Method for accurate determination of displacement factor and relative permeability

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of determining thermo-oxidative stability of lubricating materials involves heating the lubricating material in the presence of air and mixing. Oxidised lubricating material is then collected. Oxidation process parameters are then photometered and determined using graphical curves. Two samples of the lubricating material of constant weight are tested separately with and without a catalyst. While heating, the two samples of lubricating material of constant weight are tested successively with and without a catalyst, stirred while periodically varying testing temperature from temperature at the onset of oxidation and maximum temperature. Temperature is the lowered from maximum temperature to temperature at the onset of oxidation over a constant period of time. After each testing temperature, with and without a catalyst, the samples are weighed, the weight of the evaporated sample and evaporation number are then determined as a ratio of the weight of the evaporated sample to the weight of the remaining sample. By photometering, the light flux absorption factor with and without catalyst is determined, the thermo-oxidative stability factor is determined as a sum of light flux absorption factor and evaporation number. Further, the influence coefficient of the catalyst KVK on oxidative processes is determined using the formula KVK=KK/K, where KK and K are thermo-oxidative stability factors of samples of the lubricating material with and without catalyst, respectively. A curve of the influence coefficient of the catalyst on the oxidative processes versus the testing time is then plotted, and thermo-oxidative stability of the lubricating materials is then determined from values of the influence coefficent of the catalyst on the curve. If KVK>1, thermo-oxidative stability is falling, and if KVK<1 thermo-oxidative stability is increasing.

EFFECT: high information content of the method of determining thermo-oxidative stability of oxidation and evaporation processes during periodic variation of the testing temperature.

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The invention relates to the testing of lubricating oils and can be used in laboratories to study the impact of metals on the oxidation processes taking place in lubricants, for determining the catalytic activity.

There is a method of determining oxidative stability of lubricants (RF patent 2219530, IPC G01N 25/02, publ. 20.12.2003), namely, that the lubricant is heated in the presence of air, mix, photometrate and determine the parameters of the evaluation of the oxidation process. Experience a sample of the lubricant constant volume at the optimum temperature selected depending on the underlying fundamentals of the lubricant and group performance properties over time, characterizing the same degree of oxidation, and at equal intervals of time selected sample oxidized lubricant is determined by photometry absorption coefficient of the light flux oxidized lubricant, build the graphical dependence of the absorption coefficient of the light flux from the test time, extend the line based after the inflection point to the intersection with the x-axis and the abscissa of this point determines the start time of the formation of insoluble impurities, the inflection point dependencies define the start time Koa is ulali insoluble impurities, but limiting value of the absorption coefficient of the light flux determine the resource efficiency of the lubricant.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method for determining oxidative stability of lubricants (RF patent 2298173, IPC G01N 25/02, publ. 27.04.2007), comprising heating the lubricant in the presence of air, mixing, sampling oxidized lubricant, photomatrixovina, determination of the parameters of the oxidation process on the graphic dependencies have separately two samples of the lubricant constant mass, without first catalyst, the second catalyst at the same temperature for a set time, and at equal intervals of time selected sample oxidized lubricant is determined by photometry transmittance of the light flux without catalyst and with it, build the graphical dependence of the transmittance change of the luminous flux of oxidized lubricant from the test time and time and value define the beginning of the catalytic activity catalyst and thermal-oxidative stability of lubricants is determined by the ratio of the catalytic activity of metals ToKD

ToKD=S/STo,

where S is the horse curve of the transmittance of the light flux from the time of the test lubricant without catalyst, mm2,

SK- area curve of the transmittance of the light flux from the time of the test lubricant with catalyst, mm2.

A disadvantage of the known technical solutions is the low information content of indicators of oxidative stability of lubricants at the same temperature tests.

Technical results of the invention is to increase the information content of the method for determining oxidative stability to oxidation and evaporation under cyclic temperature change tests.

The task is to solve the technical result is achieved by a method for determining the oxidative stability of lubricants, including heating the lubricant in the presence of air, mixing, selection oxidized lubricant, photomatrixovina and determination of the parameters of the oxidation process in the graphical dependencies, testing separately the two samples of the lubricant constant mass, without first catalyst, the second catalyst according to the invention by heating two samples of the lubricant constant weight have consistently without catalyst and with catalyst, stirred at cyclic temperature change test from start temperature oxidation up before the school temperature, and then lower the temperature from the maximum temperature to the temperature of the beginning of oxidation within a constant time, and after each test temperature without catalyst and with catalyst sample is weighed to determine the mass of the evaporated sample and the coefficient of evaporation as the ratio of the mass of the evaporated sample to the weight of the remaining sample, photometry determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux without catalyst and with catalyst, determine the coefficient of thermal oxidative stability as the sum of the absorption coefficient of the light flux and coefficient of evaporation, determine the coefficient of influence of the catalyst ToVKoxidative processes by the formula

KVK=KTo/,

where KToand K are respectively the coefficients of thermal-oxidative stability of samples of lubricating material with catalyst and without catalyst, and then build the graphical dependence of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the oxidation processes from the time of testing, and thermal-oxidative stability of lubricants is determined by the values of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the graphical dependence, a value of KVK>1 thermal-oxidative stability decreases, and if KVK<1 is increased.

Figure 1 shows the dependence of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the Oka, the long processes of time testing of mineral oils M10-G 2K; figure 2 - dependence of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the oxidation processes from time trials partially synthetic oils Chevron Sypreme 10W-40 SJ/CF; figure 3 - dependence of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the oxidation processes from time testing of synthetic oil Chevron Sypreme 5W-30 SJ/CF.

The method for determining oxidative stability of lubricants is as follows.

To study the effect of catalyst (steel SHKH15) and the basic fundamentals of the lubricant were selected motor oil mineral (M10-G2K), partially synthetic (Chevron Sypreme 10W-40 SJ/CF) and synthetic (Chevron Sypreme 5W-30 SJ/CF).

Two samples of the oils were tested on the device oxidative stability. In the glass adding oil to a constant weight (for example, 100±0.1 g), which was tested sequentially without catalyst and with catalyst, with stirring with a glass stirrer with a constant frequency of, for example, 300 rpm, with cyclic temperature change tests from 150 to 180°C increasing at 10°C, and then reduced to 10°C from 180 to 150°C for a constant time (6 h). After each test temperature, the beaker with the test oil is weighed without catalyst and with catalyst, determine the mass of the evaporated sample and the coefficient of evaporation as the ratio of the mass ispruse the Xia sample to the weight of the remaining sample, the photometry determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux without catalyst and with catalyst, determine the coefficient of thermal oxidative stability as the sum of the absorption coefficients of the light flux and evaporation

K=KP+KAnd,

KTo=KPC+KIR,

where KPand KPCthe absorption coefficients of the light flux without catalyst and with catalyst; KAndand KIRrespectively the coefficients of evaporation without catalyst and with catalyst.

As the sample chose steel SHKH15 (GOST 801-60), representing the bearing shell with a diameter of 40 mm, thickness 2 mm of the sample Surface was polished, and before the test was obezzhirivaete gasoline. Determine the coefficient of influence of catalyst KVKoxidative processes by the formula

KVK=KTo/K,

where KToand K are respectively the coefficients of thermal-oxidative stability of the oil samples with catalyst and without catalyst

then build the graphical dependence of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the oxidation processes from the time of testing, and thermal-oxidative stability of lubricants is determined by the values of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the graphical dependence, a value of KVK>1 thermal-oxidative stability decreases, and if K VK<1 is increased.

The results of tests of thermal-oxidative stability of lubricants are summarized in table.

The results build the graphical dependence of the coefficient of the influence of catalyst KVKoxidative processes from the time of the test [KVK=f(t)] lubricants.

Figure 1 presents the dependence of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the oxidation processes from the time of the test. The coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the oxidation processes KVK<1 indicates that thermal-oxidative stability increases, so the temperature operability of mineral oil is the temperature to 180°C.

The test results are partially synthetic oils Chevron Sypreme 10W-40SJ/CF are presented in figure 2. In addiction it is seen that KVK>1 at temperatures of 170°C, 180°C thermal-oxidative stability decreases, i.e. temperature limit health of this lubricant is limited to a temperature of 160°C.

Thermal-oxidative stability of synthetic oil Chevron Sypreme 5W-30 SJ/CF (figure 3) is reduced, as the coefficient KVK>1, so the temperature operability of this lubricant temperature is below 150°C.

Thus, investigated lubricants for improving oxidative stability m the should be placed in the following order: synthetic Chevron Sypreme 5W-30 SJ/CF, partially synthetic Chevron Sypreme 10W-40 SJ/CF and mineral M10-G2K.

0,488
Motor oil
t, hMineral M10-G2toPartially synthetic Chevron Sypreme 10W-40SJ/CFSynthetic Chevron Sypreme 5W-30 SJ/CF
ToVKKTo=KPC+KIRK=KP+KAndKVKToTo=KPC+CIRK=KP+CAndKVKKTo=KPC+CIRK=KP+CAnd
610,010,010,830,010,0121,160,0070,006
120,930,0380,0410,0210,02220,0160,008
180,980,2120,2151,090,0950,0871,760,030,017
240,880,2240,2520,975of € 0.1950,21,560,05to 0.032
300,890,230,2571,070,2590,2412,020,0830,041
360,920,2520,2750,96to 0.2630,2731,84 0,0890,049
420,970,2680,2760,970,2780,2852,30,0980,042
480,990,320,3241,020,3150,3081,870,1160,062
540,970,420,4331,030,3760,3641,780,1280,073
600,970,4780,491,090,4490,4311,760,20,113
660,9580,5091,110,5610,5021,970,2550,129
7210,5220,5161,10,5740,5191,890,2590,137
781,01of 0.5650,5551,070,5870,5441,840,2670,145
841,0080,6880,6820,990,6130,5591,680,273rate £ 0.162
900,980,8570,8671,120,696 0,6171,720,3120,181

td align="center"> 1,38td align="center"> 0,481
Continuation of the table
961,050,8080,765of 1.570,3520,223
1021,070,850,7891,550,3750,241
1081,060,8570,7951,480,3710,25
1141,060,8660,806 1,50,3710,247
1201,050,9090,8191,460,3810,26
1261,051,0290,961,420,3940,276
1321,390,4170,298
1381,370,4250,308
144 1,360,4260,315
1501,360,4290,311
1561,350,435MX 0.317
1621,370,4560,316
1680,4620,33
1741,360,4580,338
1801,360,4490,335
1861,320,4490,34
1921,330,461of 0.337
198 1,30,4680,352
2041,31value (0.475)0,356
2101,3value (0.475)0,363
2161,320,4630,358
2221,30,355
2281,360,4730,353

The proposed method can enhance the usefulness of the method for determining oxidative stability of lubricants on the processes of oxidation and evaporation under cyclic temperature change tests.

The method for determining oxidative stability of lubricants, including heating the lubricant in the presence of air, mixing, selection oxidized lubricant, photomatrixovina and determination of the parameters of the oxidation process in the graphical dependencies, testing separately the two samples of the lubricant constant weight without catalyst and with catalyst, characterized in that when heated two samples of the lubricant constant weight have consistently without catalyst and with catalyst, stirred at cyclic temperature change test from start temperature oxidation up to limit temperature, then lower the temperature from the maximum temperature to the temperature of the beginning of the and oxidation within the constant time, and after each test temperature without catalyst and with catalyst sample is weighed to determine the mass of the evaporated sample and the coefficient of evaporation as the ratio of the mass of the evaporated sample to the weight of the remaining sample, photometry determine the absorption coefficient of the light flux without catalyst and with catalyst, determine the coefficient of thermal oxidative stability as the sum of the absorption coefficients of the light flux and evaporation determine the coefficient of influence of the catalyst ToVKoxidative processes, according to the formula
ToVK=KTo/,
where KToand To, respectively, the coefficients of thermal-oxidative stability of samples of lubricating material with catalyst and without catalyst,
then build the graphical dependence of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the oxidation processes from the time of testing, and thermal-oxidative stability of lubricants is determined by the values of the coefficient of influence of the catalyst on the graphical dependence, a value of KVK>1 thermal-oxidative stability decreases, and if KVK<1 is increased.



 

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