, especially dinitrobenzofuroxan potassium, 1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-5-(1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-tetrazol (abbreviated "pyrazol").

As a sensitizer according to the invention can be applied individually or in mixtures):

terasen, diazodinitrophenol.

As the abrasive agent according to the invention can be applied (part of the major or in mixtures):

glass beads, glass beads, glass powder, calcium silicide, coke powder.

As additives according to the invention can be used:

1. Reducing agents (individually or in mixtures):

aluminum, titanium, titanium hydride, zirconium, zirconium hydride, silicon, graphite, activated carbon, soot.

2. Excipients (individually or in mixtures):

nitrocellulose powder, silicates, silica gels, preferably nitrocellulose gunpowder.

3. Binders (individually or in mixtures):

adhesin, cellulose and its derivatives, polyvinylbutyral, polyvinyltoluene, polynitroderivative, plexigum, gum Arabic, dextrin, polyvinyl acetate and copolymers, preferably adhesin.

4. Secondary explosives (individually or in mixtures):

RDX, HMX and nitropenta.

Manufacturer of capsule mixtures according to the invention is realized by means known in the present technical level processes, such as mixing (plasticization) moistened with water mixtures or sifting of the dry mixture. Dosing wet mass is also carried out by means known in the present technical level processes, for example, promazyvanija perforated plates, dispense [(the exact expression)] or extrusion in the extrusion press.

The Department is a major subject of the invention are:

- Capsule mixture not containing lead and barium;

- Capsule mixture that does not contain peroxides;

- Capsule mixture that does not contain oxidants;

- Capsule mixture containing one or more initiating EXPLOSIVES, one or more sensitizers and/or one or more abrasive agents;

- Capsule mixture containing at least one initiating EXPLOSIVES, one sensitizer and one abrasive agent;

- Capsule mixture, which in addition to initiating EXPLOSIVE sensitizer and an abrasive agent additionally contains boron component, preferably boron and/or boron derivative, such as boron nitride and/or bored zirconium;

- Capsule mixture, which in addition to initiating EXPLOSIVE sensitizer and an abrasive agent contains one or more additives;

- Capsule mixture, which in addition to initiating EXPLOSIVE sensitizer, an abrasive agent and one or more additives further comprises a boron component, preferably boron and/or boron derivative, such as boron nitride and/or bored zirconium;

- Capsule mixture, and initiating explosive is one or more of the following substances: diazodinitrophenol, salt dinitrobenzofuroxan, in particular, dinitrobenzofuroxan potassium, 1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-5-(1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-shall metrazol (abbreviated "pyrazol");

- Capsule mixture, and the proportion initiating EXPLOSIVES in the finished capsule mixture is from 30 to 70 wt.%, preferably from 35 to 65 wt.%, particularly preferably from 38 to 58 wt.%;

- Capsule mixture, and the sensitizer is one or more of the following substances: terasen, diazodinitrophenol, preferably terasen;

- Capsule mixture, and the proportion of the sensitizer in the finished capsule mixture is from 1 to 12 wt.%, preferably from 2 to 10 wt.%;

- Capsule mixture, and the abrasive agent is one or more of the following substances: glass beads, glass beads, glass powder, calcium silicide, coke powder;

- Capsule mixture, and the share of the abrasive agent in the finished capsule mixture is from 10 to 40 wt.%, preferably from 20 to 35 wt.%, particularly preferably from 20 to 32 wt.%;

- Capsule mixture, and the proportion of the boron component is from 0.01 to 5 wt.%, preferably from 0.05 to 3 wt.%, particularly preferably from 0.1 to 2.5 wt.%;

- Capsule mixture, and boric component is used in stoichiometric amount relative to the formation of borates of alkali and/or alkaline earth metals in the residual combustion products;

- Capsule mix, and as additives may use one or more which of ostanovila, one or more excipients, one or more binders, one or more secondary explosives and/or one or more gas odourizers, or mixtures of two or more of these substances;

- Capsule mix, and as a reducing agent can be applied aluminum, titanium, titanium hydride, zirconium, zirconium hydride, silicon, graphite, activated carbon, carbon black or a mixture of two or more of these substances;

- Capsule mixture, and the proportion of reducing agent in the finished capsule mixture is from 0 to 20 wt.%, preferably from 1 to 19 wt.%, particularly preferably from 5 to 15 wt.%;

- Capsule mix, and as excipients can be applied nitrocellulose powder, silicates, silica gels, preferably nitrocellulose powder, or a mixture of two or more of these substances;

- Capsule mixture, and the share of the excipients in the finished capsule of the mixture is from 2 to 45 wt.%, preferably from 5 to 40 wt.%, particularly preferably from 9 to 36 wt.%;

- Capsule mix, and as a binder can be applied adhesin, cellulose and its derivatives, polyvinylbutyral, polyvinyltoluene, polynitroderivative, plexigum, gum Arabic, dextrin, polyvinyl acetate and copolymers, preferably adhesin, or a mixture of two ilible of these substances;

- Capsule mixture, and the proportion of binder in the finished capsule mixture is from 0.2 to 5 wt.%, preferably from 0.5 to 3 wt.%;

- Capsule mix, and as a secondary explosives can be applied RDX, HMX, nitropenta or a mixture of two or more of these substances;

- Capsule mixture, and the proportion of secondary explosives in the finished capsule mixture is from 0 to 20 wt.%, preferably from 1 to 19 wt.%, particularly preferably from 5 to 15 wt.%;

- Capsule mixture, which contains odorization, preferably vanilla;

- Capsule mix, the share of odorization in the finished capsule mixture is from 0 to 10 wt.%, preferably from 0.1 to 9 wt.%, particularly preferably from 1 to 5 wt.%;

- Use capsule mixture according to the invention in cartridges ring of fire :

- Use capsule mixture according to the invention in charge with annular inflammation, preferably for industrial purposes, particularly preferably in construction pistols or to stun cattle.

The following is an explanation of the details of the invention on the basis of examples of execution, and the invention is not limited to these examples, and other data specified in percent (%), mean percent by weight (wt.%):

Beispiel 1: Capsule mixture 1:

diazodinitrophenol44,0%
dinitrobenzofuroxan potassium10,0%
terasen3,0%
glass beads32,0%
nitrocellulose gunpowder9,7%
adhesin1,0%
Bor0,2%
the boron nitride0,1%

Example 2: Capsule mixture 2:

diazodinitrophenol43,0%
pyrazol10,0%
terasen4,0%
glass powder32,0%
nitrocellulose gunpowder9,7%
adhesin1,0%
the boron nitride0,3%

Example 3: Capsule mixture 3:

td align="left"> diazodinitrophenol
50,0%
terasen8,0%
glass powder30,0%
nitrocellulose gunpowder9,0%
adhesin2,0%
the silicide calcium1,0%

Example 4: Capsule mixture of 4:

diazodinitrophenol35,0%
dinitrobenzofuroxan potassium10,0%
terasen8,0%
glass powder30,0%
nitrocellulose gunpowder15,0%
adhesin2,0%

Example 5: Capsule mixture of 5:

diazodinitrophenol31,0%
dinitrobenzofuroxan potassium7,3%
terasen 2,1%
glass powder22,8%
nitrocellulose gunpowder35,6%
adhesin0,9%
Bor0,2%
the boron nitride0,1%

Example 6: Capsule mixture 6:

dinitrobenzofuroxan potassium44,0%
terasen9,0%
glass powder20,0%
nitrocellulose gunpowder22,0%
adhesin2,9%
Bor2,0%
the boron nitride0,1%

All the examples capsule mixture produced by mixing in water-wetted condition and wet condition was introduced through the perforated plate in the charges for the construction of guns (caliber of 6.8×11). Then the capsule mixture by centrifugal force moved into the edge of the danger zone.

For the assessment of mixtures of samples produced ammo for construction pistols and compared them with conventional on the market, ammunition, capsule mixtures which contain lead, according to the parameters of sensitivity to fire, punching power and pollution of construction gun. Used construction pistols manufactured by Hilti, types DX DX A40 and 36.

The results are presented in table 1.

Table 1
Sensitivity to fire if dropped from a height of 300 mm
The number of firings for n=20
Perforation plate steel (ST37), the penetration Depth [mm]
The average value of the results of 15 experiments, the power cartridge "green"
Pollution after 20 times of application
The increase in the mass of the piston and sleeve piston [mg], power Chuck white
The control cartridge2010,4195
Example 12011,090
Example 220 10,885
Example 32010,7180
Example 42010,8142
Example 52010,864
Example 62010,896

The results show that ensured safe operation of the capsule mixtures without oxidants. In addition, the results also suggest that the rejection of the use of oxidant reduces pollution construction and Assembly of the gun, without reducing its efficiency. In particular, the results show that in the presence of boron and/or boron nitride contamination construction of the gun is significantly reduced without performance of construction and Assembly of the pistol fell.

1. Capsule mixture, free from lead, barium, peroxides and oxidizers, which contains one or more initiating explosives), one or more sensitizers and/or one or more abrasive the agents, characterized in that it contains from 0.01 to 2 wt.% boric component, preferably boron and/or boron derivatives, preferably boron nitride and/or boride Zirconia.

2. Capsule mixture according to claim 1, wherein the initiating explosive is diazodinitrophenol and salt dinitrobenzofuroxan or mixtures of these substances, and the content of the originating CENTURIES in the finished capsule mixture is from 30 to 70 wt.%.

3. Capsule mixture according to claim 2, wherein the initiating explosive is dinitrobenzofuroxan potassium, 1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-5-(1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-tetrazol or mixtures of these substances, and the content of the originating CENTURIES in the finished capsule mixture ranges from 35 to 65 wt.%, particularly preferably from 38 to 58 wt.%.

4. Capsule mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that the sensitizer is terasen, diazodinitrophenol, preferably terasen, or mixtures of these substances, and the content of the sensitizer in the finished capsule mixture is from 1 to 12 wt.%.

5. Capsule mixture according to claim 4, characterized in that the content of the sensitizer in the finished capsule of the mixture is from 2 to 10 wt.%.

6. Capsule mixture according to claim 1, wherein the abrasive agent is one or more of the following substances: telania balls, glass beads, glass powder, calcium silicide, coke powder, and the content of the abrasive agent in the finished capsule mixture is from 10 to 40 wt.%.

7. Capsule mixture according to claim 6, characterized in that the content of the abrasive agent in the finished capsule mixture is from 20 to 35 wt.%, particularly preferably from 20 to 32 wt.%.

8. Capsule mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that the content of the boron component is 0.05 to 2 wt.%, particularly preferably from 0.1 to 2 wt.%.

9. Capsule mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that the boron component is used in stoichiometric amount relative to the formation of borates of alkali and/or alkaline earth metals in the residual combustion products.

10. Capsule mixture according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that it additionally contains one or more additives, which represent one or more reducing agents, one or more excipients, one or more binders, one or more secondary explosives and/or one or more gas odourizers, or mixtures of two or more of these substances.

11. Capsule mixture according to claim 10, characterized in that as the reductant used aluminum, titanium, titanium hydride, zirconium, zirconium hydride, silicon, graphite, activated carbon, carbon black or a mixture of two or B. the more of these substances, moreover, the content of reducing agent in the finished capsule mixture is from 0 to 20 wt.%.

12. Capsule mixture according to claim 11, characterized in that the content of reducing agent in the finished capsule mixture is from 1 to 19 wt.%, particularly preferably from 5 to 15 wt.%.

13. Capsule mixture according to claim 10, characterized in that as the excipients used nitrocellulose powder, silicates, silica gels, preferably nitrocellulose powder, or a mixture of two or more of these substances, and the content of the excipients in the finished capsule of the mixture is from 2 to 45 wt.%.

14. Capsule mixture according to item 13, wherein the content of the excipients in the finished capsule mixture is from 5 to 40 wt.%, particularly preferably from 9 to 36 wt.%.

15. Capsule mixture according to claim 10, characterized in that the binder used adhesion, cellulose and its derivatives, polyvinylbutyral, polineiropatiei, polynitroderivative, plexigum, gum Arabic, dextrin, polyvinyl acetate and copolymers, preferably by adhesion, or a mixture of two or more of these substances, and the content of binder in the finished capsule mixture is from 0.2 to 5 wt.%.

16. Capsule mixture according to item 15, wherein the content of binder in the finished capsule mixture composition is yet from 0.5 to 3 wt.%.

17. Capsule mixture according to claim 10, characterized in that as a secondary explosives used RDX, HMX, nitropenta or a mixture of two or more of these substances, and the content of secondary explosives in the finished capsule mixture is from 0 to 20 wt.%.

18. Capsule mixture according to 17, characterized in that the content of secondary explosives in the finished capsule mixture is from 1 to 19 wt.%, particularly preferably from 5 to 15 wt.%.

19. Capsule mixture according to claim 10, characterized in that as torestore it contains vanillin, the content of odorization in the finished capsule mixture is from 0 to 10 wt.%.

20. Capsule mixture according to claim 19, characterized in that the content of odorization in the finished capsule mixture is from 0.1 to 9 wt.%, particularly preferably from 1 to 5 wt.%.

21. The use of capsule mixture according to one of claims 1 to 20 in cartridges with a ring of fire or the charges with the annular ignition is preferable for industrial purposes, particularly preferably in construction pistols or to stun cattle.



 

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