Method of machine vibroprotection

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises jointing components to be protected to machine frame via standard rubber-metal bumpers. Every said bumper consists of two skew-located prismatic elastic elements inclined to component frame and bonded to top and bottom metal plates. In processing with variable operating conditions, inflexibility of bumpers is forcibly smoothly varied. For this, said top and bottom plates and elastic prismatic elements bond thereto are turned simultaneously through equal angle relative to protected component.

EFFECT: reduced vibration.

4 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to transport machinery and can be used in other areas of technology to improve sound insulation and damping qualities of cabins and other objects.

The known method of protection against vibration machines, called vibration, and consisting in connection securable machine with its frame by means of vibration isolators [1, s]. The vibration isolators can be of different types.

Closest to the present invention is a method of protection against vibration machines, which consists in the connection of the protected object (engine, cabin, other units and mechanisms) with its frame by means of typical composite rubber-metal vibration isolators consisting of two coloradodenver prismatic elastic elements, working in compression-shift [2, s, Fig.24; 3, p.32, 2.1, m].

The disadvantage of this method of protection against vibration is that when you change the mode of operation of the machine, consisting in the change of the linear or angular velocity of its moving parts, the modification of existing forces and moments of forces, the change in capacity of the power plant or working bodies, change the vibration characteristics of the reference links to the protected object, but the rigidity of the elastic elements, vibration isolators remains unchanged.

The present invention is the reduction of vibration securable machine Privolnoye technological operations with the change of the mode of its operation.

This object is achieved in that in the method of vibration protection machines, including the connection of the protected objects with its frame by means of typical rubber-metal vibration isolators consisting of two coloradodenver elastic elements, distinctive features of the prototype sign is the fact that, in accordance with a change in the mode of operation of the machine is forced to smoothly change the stiffness of the isolators by changing the angle coloradodenver elastic elements.

It is known that the elastic properties of rubbers are characterized by a large difference modules volumetric compression and pure shear, while their ratio is in the range from 500 to 5000 [3, p.21]. Coloradosee elastic elements of insulator simultaneously in compression and shear. When the tilt angle φ=0°, these elements work only in compression, and when the angle of inclination φ=90° they only work on the shift.

If you force a smooth change of angle coloradodenver elastic rubber elements of insulator will change and its rigidity. Figure 1 presents the scheme of implementation of the method of protection against vibration machines; figure 2 - dependence of hardness (C) of the insulator from the angle of its coloradodenver elastic elements (φ); figure 3 - schematic diagram of the cab on the frame of the mobile machine; figure 4 is a chart of the required total hardness (C) vibro is zolotarov cabin rollers from the oscillation frequency when the kinematic excitation.

Protected object 1 (Fig 1), which is the vibrating unit when power excitation or cabin of the vehicle when the kinematic excitation, connected by hinges b and C with the upper metal plates 2 and 3 of insulator.

Vibration absorber consists of two coloradodenver prismatic elastic elements 4 and 5, privatkundenbank to the top 2 and 3 and the bottom 6 and 7, a metal plate, inclined at an angle φ to the frame 8 of the machine.

The lower metal plates 6 and 7 on one side of the hinges D and E are connected with the sliders 9 and 10 included in the forward pair K and L frame 8. On the other hand, the lower metal plates 6 and 7 in the hinges M and N are connected with the rods 11 and 12 cylinders 13 and 14, connected at hinges a and P with the frame of the machine.

The described fastening elements of the protected object 1 on the frame 8 of the machine are located on opposite sides of the axis y-Y of the protected object 1 is symmetrical.

In accordance with a change in the mode of operation of the machine is forced to smoothly change the stiffness of the isolators by changing the tilt angles φ coloradodenver elastic elements 4 and 5 in the interval from 0 to 90° by simultaneous coordinated movement of the rods 11 and 12 cylinders 13 and 14.

When rotated in relation to the protected object 1 upper 2 and 3 and the bottom 6 and 7 of the metal plate and prevulcanized the data to them elastic prismatic elements 4 and 5, sliders 9 and 10 are progressively moving relative to the machine frame 8 and the axis of symmetry y-Y of the protected object 1 with respect to the frame 8 of the machine its position does not change.

The rigidity of the received vibration damper is determined by the expression [3, ñ.38]

where W is the dimensionless stiffness of the elastic element (rubber), depending on its form;

G is the shear modulus of rubber, MPa;

S is a sectional area of the elastic element, m;

h - the height of the elastic element, m (figure 1).

For the inclined elastic element under a compressive load by oscillating the protected object 1 dimensionless stiffness W is determined by the formula

where WXand WZrespectively the dimensionless stiffness of the elastic element in the direction of the axes X and Z (Fig 1), φ is the angle coloradodenver elastic element of the vibration damper to the frame.

In the direction of the axis X of the elastic element works on a shift, and in the direction of Z - axis compression.

If the elastic element is located at an angle φ=90° to the frame of the machine, it only works on a shift; WX=1 [3, p.32]. At the location of the elastic element at an angle φ=0° to the frame of the machine it only works on the compression; the value of WZcan be found by the formula [3, p.31]

where α=a/h, a is the length of the prismatic uprugoj the item (1),

if 0,4≤α≤6 [3, p.31].

For prismatic elastic element with dimensions of a=100 mm and h=68 mm α=a/h=100/68=1,47 and formula (3) WZ=6.

Let the cross-sectional area of this elastic element S=and2=0,12=0.01 m2his rubber - stamps 278-4, shear modulus G=6 MPa [3, p.24].

Using the formulas (2) and (1) at values of φ=0, 30, 60, 90°, the obtained values of the dimensionless stiffness W and the calculated stiffness of the vibration damper with one elastic element. The results of the calculations are shown in table 1.

According to table 1, we plot the dependence of the calculated stiffness of the vibration damper angle φ of its elastic element (figure 2). From the graph it is seen that when the angle of inclination of the vibration damper from 0 to 90°, the rigidity of its changes 6 times (from 0,88 up from 5.29 kN/m). The calculated stiffness changes smoothly and in a wide range.

For example, set the operation mode vibracall type DU and DU depends on the kind of the sealed environment. When soil compaction asked the oscillation frequency of vibroplita f=40 Hz, and the compaction of asphalt concrete f=50 Hz [4, p.6]. In transport mode, the vibration source is the engine. Nominal frequency of rotation of the crankshaft of the engine these vibracall the oscillation frequency f=80 Hz.

When the transport-technological vibration velocity in the workplace of the operator (the cab floor) with average geometric frequencies in octave f≥16 Hz should not exceed the established norm v=0,56*10-2(m/s). In transport mode, the velocity is not more than the values v=1,10*10-2(m/c) [5, p.20, table].

The calculation of the required rigidity of the vibration isolators is performed according to the formula [6, 278].

Thus, when changing the mode of operation of the machine when changing the frequency and amplitude of vibrations of the frame of the machine, there is a possibility of changing the stiffness of the reference links securable about the project to reduce vibration characteristics to standard values.

When the kinematic excitation of mass m (cab) from the base P (the frame of the machine, which is equipped with a vibration source) at weak damping (b≈0) and m<ω have the absolute displacement z of the protected object (of mass m) as the sum of the displacement S and the relative movement in accordance with figure 3 [1, str]

where AS- maximum amplitude of the displacement (R); ω - angular frequency of vibration of the base, with-1;- the stiffness coefficient of the elastic element, the stiffness, kN/m

It is known that the angular frequency ω can be expressed through the oscillation frequency f in Hertz, i.e. the

Differentiating the expression (4), we obtain the velocity

The highest value of velocity will be when cosωt=1, then

From the obtained expression is determined based on (5) the required value of the rigidity of the elastic element of insulator, providing the velocity of the protected object (cab) is not more than the allowable value at the specified oscillation frequency f of vibroplita of rollers

The normative value of vibration velocity at frequencies above 16 Hz in octave bands must not exceed 0,11 m/s [2, p.20].

Taking the eat for example A S=0,001, and a lot of cabin rollers do 99 from the mass operator m=375 kg [4, p.6].

Determined required total stiffness vibration isolators cabins at various frequencies of oscillation of the frame data tabulate and build the graph of figure 4.

Table 1
Values and calculated dimensionless stiffness of insulator with one prismatic elastic element made of rubber stamps 278-4
The angle of inclination of the elastic element φ°The dimensionless stiffness WThe calculated stiffness, kN/m
06,000of 5.29
302,6702,35
601,2631,11
901,0000,88
Table 2
The total stiffness vibration isolators
The total stiffness of shock absorbers, and 103kN/m
The frequency of oscillation of the frame, Hz
2040506080
10,722,627,732,842,8

As can be seen from chart 4, the total stiffness vibration isolators cabins with increasing frequency of oscillation of the frame significantly increases. Thus, when changing the mode of operation of the machine when there is a change in the frequency of oscillation of the frame, it is necessary to change the stiffness of the isolators in the reference relationships of the cab. It recommends that the proposed method changes the stiffness of the isolators in supporting the relationships of the protected object.

Sources of information

1. Levites NI Theory of mechanisms and machines. - M.: Nauka, Main editorial Board for physical and mathematical literature. 1970, - 334 S.

2. Vibrations in engineering. The Handbook. Volume 4. Ed. All. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1981.

3. Lyapunov V.T., Lavendel EE, Shaposhnikov S.A. Rubber vibration isolators. Reference guide - HP: Shipbuilding, 1988, - 216 C.

4. The manual and the form rollers DU-98, d-99, d-100. CJSC "Burst" 152934, Russia, Yaroslavl region, grabinski, street Work, 2. www.packat.ru

5. Ivovic VA, Onishchenko VIA vibration in mechanical engineering. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1990. - 272 S.

6. Levites NI Fluctuations in mechanisms: Textbook. aid for technical colleges. - M.: Science, CH. nat. Ed.-Mat. lit., 1988. - 336 S.

The method of vibration protection machines, including the connection of the protected objects with its frame by means of standard rubber vibration isolators consisting of two coloradodenver prismatic elastic elements, privatkundenbank to the upper and lower metal plates tilted to the frame of the object, characterized in that, to reduce vibration of the protected objects of the machine when performing technological operations change its operating mode, respectively forcibly smoothly change the stiffness of the isolators by simultaneous rotation at the same angle with respect to the protected volume of the KTU upper and lower metal plates and privatkundenbank to them elastic prismatic elements.



 

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