Internal combustion engine

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: piston engine comprises engine control system and valve timing phase variation system. Intake pipe houses blow valve while cylinder accommodates intake and discharge valves driven by camshaft. Blow receiver is arranged between blow valve and intake valve. In compliance with this invention, blow valve is opened by partial or complete displacement of throttle driven by common armature of several electromagnets in response to engine control system and valve timing variation system instructions, while intake and discharge valves are driven with no part of valve timing system. Note here that intake valve opens before blow valve to communicate combustion chamber with blow receiver but closes after, before or at a time with blow valve after BDC of intake stroke.

EFFECT: improved operating performances.

13 cl, 13 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of reciprocating internal combustion engines. In the text and in the illustrations (Fig 1...Fig) adopted the following abbreviations:

- Internal combustion engine - an internal combustion engine,

- Mmax- the maximum torque of the internal combustion engine

- Rmax- the maximum power of the internal combustion engine

CC - combustion chamber,

- VCC- the volume of the combustion chamber,

- EXHAUST - exhaust (residual) gases

- MIC - inlet valve,

- Off - the exhaust valve

- RP receiver purge

- VRP- the amount of SPM,

- RRP- pressure in the DP, ATM,

- TDC - top dead center of the piston,

- BDC - bottom dead point of the piston,

- EMR - electromagnetic valve

- CMCS - integrated control system of the internal combustion engine

- CIFG system changes the valve timing,

- VC- the volume of a cylinder

- PC- pressure in the cylinder, ATM.

Pie charts timing:

- the angle of opening or closing of valves counted clockwise from TDC is the start time of intake, in degrees. rotation of the crankshaft,

thick lines correspond to the closed condition of valve thin - open,

- φ is the angle between the moments of opening or closing valves,

- α - angles between TDC or BDC and the opening of valves

- β - angles between TDC or BDC and closing of the valves.

Features of work the different types of internal combustion engines are used to illustrate the single-cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine with injection system power.

Illustrations:

- Figure 1 - classic ice,

- Figure 2 - pie chart of the valve timing of internal combustion engine 1,

- Figure 3 - internal combustion engine with an electromagnetic drive valve

- Figure 4 - diagram of the camshaft internal combustion engine 3 at partial load.

- Figure 5 - internal combustion engine with an EMR in the intake pipe,

- 6 - chart of the valve timing of internal combustion engine 5 in the partial load mode,

- 7 - EMZ,

- Fig - EMZ with non-orthogonal walls,

- Fig.9 - EMZ with cylindrical walls,

- Figure 10 - diagram of the camshaft internal combustion engine with EMZ at full load,

- 11 - chart of the valve timing engine with EMZ in the forced purge

- Fig - internal combustion engine with one EMZ on two cylinders

- Pig diagram of the valve timing engine with EMZ-mode vacuum braking.

Classic ice, despite some shortcomings, is still widely used in industry and transport. Such internal combustion engines, see Figure 1, generally includes a cylinder 1 with a piston 2, MIC 3, off 4. The valves are Cams 5 of the camshaft 6. The piston 2 through the connecting rod 7 rotates the crankshaft 8. Fuel injector and the spark plug is conventionally not shown. Figure 2 is a diagram of timing. Ice shows in the condition of the end of the discharge stroke, the piston is nearly reaches TDC.

At low speed and idle speed exhaust this engine has high toxicity (high levels of CO, CH). This is because at the end of the discharge stroke, the inertia of the exhaust on the movement of the piston is not great, and it largely remains in CA in the form of EXHAUST gas. In subsequent cycles of intake EXHAUST gas is mixed with fresh charge and makes its burning.

To reduce exhaust emissions at the end of the discharge stroke tend to blow the COP of air from the inlet of the pipeline in the direction from MIC 3 : off 4. The fact that near TDC during valve overlap (the angle φ34) there is some time when the pressure in the intake manifold is greater than the outlet, at this time there is the most intense blowing. We denote this time Tabout.

The chart, Figure 2, we denote the start time (measured in degrees) as α0.

From the diagram it is clear that if the MIC 3 opens early - α30then a large amount of EXHAUST gas has time to go out into the intake pipe through the open MIC 3, and the subsequent purging of the EXHAUST gas goes back into the COP.

If α30then times T0and purging does not occur at all. For each specific operation mode of the internal combustion engine has its own α0therefore , the efficiency of purging different at different speeds and under different loads of the classic internal combustion engine. Ho is OSHA blowing is obtained only in a small range of rotation of the crankshaft (average speed - 2000-3000 1/min) because for this mode are empirically defined average value of the angles of the phases α3α4that β3that β4that & Phi;34etc.

With increasing speed of ice time when MIC 3 is fully open, falls, drops in the value of the fresh charge entering the cylinder, and, as a consequence - Mmaxand Pmax, Ice does not "accept" at high rpm.

To increase the charge at high speeds MIC 3 should start to open as early as possible before TDC, increasing the angle α3and, accordingly, increasing the valve overlap φ34. However, (see Figure 1) EXHAUST gas under high pressure, begin to "shoot" into the intake pipe, then they increased the amount of get back into the cylinder on the suction stroke of, and, starting from some value of α3that & Phi;34growth of fresh charge is terminated. As noted in /1/, in most cases, high-speed engines have more phases than the low-speed engines".

Thus, at low, medium and high speed internal combustion engine must be operated with the particular angles of the phases, to obtain the minimum toxicity and maximum power and torque.

Recently in the automotive industry are increasingly used engine with variable valve timing". Almost all well - known companies-BMW, HONDA, ... - developed their own versions of mechanical, Electromechanical, etc. systems (SIFG). Changes the valve timing in a wide rpm range to achieve, as noted in /2/or rotation of the camshaft, or with additional Cams special profile that control already several inlet and multiple exhaust valves of one cylinder. At different engine speeds and loads of ice the corners of the opening (α3) intake valves (usually of different diameters) are different, different and height of lift. This ensures high efficiency purge COP, a sufficient degree of turbulence in charge of intake air, and by the beginning of the movement of the piston down on the intake - sufficient total flow section of all the intake valves for a set of full charge of the cylinder at high rpm. Efficiency CIFG today is such that, for example, when the emission standard Euro 3 engine have such specific power of 125 HP per litre of displacement without charge /2/.

It should be noted that the more efficient mechanical SIFG, so it is naturally more difficult (you have to control multiple valves), more expensive and more cumbersome. In some types of engines used up to five valves per cylinder.

A further step in the improvement, according to the same /2/, is the use of electromagnetic valve actuators under the control of the comprehensive engine management system (CMCS).

Such internal combustion engines (see figure 3) contains all the components of the classic internal combustion engine of figure 1, but the valve MIC 3 and 4 is off the electromagnets 9, 10, respectively, under the control of the CMCS 11.

The source data for the CMCS are widely known parameters:

- Speed - n,

- Air volume - VIn,

- The level of CO or O2,

- Impulse "start" - TN,

- The coolant temperature TThe OHLand so on

From these data, the CMCS determines the moments of opening and closing MIC 3, off 4, opens and closes the fuel injector, etc. At the height of the lifting valve according to /2/, the maximum possible and is not regulated, the charge of the cylinder 1 at the inlet is determined by the duration of the open state of the MIC 3, feeding the mixture on all the modes are the same and are close to stoichiometric. Engine has no throttle. Figure 3 fuel injector and spark conventionally not shown.

At full power the combustion engine works as a classic on the chart 2.

At partial load the chart, Figure 4, as follows.

MIC 3 on the suction stroke of closed much earlier NMT, for example, at point I. Upon further movement of the piston down to BDC (angle β3) pressure PCfalls below atmospheric, occurs the vacuum brake piston and the internal combustion engine spends energy on overcoming protivotumanki, but after the LDP on the movement of the piston on the compression stroke, to the point II (approximately symmetric point I LDP)spent energy back (piston retracted). Thus, the ice no pumping losses at part load. Pumping loss characteristic of the engine with the throttle.

In the whole range of engine speed and in the entire load range of CMCS able to provide optimal angles of timing.

The desire to bring the valve electromagnets came from designers long ago (about this feature and other publications), but to implement it in the serial engine is worth a lot of effort. The thing is that everywhere used Cam camshaft simple, cheap and reliable, the Cam is not simply presses and releases the valve stem, it leads smoothly clicking (opening) and smoothly releasing (closing), the latter is very important - the valve closes without hitting the plate on the saddle.

When using the valve actuator solenoid (hereinafter - EMC - electromagnetic valve), the valve can quickly open (unlike Cam), using the coil of the electromagnet a lot of current, but it's not just to close quickly without impact (described in /2/), the current of the electromagnet is reduced by special madprog is the Amma the CMCS.

Further, the absence of pumping losses determined by the fact that EMC has only two States - fully open - fully closed. However, the number of modes partial load of internal combustion engine it is desirable to have the ability to not fully open EMK intake. This makes the turbulence enhances the mixing of air and fuel, facilitates the formation of layer-by-layer charge when starting a cold engine and idling. The effort of opening of the Poppet valve is determined mainly by the force of the return spring and is quite large (up to 20 kg in MIC 3, off 4 - more), when using conventional materials, the volume of the solenoid actuator of a valve of about 0.5 liters, it is bulky. It is difficult to obtain high frequency operation (50 Hz and higher). In General, the electromagnetic valve today is very expensive, complicated and does not allow partially open state.

The purpose of the invention is due to minor design changes to make possible the use of low-EMK.

For this part of the basic uses the classic design of the internal combustion engine Cam camshaft and the intake manifold at a small distance before the intake valve is advanced valve-valve actuated by an electromagnet (the EMR). The valve is easily opened and closed (rising and falling) without at the Ara and provides the change of the charge cylinder air within wide limits. Note that /3/ you know the use of unmanaged return valve in the intake pipe.

Ice (see Figure 5) contains the cylinder 1 with a piston 2, MIC 3, off 4. The latter are the Cams 5 of the camshaft 6. The piston 2 through the connecting rod 7 rotates the crankshaft 8. EMZ 12 placed in front of the MIC 3 at a small distance (for example, 1...5 cm), it is a dual radar controlled non-return valve, which is opened and closed by an electromagnet (EM) running the CMCS 11, this system controls the fuel injector 13 and the candle 14.

Ice shows in the condition of the end of the discharge stroke, the piston 2 almost reaches TDC. Pie chart of timing in the partial load mode is presented on Fig.6.

Let us consider the design and operation of the EMR 12 (see Fig.7).

The valve body 13 is mounted in the intake manifold and has two transverse partitions 14, spaced from each other at a small distance (l=0.5...3 mm). Partitions have the same coaxial perforations with a maximum height of element h1the vertical. Between the partitions placed light plate - valve 15 with a thickness S, with the same perforations as the walls. Flap 15 with a lever 16 can be moved up and down to full overlap or coincidence of their perforations with the perforations of the partitions. Craving is associated with dvuhholos the m cylindrical armature electromagnets 17 18-19 and 20-21, 18, 20 cores, and 19, 21 - coils, respectively. The coils of the electromagnets are activated and de-energized through the keys 22, 23. If enabled, the electromagnet 18-19 and off - 20-21, the anchor 17 and the flap 15 occupy the lower position the valve is closed (holes in the walls 14 is overlapped by the flap 15).

If enabled, the electromagnet 20-21 and off - 18-19, the anchor 17 and the valve 15 is moved upwards, the valve is open.

In the closed state of the flap 15 behaves like a check valve for air flow left-to-right and air flow and the EXHAUST gas from right to left. When this valve is pressure of the gas is pressed or to the right wall or the left. According to Fig.7 EMZ 12 has two stable position (open-closed), it is easy to make and the intermediate position (see Fig.7, dashed line), increasing the number of magnets and putting them in other planes around the anchor. Accordingly, you should change the amount of displacement of the electromagnets on the height h to the value h/2 with three electromagnets, h/3 - at four, and so on

Perforation of the flap 15 and the partition walls 14 may not be regular and can have holes and groups of unequal area, it causes turbulence (turbulization) flow of intake air and improves carburation the mixture.

Important area of passage (flow) EMZ 12. In this regard, the partitions can be of potoglou to the axis O-O 1the inlet pipe (see Fig), consist of several parts, as well as to have a curved surface, such as cylindrical (see Fig.9).

The quantum of the issue (see Fig.6) opened off 4, and MIC 3 and EMZ 12 is closed, the exhaust goes into the exhaust manifold. Not reaching TDC starts to open MIC 3, EMZ 12 is closed. The EXHAUST gas under positive pressure are included in the scope between MIC 3 & EMZ 12 (hereinafter, this volume - RP receiver purge according to /3/) and compress the air (shown by a dashed line and dots).

As the EXHAUST gas pressure, Rogfalls compressed in the SPM the air expands. gaining speed and expels EXHAUST from the DP back in KC and then, under the effect of ejection, in the exhaust manifold, with Pogfalls below atmospheric. At this point (it can occur before TDC and after, depending on rpm and engine load) open EMZ 12 (it opens instantly and completely), is blowing the COP of air from the inlet of the pipeline in the direction from MIC 3 : off 4. Further, when closed off 4 and a fully open EMZ 12 and MIC 3 is the charge of the cylinder. Phase MIC 3 and off 4 unchanged. The angle α3- start open MIC 3 selected the most high, so that by the time TDC it would be fully open, this provides maximum charge cylinder at high rpm.

At partial load of the internal combustion engine (see f is 6) EMZ 12 closes long before the NMT quantum intake (for example, in position III), this provides a partial charge, despite the fact that MIC 3 still open. Further, with continued movement of the piston 2 down over it creates a vacuum, engine spends energy on overcoming protivotumanki. On the motion of the piston 2 up to the position IV spent energy on overcoming protivotumanki returns (the piston retracts into the cylinder).

Shortly after BDC of the suction stroke of the beginning of the compression stroke) as all the classic ice MIC 3 is closed (see angle β3). This is followed by cycles: the compression stroke, the release.

It should be noted that in the continuation of the angle φ3in SPM the pressure below atmospheric, at this time, it is desirable briefly to open EMZ 12 and to equalize the pressure on the left and right of the valve (see Fig.6 shaded sector φy). Sector & Phi;ycan be located anywhere within an angle φ3(see, for example, sectors & Phi;N1that & Phi;U2).

Thus, the Belleville MIC 3 and off 4, located in the cylinder act as compression (ensure the retention of the working fluid at high pressures and temperatures), and managed - EMZ 12, provides the charge cylinder from minimum to full, and because it is outside the cylinder, it is not subject to high requirements on preservation of compression when exposed to high pressure and temperature. The differential pressure is of the left and right of the EMZ about 0.5 ATM. EMZ 12 is in the form of a light, thin flaps, works essentially without shock when opening and closing, provides a high frequency, since the weight of the valve is small, allows the intermediate position and is controlled by the capacity of one order of magnitude smaller than that of the prototype. Move the flap up and down - units of millimeters.

It should be noted that at partial load of the internal combustion engine, the energy spent to overcome protivotumanki intake, not fully returned, the value of no return without taking into account other losses is estimated as the ratio of:

Q=VRP/(VRP+VC)

and at the lowest load of internal combustion engine reaches 10%.

At full throttle the engine works as a classic, the maximum charge (see Figure 10) involves simultaneous closing of the MIC 3 and EMZ 12 (or MIC 3 closes before EMZ 12). Point β3set the position of the Cam and is unchanged.

At full throttle the engine can operate with a forced purge of high pressure, as, for example, internal combustion engines /3/. For this initially (see 11) is that the MIC 3 closes a little later than when a full charge, and EMZ 12 is closed at the time of full charge (β12), i.e. before the MIC 3. Between these moments is formed angle φ12,3. Ice in this mode is as follows.

When the piston position cut later NMT quantum intake, when the charge cylinder dialed completely closed EMZ 12, and starts the compression volume VC+VRP. When reaching high pressure, for example, RC=2 (this occurs through the angle φ12,3), closes MIC 3, continued compression in the cylinder, and RP is stored air pressure PRP=2. This is followed by cycles of the stroke and release. At the end of the discharge stroke when closed EMZ 12 open MIC 3, and the air from the TL blows COP over the angle φ3,12in the direction from MIC 3 : off 4. High pressure blowdown will also be observed in the range of angles 2β12under partial load after the point V. Up to this point, RRP<1 and, as noted above, after the suction stroke of need short-term open EMZ 12 to ensure that φy(6). To do it or not, decides the CMCS 11 depending on the current value of the angle φ12.

It should be noted (see Figure 5)that the volume VRPseemingly, should be minimized to decrease the amount of no return - Q. But at low VRPlittle air to blow the COP after discharge stroke, and EMZ 12 amplifies the negative impact of a relatively high EXHAUST gas temperatures.

If a strong increase of the VRP(for example, up to several volumes of the COP, this corresponds to growth of size L), the primordial principle of the invention will be meaningless - it will be impossible to provide a small charge,because after the early closing EMZ 12 at a small charge cylinder still reach full charge of SPM through the open MIC 3. Of course, for each particular engine has its own optimal VRPthat is determined empirically, but on average it is comparable with the volume of the combustion chamber:

To start a cold engine on a small charge, especially at negative ambient temperatures, is problematic because the small little charge pressure of the working mixture at the end of the compression stroke is small, the temperature - charge poorly ignited with a spark. During a cold start, it is desirable for a short time to give a full charge of air, thus forming the layered mixture enriched in the area of the candles, the task falls to the CMCS 11.

The EMR provides a wide control of the engine.

1. It allows much earlier to open the inlet valve of the cylinder and thereby gain greater momentum and torque from the engine.

2. In the process of purging for cover angle valves & Phi;34EMZ because of the low inertia can be opened and closed several times. In multi-cylinder internal combustion engine in the area of the open outlet valve are observed harmonic oscillations of the pressure caused by the exhaust from the other cylinder, and also due to the acoustic resonance phenomena on individual sections of the exhaust system. These oscillations, respectively, the change in Pog. EMZ open at Pog<1 and close when Rog >1.

3. Ice you like to /3/ to operate, completely covering the EMR. This corresponds to the disconnection of the cylinder. There is also the operation of the vacuum brake (see Fig). Here in the suction stroke of the EMR is closed (or opened) - is the vacuum brake piston (the stronger, the less open the valve). Before BDC of the suction stroke of the EMR fully open the cylinder is filled with air at atmospheric pressure. After the LDP and close MIC 3 in the cylinder is compressed air, then stroke stroke is its extension, the end of which is open when off 4 the air exits into the exhaust pipe, etc. In this mode, accordingly, the fuel is not supplied, the brake effect is regulated by either the size of the opening of the EMR, or the duration of the fully closed state of the EMR for the suction stroke of.

Mode vacuum braking can also be obtained by repeatedly opening and closing the EMR during the suction stroke of.

4. In partial load mode of the internal combustion engine as in the prototype /2/can work in mode pulse-width modulation. While the EMR is fully open on a part of the step duration inlet (pump no losses).

Pets mode with partly open EMZ throughout the suction stroke of like when working with the throttle (maximum pumping losses).

Pets mixed mode (small is asonye loss). For example, on the suction stroke of the first EMR opened fully (pumping losses are minimal, the fuel is not supplied), then opened partially (air flows with high turbulence, the fuel is supplied, is formed a stoichiometric mixture), then the EMR is fully opened (the fuel is not supplied). Thus is formed the layer of the mixture on a full charge the cylinder with air. If the third stage valve is closed, is formed layer-by-layer mixture with incomplete charge air. EMZ per cycle inlet can be opened completely or partially several times.

Literature

1. Vastukala. Fundamentals of theory of automotive engines and cars: a Training manual. ): FORUM: INFRA-M, 2004, p.55.

2. Afomin and Avorable-Obukhov. Camshaft - retired: "za rulem", No. 11, 1998.; the prototype.

3. AS the USSR №889878 CL G02B 29/00.

1. Four-stroke reciprocating internal combustion engine (ice)that contains the power supply system and the ignition system under the management of a comprehensive engine management system (CMCS); system changes the valve timing (SIPG), at least one cylinder, a piston, kinematically connected to the crankshaft; a purge valve (KP), located in the intake pipe; a camshaft through the Cams causes the intake and exhaust valves located in the cylinder, and the receiver purge, located between the gearbox and inlet CL the pan, characterized in that in order to simplify the design and improve the operational characteristics of the CP offers a fully or partially offset valve, which is common anchor several electromagnets command CMCS with the participation CIFG; intake and exhaust valves are without the participation CIFG, the intake valve opens before the CP, connecting the combustion chamber with the receiver purge and closes later, before or simultaneously with it after the bottom dead point of the suction stroke of.

2. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, wherein the gearbox includes two fixed transverse partitions with the same coaxial perforations, between which there is a valve with the same perforation, moving (valve) there is a complete or partial overlapping perforations or a full match.

3. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the total anchor electromagnets cylindrical and has one or more salient poles in the form of a cylinder of larger diameter, which (the poles) are positioned opposite poles of the magnetic circuits of the respective electromagnets:
electromagnet closed KP,
electromagnet fully open in KP,
electromagnet partially open state of the control.

4. The internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that one CP is the total inlet t is the UBA and used for two cylinders, the pistons are shifted in phase by 360°.

5. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that, to increase the flow area KP, plane partitions installed at angles other than 90° relative to the axis of the inlet pipe.

6. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that, to increase the flow area KP, septum and flap may be coaxially curved surface (e.g., cylindrical).

7. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, 2, characterized in that, to increase turbulence in the charge, the transverse septum and flap have groups with different area elements perforation.

8. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that, for the purpose of optimum purging of the combustion chamber, the opening KP and the flow through it is determined by the CMCS with the participation CIFG differentially for each specific mode of operation of the engine.

9. The internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that, with the aim of improving the purging of the combustion chamber, during the period of time when the intake valve is closed, the CP has the ability to briefly open command CMCS.

10. The internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that, with the aim of improving the purging of the combustion chamber, during the time of overlap of the valves of the cylinder KP has the ability to open and close several times on teams of CMCS.

11. The internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that for obtaining optimalnyh working mixtures at different modes of operation of the internal combustion engine during the suction stroke of KP can be opened for some time, completely or partially, as well as alternating between these two modes in which the fuel can either be filed or not.

12. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the vacuum mode of engine braking KP partially or completely closed on the suction stroke of, but short is fully open before closing the intake valve, the fuel in the cylinder is not supplied.

13. The internal combustion engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the vacuum mode of engine braking KP during the suction stroke of opened and closed several times, the fuel in the cylinder is not available.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: piston engine comprises engine control system and valve timing phase variation system. Intake pipe houses blow valve while cylinder accommodates intake and discharge valves driven by camshaft. Blow receiver is arranged between blow valve and intake valve. In compliance with this invention, blow valve is opened by partial or complete displacement of throttle driven by common armature of several electromagnets in response to engine control system and valve timing variation system instructions, while intake and discharge valves are driven with no part of valve timing system. Note here that intake valve opens before blow valve to communicate combustion chamber with blow receiver but closes after, before or at a time with blow valve after BDC of intake stroke.

EFFECT: improved operating performances.

13 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Proposed engine comprises compressor, toothed two-rotor engine, systems of gas distribution, fuel feed, cooling, lubrication and control. Air injection and compression and off-gas exhaust are performed at a time with working stroke. Every rotor of toothed two-rotor engine is provided with one working tooth. Gas distribution drum is arranged ahead of combustion chamber inlet. Said drum is shaped to hollow cylinder housing impeller running in air cushion. Compressed air forced from screw compressor receiver is fed to aforesaid drum via face wall opening and, therefrom, via bypass channel arranged along drum cylindrical wall, into combustion chamber. After engine start and warm-up, additional nonpolluting working strokes for extra engine cooling may be used by feeding sprayed water in combustion chamber instead of fuel. Water can convert into steam after heat exchange with engine inner parts. Steam pressure acts of cross-section area of two working tooth to be transformed into rotation with positive torque at engine output shafts.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, power output and reliability, nonpolluting engine.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: motor industry.

SUBSTANCE: Ranque effect is used when fuel is supplied into a combustion chamber of a piston ICE. For this purpose fuel in air flow is supplied tangentially to the inner cylindrical wall of the combustion chamber, as a result of which the charging temperature at the periphery of the cylinder increases, and conditions for mixture formation improve.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of engine operation.

2 dwg

FIELD: engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in control systems of internal combustion engines (ICE). Disclosed is a method of operating a drive unit with petrol engine (1) and an exhaust gas cooling system. According to method of combustion air is supplied to cylinder (3) of petrol engine (1) through inlet valve is compressed with by turbo-compressor (12), which has turbine (13) with variable geometry of vanes. Inlet valve closes before piston reaches cylinder (3) of lower dead point. Exhaust gas supplied to turbine is cooled in portion of exhaust pipe, in particular in exhaust manifold. Also provided is a drive unit for carrying out disclosed method and a vehicle.

EFFECT: technical result is high engine efficiency.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: one charges the pneumatic accumulator for the scavenging of the external combustion chamber and single-pulse motor cylinder with the external combustion chamber. The compressed air in the pistons compressor cavities goes in the external combustion chamber and simultaneously in the pneumatic accumulator through the back-pressure valve in the open for the charge position of the scavenging valve while the charging the pneumatic accumulator when piston moving from one movement end point to another movement end point. The controlling system transforms all the diverter valves to the open position and the scavenging valve to the open one. The pneumatic accumulator air flows from the pneumatic accumulator through the scavenging valve, back-pressure valves, external combustion chamber and open diverter valves and takes the contaminations out of the combustion chamber and of the single-pulse motor cylinder with the external combustion chamber.

EFFECT: supply of the single-pulse motor cylinder with the external combustion chamber persistent fuel combustion process.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, radius rk of vehicle propulsor, namely, drive wheel or drive sprocket, and vehicle gross weight G, are measured, and using load brake, engine torque Me id changed. Engine torque Me and engine speed n set by means of governor are measured for each value of torque Me, and fuel consumption for each value of engine torque Me is measured and, basing on results of measurements, curve is plotted showing dependence of power Ne from engine torque Me. Drawbar force Pdr of traction vehicle is found from expression Pdr= Metr·i/rk)-Pfmax, where ηtr is transmission efficiency; I is transmission gear ratio; Pfmax is traction vehicle maximum rolling resistance found from expression Pfmax=fmax·G, where fmax is maximum rolling resistance coefficient, and G is gross weight of traction vehicle. Skid coefficient δ of traction vehicle is found and result are transformed into electric signals which are sent to computer to plot curves showing dependence of drawbar force Pdr from engine torque Me for different gears of vehicle and dependence of skid coefficient δ from drawbar force Pdr of traction vehicle after which maximum drawbar force Pdrmax created by propulsors of traction vehicle with gross weight is determined and signals are formed and sent to computer to determine skid coefficient from dependence of skid coefficient δ from vehicle drawbar force Pdr, for each gear of vehicle signals are formed and sent to computer to determine corresponding value of torque Me1 maximum drawbar force Pdrmax dependence of drawbar force Pdr from torque Me, then signal is formed and sent to computer to determine power Ne1 for maximum drawbar force Pdrmax by value of torque Me1 from curve showing dependence of engine power Ne from engine torque Me, value of power Ne1, thus found, is compared with value of power Ne from engine specifications and if they do not coincide, engine speed n and transmission gear ratio I are adjusted.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of use of vehicle engine owing to increased accuracy of measurement of engine power with account of specific operating conditions of vehicle, reduced labor input at measurements and processing of results of measurements.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to testing and regulating of internal combustion engines. According to proposed method, radius rk of vehicle propulsor is measuring and as well as vehicle gross weight G, and using load brake, engine torque Me is changed. Engine torque Me and engine speed n are measured. Fuel consumption for each value of engine torque Me is measured and basing on results of measurement curve is plotted showing dependence of engine power Ne from engine torque Me, tangential traction force Pt of vehicle propulsor on radius rk is found from expression Pt= Me·ηtr·i/rk, where ηtr is transmission efficiency; I is transmission gear ratio, speed V of vehicle engine is found from expression V=3,377·rk·n/i, maximum tangential traction force Pt max, created by propulsors of vehicle with gross weight G is found from expression Pt maxmax·G, where ϕmax is maximum adhesion coefficient of propulsors with ground. Results are transformed into electric signals, signals are sent to computer and, basing on the signals curves are plotted showing dependence of traction force Pt from engine torque Me and dependences of vehicle speeds V for different gears of vehicle from value of tangential traction force Pt and after determining maximum tangential traction force Pt max for each gear of vehicle, signals are formed and sent to computer to determine corresponding speed Vmax 1 for maximum tangential traction force Pt max from relationship of vehicle speed V and value of tangential traction force Pt and corresponding value of torque Me1 for maximum tangential traction force Pt max from dependence of tangential traction force Pt from torque Me after which signals are formed and sent to computer to determine power Ne for maximum tangential traction force Pt max by value of torque Me1 from curve showing dependence of engine power Ne from engine torque Me. If value of maximum tangential traction force Pt max exceeds value of tangential traction force Pt1 for first gear, signals are formed and sent to computer to determine power Ne1 and torque Men1 from expressions Ne1=Pt max·V1/270·ηtr1 and Men1 Pt max·rk/ ηtr1·i1, where V1 is speed of vehicle in first gear, i1 is transmission gear ratio in first gear; ηtr1 is transmission efficiency in first gear, rk is vehicle propulsor radius. Power values found by calculations and from curve, are compared, and if they do not coincide, speed n of engine and transmission gear ratio I are adjusted.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of use of vehicle internal combustion engine owing to increased accuracy of measurement of engine power with account of specific operating conditions of vehicle, reduced labor input at measurements and processing of results of measurements.

1 dwg

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