Method for cleaning-up of ore bed reservoirs beneath open pit bottom
SUBSTANCE: method for cleaning-up of ore bed reservoirs is performed by means of desalination. In this respect, hole-drilling of solid ore is performed, as well as its explosive rupture, filling of blasted capacity with working solution and egress of product solution. Besides, the outer configuration of blasted capacity is drilled around at an angle equal to slope angle of working ledge. Along the centre line of blasted capacity all the way down the cleaning-up of ore bed an efficient well is drilled. The rest of ore body is drilled around by closed parallel rows of vertical wells. While stable roach is being blasted, all the capacity of blasted ore bed, including its outside configuration, is drilled around by vertical wells of the similar depth.
EFFECT: ensuring stability of open pit side and rising safety level of mining operations.
The invention relates to mining technology and can be used for the completion of the reserves remaining after the completion of mining in an open way, and when integrated and combined physical-technical and physical-chemical methods of mining.
Known combined methods the development of reserves of ore deposits, consisting of elements of the downhole and subsurface leaching systems, such as uranium. The proposed methods perform explosive destruction of the ore, magazynowania repulsed in volume, supply of reagents to the wells drilled from the surface, and receiving productive solutions in underground mining. The status of rocks reach partial release of ore from the cutting slit, blasting by-ore pillar in the trench with a volume greater than the volume of the pillar in 1,5-2 times, and Samoobrona Packed partially leached ore on the newly formed space [1, 2]. The disadvantages of these technical solutions is conducting a large amount of preparatory-threaded work, the high complexity of the formation of additional free space, which is Samoobrona ore.
Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result of the proposed method is the development of shallow reserves of the ore body by the method of underground leaching. The ore body is exposed from the surface of the wells with a diameter of 243 mm Block razvarivat chess grid wells on average 48 PM Central wells are compensating space, corner wells are explosive. For pumping a working solution using the well depth of 22 m, for pumping productive solutions - wells at a depth of 45 m with an angle of 2-3° to the vertical . The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of efficient mining pologozalegajushchih and inclined deposits.
The aim of the invention is the provision of pit slope stability, improving the safety of mining operations at the completion of the inventory under the bottom of the quarry.
This goal is achieved by the fact that the revision of reserves of ore deposits total depth revision of the ore reserves is determined by the formula: Hd=0,5(Dd-2b)tgα, where Nd- total depth revision of reserves, m; Dd- the radius of the bottom of the quarry, m; b - width of the ledge, m; α is the angle of the slope of the working bench, hail; the outer contour of the destroyed volume of ore array amerivault wells at an angle equal to the angle of repose of the working bench, and a depth equal tolocated on the bottom of the quarry at a distance equal to the width of the working of the ledge from the foot of the last ledge; on the axial line of the destroyed volume on all GLA is inu improvements stocks Buryats outstanding well and the rest of the ore body amerivault closed and located at a distance equal LNS apart, parallel rows of vertical wells, the depth within each row take constant, and between the rows variable, defined by the formula Lbi=Hd-niWtgα, where ni- the number of the parallel rows, counting from the Central issued by wells; W - value line of least resistance for a specific type of rocks determined in a known manner, m; in each row, vertical wells and in an inclined row of contour wells are drilling charge well:where Nδi- quantity charge wells in the i-th row; and equally distributed between the compensating non-rechargeable wells in the amount of
where Kp- the rate of loosening rocks at explosive crushing units.; W - value line of least resistance for a specific type of rocks determined in a known manner, m; Dpi- the diameter of the i-th unit of a closed series of vertical or inclined wells, m; ni- the number of the parallel rows, counting from the Central vydatnou well; dto- diameter compensation wells, M.
When finalizing the reserves of mineral deposits operations what's with resistant rocks destroy the entire volume of ore array including its external contour, amerivault closed parallel vertical rows of wells of the same depth equal to the depth revision of the reserves and the outstanding depth of the well increases by a value not less than 10 of its diameters.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the completion of the inventory ore deposits under the bottom of the quarry, presents unstable rocks. Figure 2 shows the location of the contour, explosive and non-rechargeable wells at the bottom. Figure 3 shows the completion of the inventory ore deposits under the bottom of the quarry, presents sustainable rocks.
In the drawings shows an open excavation - 1; Board career - 2; the angle of the slope of the working bench - 3; the outer contour of the destroyed volume of ore array - 4; inclined wells in the external circuit of the destroyed volume of ore array - 5; the bottom of the quarry with the radius Dd- 6; revision reserves the depth Hd- 7; width of the ledge b - 8; charge wells of the i-th number is 9; the line of least resistance vertical wells (W) for a particular type of rocks - 10; the diameter of the i-th unit of a closed series of vertical or inclined wells Dpi- 11; evenly distributed between charged compensating non-rechargeable wells - 12; destroyed on the eat ore array 13; outstanding well - 14.
The way of completion of inventory of ore deposits under the bottom of the quarry includes the development of open mine workings 1, the creation of the pit 2 with the angle of repose of the working of the ledge 3, forming the outer contour of the destroyed volume of ore array 4 drilling and blasting inclined wells 5 and forming the perimeter of the radius of the quarry bottom 6 and the depth of development of the reserves of 7, the creation of employment sites ledge 8, the drilling from the bottom of the quarry charge wells 9 of the i-th row with the line of least resistance vertical wells (W) for a particular type of rocks 10, at each given diameter 11 of the i-th unit closed number evenly distributed between the charge wells of the compensating non-rechargeable wells 12, creating a destroyed volume of ore array 13 and the filling of the destroyed volume of the working solution and the issuance of a productive solution through outstanding well known construction 14.
The method is implemented as follows (figure 1).
After working career 1 to a maximum depth training to mining stocks under the bottom of the quarry by the method of underground leaching. To ensure the sustainability of the pit with the radius of the bottom 6 revision ore reserves lead to a depth of 7 revision Hd=0,5(Dd-2b)tgα, and obtaining useful is omponent - method of underground leaching. For this purpose on the bottom of the quarry at a distance from the flanges 2 career, equal to the width of the working of the ledge 8, along the sole of the last ledge produce blasthole drilling 5 at an angle of 3, equal to the angle of repose of the working bench, and a depth equal to
The remainder of the ore body amerivault closed and located at a distance equal to the line of least resistance 10 apart, parallel rows of vertical wells 9, the depth of which within each row take constant, and between the rows variable, defined by the formula: Lbi=Hd-niWtgα. In each row, vertical wells and in an inclined row of contour wells are drilling charge wells in the number of(figure 2). Available on the diameter 11 of the i-th unit closed several explosive vertical and inclined compensation wells contain uniformly distributed between compensation non-rechargeable wells 12 in the amount of
Blasting wells 5 and 9 creates an external circuit 4 destructible ore array and determines the amount of crushed ore array 13. Inside the outline destroyed ore mass produce the flow of the working solution, and the issuance of a productive solution is performed through : the expansion of the borehole 14.
At the completion of the inventory under the bottom of the quarry (figure 3), presents sustainable rocks, destroy the entire volume of ore array 13, including its external circuit 4, amerivault closed parallel rows of vertical wells 9 are the same depth equal to the depth revision of the inventory 7 and the outstanding depth of the borehole 14 increase in the amount of not less than 10 of its diameters.
Sources of information
1. Lunev LI Mining system development of deposits of uranium underground leaching / Under the General editorship of N. Chesnokov. - M.: Energoizdat, 1982. - 128 S.
2. AC 829887 the Method of underground leaching of minerals. Priority: 23.03.1979,, MKI: E 21 In 43/28, E 21 41/06.
3. Abramov A.V. Mining operations in the exploration for underground leaching. Exploration and conservation of mineral resources, 1983, No. 7, S. 39-42.
Way to Refine the ore reserves under the bottom of the quarry leaching, which includes the drilling of ore mass, its explosive destruction, filling the destroyed volume of the working solution and the issuance of a productive solution, characterized in that, to ensure the pit slope stability and security of work, the total depth of the improvements ore reserves is determined by the formula:
where Nd- total depth revision of reserves, m;
Dd- the radius of the bottom of the quarry, m;
b - width raboteg the ledge, m;
α is the angle of the slope of the working bench, deg;
the outer contour of the destroyed volume of ore array amerivault wells at an angle equal to the angle of repose of the working bench, and a depth equal tolocated on the bottom of the quarry at a distance of cos α, equal to the width of the working of the ledge from the foot of the last ledge on the axial line of the destroyed volume on the depth revision of reserves Buryats outstanding well known construction, and the remainder of the ore body amerivault closed and spaced from each other equal to the line of least resistance, parallel rows of vertical wells, the depth within each row take constant, and between the rows variable, defined by the formula:
where ni- the number of the parallel series, considering issuing from the Central bore;
W - value line of least resistance for a specific type of rocks determined in a known manner, m;
in each row, vertical wells and in an inclined row of contour wells are drilling rechargeable wells in quantity:
where Nδi- quantity charge wells in the i-th row;
and equally distributed between the compensating not charge well, if this (or sustainable is ornago rocks destroy the entire volume of ore array including its external contour, amerivault closed parallel vertical rows of wells of the same depth equal to the depth revision of the reserves and the outstanding depth of the well increases by a value not less than 10 of its diameters.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of sands by quality by means of establishment of upper and lower limits of a producing part with different content of a useful component, further, after development of sands using the method of preliminary separation of coarse fractions, high-quality sands are supplied for enrichment, and an intermediate process reservoir, where low-quality sands are stored, is used for natural separation of rock and metal minerals by density in water medium and concentration of a precious component in a lower layer, then the upper layer is removed, and the lower concentrate layer from the process reservoir is sent for enrichment. Low-quality sands pass through additional stage of useful component concentration by natural separation of minerals by density, at the same time gold particles are concentrated in the lower layer, and clayey particles go into drainage.
EFFECT: improved performance indices of sands processing, reduced losses of fine gold, lower processed volumes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves delineation of balance and industrial reserves as per the data of exploration wells, drilling and mining activities; re-delineation of industrial reserves is performed after their delineation along the top of sands. At that, new contour at excavation of rock mass is set from cross point of exploration well with initial contour of industrial reserves at minimum elevation of balance reserves as to top of bed of sands to cross point of contour of balance sands-peat reserves at an exit angle of excavating transport vehicle of stripping equipment, and where there are no cross points of new contour with contour of balance reserves as to top of bed of sands - parallel to initial contour of industrial reserves.
EFFECT: reducing operating losses of useful component.
SUBSTANCE: method involves stripping operations, excavation and transportation of sands with bulldoser to vibration screen with further feed of sands to the receiving sump and further transportation to mineral processing equipment. Receiving sump is formed in the form of a pit drilled to the rock bed along the circuit of reserves and longitudinally separated with a pillar into two semi-pits: one is meant for sand storage, the other one is meant for boulders; screen is installed on sand supply side with possibility of its being moved along the pit with an inclination providing boulder movement to the second semi-pit.
EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of mining equipment at development of boulder gravel mineral deposits owing to extraction of boulders to specially prepared space.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used to develop natural and anthropogenic high-clayey gravel deposits of minerals with high content of fine and thin gold. The method of acoustic and hydraulic pulse softening and disintegration of high-plastic clay sands of gold-bearing placers includes placer opening, formation of an accumulator, softening of clay sands with the help of water supply and subsequent filtration process, assembly of a plant of discharge hydraulic transportation of the hydraulic mixture. Hydraulic washing of sands is carried out with subsequent free-flow supply of a hydraulic mixture into the accumulator and subsequent pressure hydraulic transportation of the hydraulic mixture to the system of washing and sizing, which is coupled with an additional accumulator by means of a mechanism that supplies the sized hydraulic mixture. Periodic acoustic exposure is carried out with directed radiation of 20 kHz frequency and intensity from 5 to 10 W/cm2 to a large-sized solid component of the hydraulic mixture in the additional accumulator before and after periodical hydrodynamic exposure of pulse loads generated in case of high-voltage electric breakthrough and producing voltage with exceeding the limit strength of the solid component of the hydraulic mixture depending on its water saturation. Number of charges is determined on the basis of the specific size of the largest piece.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of damage and disintegration of clay sands of placers.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used in developing natural and technogenic placer deposits of natural resources with increased content of fine and thin gold. Proposed method comprises deposit opening, producing sump, weakening rocks by feeding water and filtration, and mounting pipeline transport of hydraulic mix with pumps with hydrodynamic cavitation agitator. Pre-loosened mined rock arranged in sump first section by bulldozer agitator is subjected to ultrasound at frequency of 20 Hz and intensity of 10 to 20 W/cm2. Water is forced into sump first section in amount making 0.15 to 0.3 of volume content of rocks lumps at porosity of 26 to 40% to act by ultrasound with 20 Hz-frequency and 10 to 20 W/cm2-intensity onto hydraulic mix and feeding said mix to system of jetting and grading with pre-disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation agitator. Simultaneously with loosening mined rock in first section, second sump section is filled with loosened mined rock. Jetting and grading with barren rock and feeding hydraulic mix in additional sump are performed for additional saturation with water. Water is additionally fed into additional sump with the solid-to-liquid ratio of 3:7 to act by ultrasound with 20 Hz frequency and 10 to 20 W/cm2 intensity onto hydraulic mix solid component in additional sump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and environmental safety.
SUBSTANCE: method includes definition of coordinates of receiving hopper location and arrangement, definition of average transportation distance at specified receiving hopper location and on the basis of this information technical and economical parameters of ground development, rock straight movement towards receiving hopper by bulldozer, washing and extraction of mineral resource. Note that average transportation distance is defined as weighted average distance from receiving hopper to all points of the ground of random configuration and area S at zero point located at hopper location point.
EFFECT: improvement of excavation equipment effectiveness and decrease of daylighting and mining activities prime cost at placer mines development.
SUBSTANCE: development method involves drilling of ditches with arrangement of removed peats in external dumps, melting of permafrost sands in natural way, movement of sands with excavating equipment, development of sands with a drag in longitudinal adjacent ways. Development of terrace placers above flood-plains is performed in steps in longitudinal strips with piling of peats in internal longitudinal dam constructed in the area of excavated sands. For rising the water level in drag section and flooding of sand molten in natural way, for the purpose of their being protected against season freezing, not only longitudinal transport dams, but also longitudinal dam built from removed sands and transverse dams built from overburden peats are used. Area of removed sands is created by driving advance longitudinal trench and by dragging sands with slanting (non-symmetrical) working face in adjacent area developed with primary travel of the drag.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing development efficiency of terrace placers.
9 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: first bottom is divided as to width into two parts. Drain is performed on one part. At that, river bank is protected by means of a berm against washway. Extraction of aggradational deposits is performed in opposite part of the first bottom. Works are carried out in two stages without violation of boundaries of coastal zone and safety berms during the pre-freshet period: mined rock is extracted at the first stage parallel to water drain; at the second stage, by means of inclined working (trench) at an angle close to 90° there knocked down is water drain and worked-out area of open-pit mine, water drain is shutoff downstream, and during the freshet period there performed is controlled aggradation of burdens of river drift to the worked-out area of open-pit mine.
EFFECT: enlarging production volumes on restricted surface areas without violation of boundaries of coastal zone owing to regeneration and recovery of stock.
1 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in method to form lane in winter period, including laying of heat insulation material onto water surface in the form of balls arranged as hollow with rigid plastic or silicon shell, besides, required quantity of balls per 1 m2 of water surface is determined using mathematical formula.
EFFECT: reduced environmental damage done to ambient water medium and prolongation of production season in winter period.
SUBSTANCE: method involves opening and arrangement of peats, processing of solid placer sections with dragging equipment and formation of dumps of waste sands. Development of placer in each section is performed after overburden operations and arrangement of peats in external dumps with bulldoser equipment with arrangement of waste sand dumps in worked out area at common border of two adjacent runs.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of clay sands.
SUBSTANCE: method for heap leaching of copper-zinc ores includes irrigation of material with mine waters, gathering of productive solution. Irrigation of material is performed by means of mine water, which has undergone electrochemical treatment with preliminary addition of the salt NaCl in amount of 1-20 g/l and after treatment is characterised by the following data: the value of pH - within 2-8; oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) - 600÷1200 mV; active chlorine ionic density - 50÷3000 mg/l; oxygen density - 15÷32 mg/l.
EFFECT: invention enables to raise effectivity of leaching and extraction of copper and zinc from ore material and to reduce the cost of finished product.
SUBSTANCE: method involves disintegration, heat treatment, leaching and precipitation of vanadium compounds. The slag is ground to a particle size from - 0.2 to - 0.3 mm, vanadium and other metals are transferred from the slag into a solution of sulphates of metals using the heat of exothermic chemical reactions, "vanadium slag - sulfuric acid aqueous solution," which is conducted at temperatures ranging from 75 to 85 °C, achieved by changing the acid concentration from 20 to 30% in proportion to the size of the leaching slag particles. Vanadium and other metals are precipitated as hydroxides by treating a sulphate solution with magnesium oxide at a ratio of MgO:H2SO4 from 1:2.6 to 1:2.7 and pH 10.0÷10.4 for reactions such as: MeSO4 + MgO + H2O → Me(OH)2 ↓ +MgSO4, (1) with a turnover of magnesium reagents in the interaction of MgSO4 with NaOH: MgSO4 + 2NaOH → Mg(OH)2 ↓ +Na2SO, (2) with a possibility of exchange of MgO in (1) Mg(OH)2 by (3): MeSO4 + Mg(OH)2 → Me(OH)2 ↓ +MgSO4, (3) using the reaction: Na2SO4+Ca(OH)2 ("lime milk")→2Na(OH)+CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum)↓, for turnover of the reagents of sodium and utilisation of gypsum obtained in the form of gypsum concrete, alabaster.
EFFECT: decrease in power consumption.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: leaching component includes ore stock pile with surface spraying device, channel for collection of productive solutions with external berm, bed of solid waterproof film located under ore stock pile, as well as at the bottom, slopes and berm of the channel. External berm width is at least three times deeper than background seasonal melting of soils. Film bed edge is embedded in central part of berm through the value which is lower than depth of background seasonal melting of soils. The proposed design of the heap leaching component prevents leaks of productive solutions in case waterproof film is broken at stock pile bottom due to waterproof barrier made of film from above and waterproof frozen soils from below. Berm surface is covered with heat-insulating material during warm season. Upper part and external slope of berm are free from snow cover during cold season. Heat-insulating material is located under film bed at the bottom and channel slope opposite to stock pile and berm surface during warm season.
EFFECT: reducing environmental and economic risk of using heap leaching plants in permafrost zone, and reducing heat loss with productive solutions.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of increased permeability of mining ore mass (MOM), action of reagents on MOM obtaining design content of useful components (UC) in the form of concentrated solutions. In order to obtain design contents of UC, MOM is changed over to permeable state by its mixing with water component of flooded technogenic sites till suspension of design density is formed. After the suspension achieves the design density, MOM UC is changed over to ionic condition by mixing the suspension with optimum solvent till design concentration of UC (mg/l) is formed in place of MOM resting. Then, suspension is settled in the same volume of technogenic site till the solution is clarified. At formation of suspension the silts can be used as MOM.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of flooded technogenic sites; reducing the development time period and obtaining complex or selective productive solutions.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: underground leaching method of mineral resources from raw material involves filling of cavities of underground openings in the form of chamber with raw material, and their sealing. Then, erection of pipelines and branch pipes for supply of leaching solution in raw material, air for oxidation of raw material minerals and supply of productive solution for processing is performed in openings. Prior to leaching the mine water is collected and leaching solution is prepared in the built chamber of capacity, which is mentioned below. Leaching is performed at increased temperatures and pressure which is maintained during the required period of time by shutting off gate valves of branch pipes which are used before opening for supply of leaching solution in raw material and supply of productive solution for processing.
EFFECT: lower costs for leaching of raw material owing to reducing capital investments, energy and material consumption.
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in supply of primary leaching solutions into treated object through system of evacuation downholes, in preparation of secondary active leaching solutions out of them directly in region of contact with treated object and in evacuation of productive solutions through system of evacuation downholes with successive extraction of valuable components from solutions. Intermediate solutions of two kinds are prepared out of primary leaching solutions before their pumping into downholes. Alkali solutions containing sodium hypochlorite are prepared in the electro-chemical reactor, while acid solutions containing hydrogen chloride and/or hydrogen peroxide with presence of hydroxyl-radicals in composition are prepared in the photo-electro-chemical reactor. Intermediate solutions are supplied into upper and lower parts of near-filter zone and/or with cyclic change of their supply into the upper part of the near-filter zone.
EFFECT: raised efficiency of leaching.
SUBSTANCE: combined method of underground ore leaching involves dehydration of ore bodies, cutting of mine workings in them, construction of geotechnological wells, development of ore bodies by supplying and extracting the leaching and productive solutions from them. After mine workings are cut, they are flooded and development of ore bodies is performed in water-saturated conditions. Leaching solutions are supplied to one of ends of mine working and removed from the other end of the mine working; then, pumping of solutions from mine working is stopped by shutting-off the appropriate wells in order to direct the leaching solution to the geotechnological wells drilled to the horizon, through which the productive solution is pumped.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing the development efficiency, improving environmental situation on the territory, decreasing costs, reducing colmatation phenomena and increasing productive capacity of the development.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for cleaning of macroporous space of break after sulfuric-acid treatment of residual or crushed hard rocks includes "flushing" of mudded rocks by low-mineralised (M up to 35 kg/m3) low-sulfuric-acid (H2SO4=1-5 kg/m3) process solutions as their traditional direction of motion in break changes. Chemical composition of flushing solutions is complemented with microadditive of humic fulvic acid complexon (50-100 g/m3).
EFFECT: secondary return of uranium into in-situ and heap leaching processes.
5 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method for increased efficiency of heap leaching of metals from hardly permeable high-clayey rocks under conditions of permafrost includes formation of antifiltration foundation of leached rock stack, displacement of leached rocks to antifiltration foundation, supplying leaching solutions of reagents into stack to dissolve metals from mining mass. On the opposite side of antifiltration foundation there is stack formed of glacier snow with the help of sprinkler as temperatures of ambient air go negative. Afterwards leached rocks and glacier snow are mixed and placed onto antifiltration foundation, where new stack is erected. Leaching is carried out as warm season of the year comes.
EFFECT: increased filtration ability.
SUBSTANCE: method for geotechnological development of deposits includes increasing massif cracking by means of explosive tillage, supply of leaching solution into massif, changing useful component into liquid phase and lifting material to the surface. After tillage of massif, upper layer of massif rock is removed from the surface to the level of subsurface waters. Afterwards well is driven into lower part of mineralisation zone, and massif is dried through it. Hygroscopic material is laid onto surface with hydraulic insulation of its surface, and leaching solution in pumped into massif through well. After filling of massif, leaching solution supply is started proportionately to speed of liquid phase absorption by hygroscopic layer on the surface. Product solution accumulated in hygroscopic layer is removed and sent to extract useful component from it and to recover the properties of the solution itself, afterwards restored solution is again supplied into massif through well.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of deposits development.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes prior pumping into bed through system of feed wells of solution, containing sodium hypochlorite or chloride, draining product solutions through draining wells system. Fed solution additionally has hydrogen chloride with following ratio of components, g/l: sodium hypochlorite 0.4-1.0, sodium chloride 3.0-4.0, hydrogen chloride 0.3-1.0. sodium hypochlorite solution is received directly at place of use via electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. For receiving sodium hypochlorite solution rotation compounds are used, received after productive solutions cycle through absorption columns.
EFFECT: higher safety.