X-ray apparatus for pathological material
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, namely to radiation therapeutic apparatuses. An apparatus comprises an X-ray source with an electronic gun, a target and a electrode potential source of an electronic gun cathode, a resonator arranged along an electron ray and connected to a microwave signal source allowing frequency tuning, a detector of passed pathological radiation material, a frequency recorder. A conductor is introduced to couple a resonator and said target. The resonator is toroidal and has a gap to pass the electron ray, while a distance of the resonator gap and the target is specified provided 1.3>UINπfd/v0|Up|>1.1 wherein UIN is a microwave signal amplitude in the resonator gap, f is a microwave signal frequency, d is a distance of the gap and the target, v0 is an electron flow, Up is a cathode potential of the electronic gun cathode with respect to the resonator.
EFFECT: use of the apparatus provides more complete elimination of pathology of the radiated biological material.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
The present invention relates to the field of engineering and can be used in biological and medical research. Especially important is the use of the device for the improvement of medical equipment of bioresonance therapy.
Currently in Biophysics paid increasing attention to the impact of physical factors on living organism. In this area of science obtained significant results in the study of biological potentials, which are defined as electrical potentials that occur in cells, tissues and organs . These potentials are electromagnetic in nature, in most cases, are estimated at hundreds of millivolts and can be registered by the measuring apparatus. It is shown that it is important not only their registration to identify pathology (diagnosis), but also external influence signals similar to the signals of the body to correct abnormalities (therapy) [2-3]. The process of external exposure, which takes into account frequency spectrum of the signals of the body and therefore is most effective, is called bioresonance therapy.
Bioresonance therapy is used after a preliminary diagnosis, which mainly relates to the field of medicine  and allows you to have an idea about the required range of frequency, intensity, dosage and simple is antenna distribution of the acting signal or radiation. Sometimes differentiates the signal from the patient for physiological and pathological variations. The first correspond to the normal state of the body, the second of its pathological changes. If the spectrum is dominated by one frequency, then talk about the need to achieve bioresonance. There were areas of the body, the impact of which is most important from the point of view of the resulting therapeutic effect for the treatment of individual organs. These include biologically active points and biologically active zones.
In some cases it is possible to take signals using electrodes, applying them to the input of a special device, the processing and return to the patient. The electromagnetic field of the latter responds to these signals, and adjusted as a result of this reaction oscillations again heading in the device, etc. In the attenuated or completely suppressed pathological and amplified physiological fluctuations, gradually restored physiological and dynamic balance in the body (homeostasis). Therapy in computer hardware-software complex is carried out in a continuous feedback controlled by a special test.
There is a method of influence on biologically active points and device for its implementation , is the impact on them m borovany frequency pulsed bipolar electric current, modulated pulsed laser and pulsed bipolar magnetic field. Use the influence of either the same species or in any combination with the provision of bioresonance. The latter is achieved by using a linearly varying frequency in a wide range and leads to the fact that, running all frequencies, the signal is guaranteed to be the resonant frequency. This scanning frequency during exposure to repeatedly pass through the resonant frequency and provide conditions for full biological resonance at certain points in time.
The disadvantage of this method is the lack of hardware display conditions of full biological resonance, resulting in a scanning range frequency frequency range near the resonance, which corresponds to the most effective impact on the patient, takes place during a short period of time compared to the period of the oscillation frequency. This leads to a weakening of therapeutic effects compared with the configuration in resonance during the whole exposure time.
There is also known a method and apparatus for the treatment of pathological conditions , including testing of natural vibrations of the body of the patient, followed by the resonant transfer of information to the media this information is AI. As a media device using a crystal diode Gunn, who, after recording information placed on biologically active points and zones of the body.
According to the developed to the present time the wave model of drug efficacy of therapeutic effects of drugs depends on the number of so-called wave components of the drugs proposed for the treatment. Therefore, testing can be performed not only patient, but also selected drugs that have a therapeutic effect. Adverse chemical effect of the drug when it is excluded.
According to the method of treatment of tumors and viral diseases  the patient is exposed to a flux of electromagnetic radiation. Frequency selected from a range from 0.01 to 18 GHz. The energy flux density is less than 10 µw/cm2. Irradiation is carried out under the control of the blood test. The course finishes in the absence of the dynamics of blood.
Similarly according to the method of treatment of malignant tumors  carried out the overall impact on the patient's body of low-intensity electromagnetic oscillations of the microwave frequency from 0.01 to 18 GHz and a power of less than 10 µw/cm2. With the preventive purpose through 1-3-6 months repeat the overall impact on the patient of low-intensity electromagnetic kolebaniya specified mode.
There is also described an apparatus , combining the effects on biologically active point electromagnetic radiation (EMR) millimeter-wave (extremely high frequency EHF) and AMY bioresonance emitter with spectral characteristics similar to their own radiation exposure. The latter is implemented using a semiconductor that forms the basis of resonance of the radiator. The semiconductor has two stable States with different energy levels. In the transition from one state to another, it changes its properties. If at the moment of transition to the semiconductor affects the signal of biologically active points, is his record and re-emission at a given point in time between pulses EHF, which leads to suppression of pathological oscillations. Clinical and laboratory studies have identified the high efficiency of this method compared with the use of fixed frequencies in the UHF range.
The described apparatus radiotherapy , which has minimal energy loss when transmitting microwaves to the pathological site of the patient. The device is equipped with a radiating head, the klystron and the system waveguide elements connecting the head with the klystron, which results in minimal loss compared to coaxial cable. All construction is made easy to move, turn heads and its placement on the patient.
A device adaptive bioresonance therapy , which is among the most important functional elements have electrodes connected to the switch unit interfacing with a computer, the control unit and adjust the resonance characteristics, the separation unit and the registration of physiological and pathological oscillations of the electromagnetic field, the block storage characteristics of vibrations of the biologically active points and biologically active zones. A distinctive feature of the device compared to the above is the separate use of physiological and pathological oscillations.
A common disadvantage of the above devices [6-11] is their action outside of the patient and the use of signals that poorly penetrate. For this reason, the difficult impact on internal pathological region.
To influence the internal region of a patient using x-rays, but the frequency of the photons of this radiation is far from the resonant frequencies of pathological material. This contradiction has recently eliminated the use of modulated x-ray radiation.
Known apparatus radiotherapy , which includes the device acceleration for producing a beam of charged particles, the disturbances is shining and focusing magnets for scanning the beam in the plane the collimators, the electrode-target to generate x-rays. Receive beams of charged particles or x-rays, which modulate the intensity when scanning to control the spatial distribution of radiation dose. The irradiation object is moved perpendicular to the scanning plane for 3-d processing,
Lack of equipment is the lack of ability to accurately implement bio-resonance mode.
It is also known a device for focusing x-rays , which can be used in medicine. The device contains magnetoacoustic modulator in the form of a quartz tube of conical shape with an external coil connected to a high frequency generator. Is used for focusing the phenomenon of diffraction radiation. Possible selective effect on the pathological areas and reduce the dose of the patient load.
The disadvantage of this device is the lack of real time information about the possibility of its use in relation to the modulated x-ray radiation.
A method of obtaining soft x-rays , which increased the intensity (increased number of photons per second) at a given current of the electron beam x-ray tube is achieved by additional irradiated what I anode target tube laser radiation. This combined effect on the target contributes to a more effective removal of electrons with the working of the electron shell of the atoms of the target and increase the intensity of x-ray radiation. With respect to the modulated x-ray radiation, this method cannot be studied, that is his fault.
A device for radiation therapy for irradiation of the subject , the closest to the claimed and taken as a prototype, containing the x-ray source with an electron gun and a target resonator, mounted along the electron beam and connected to a source of microwave signal, allowing frequency, means a spatial scanning of the beam in the plane of the detection means has passed through the subject of radiation, means the registration rate.
To use this device for radiation therapy involves the irradiation of pathological material is modulated by the intensity of the x-ray beam, the detection of the last radiation, scanning the frequency of the microwave modulating signal, determining rezonansnoi frequency of this signal is to reduce the intensity of the transmitted radiation, the registration of this frequency and select it as the modulating frequency at the subsequent basic treatment of pathological mA is Arial.
Pathological material may consist of malignant cells or parts thereof, viruses, or parts thereof, of macromolecules.
The possibility of registering resonant frequency and mode settings irradiation on bioresonance in the prototype due to the nonlinear interaction of the modulated x-ray radiation with a pathological site, which is allocated signal with a resonance frequency equal to the difference frequency neighboring spectral components.
The disadvantage of the prototype is the inability to achieve effective interaction of radiation with pathological plot when configured for bioresonance. The reason is that the device prototype operates in the mode in which due to the chosen modulation type frequency spectrum similar to the spectrum when the modulation of the square wave or rectangular pulses, which, as will be shown below, is not optimal from the point of view of efficiency of resonant interaction.
The technical result of the claimed device is a more complete elimination of pathology in irradiated material by increasing the efficiency of the resonance effect of x-irradiation on the pathological material. The latter defines the main useful therapeutic effect when using bioresin Snoy therapy in medicine.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the inventive device, containing the x-ray source with an electron gun and the target and the source electric potential of the cathode of the electron gun, the resonator installed along the electron beam and connected to a source of microwave signal, allowing frequency, means for detecting transmitted through pathological material radiation, means the registration rate, according to the invention introduced a conductor connecting the resonator to the target resonator has the shape of a toroid with a gap for passing the electron beam, and the distance between the gap of the resonator and the target is chosen from the condition
in which UIthe amplitude of the microwave signal in the gap resonator,
f is the frequency of the microwave signal,
d is the distance between the gap and target,
ν0- speed electrons
Upthe cathode potential relative to the resonator.
In addition, this technical result is achieved by the fact that the source electric potential of the cathode of the electron gun has a controller that potential.
Compared with the prototype in the proposed device the interaction of the electron flow field of the resonator occurs only in the gap toroidal resonator is a, as in conventional floating-klystron. After such engagement upon further movement of the electron inertia is their grouping, which is well studied theoretically and experimentally with respect to span the klystron. In the present technical solution used the property of the grouped stream, its current can be represented in cross section as the sum of a large number of temporary harmonics (harmonics depending on time) in relation to the frequency of the microwave signal source. In this representation, the current it is possible to select the operation mode of the device and to make constructive changes in the device prototype, in which at a given total power of the electron flow creates optimum conditions for obtaining the most intense field of the resonance frequency in the irradiated area, which determines the resulting beneficial effect of resonance effect.
Functional diagram of the device shown in figure 1. In General, the device is a combination of structural elements of x-ray tube and passing the klystron in a single housing 1. The cathode 2 and the accelerating electrode 3 are the main elements of the electron gun, which creates a constant density of the electron flow 4. On the way this thread is klystrons re onator 5, with a gap of 6 for transmission electron flow and its modulation speed. Modulation is generated using a voltage microwave frequency UIarising in the gap 6 under the influence of the signal supplied to input terminal 7 of the resonator. The electromagnetic field in the resonator is excited through the cable loop 8, and its resonant frequency can be varied as in the klystron element mechanical or electronic adjustment, not shown in the drawing. Through the drift tube 9 modulated electron stream 10 enters into the cone target 11, driven in rotation by the motor 12. Through the window 13 receives the modulated x-ray radiation 14, which is limited by the collimator 15. After a gap of 6 electronic flow moves by inertia in the absence of the accelerating field, which is provided by the conductors 16, 17 and 18. The latter can be made in the form of a mechanical structure. The cathode potential relative to the resonator is set by the source 19 to the controller 20. The detection means 22 has passed through pathological material 21 of the radiation is located behind the material along the x-ray beam 14, and the logger frequency 23 is functionally connected with a source of microwave signal 24.
The main elements of the x-ray tube are the target 11, the motor 12, the window of the radiation exit 13 and the collimator 15. OS the ESD elements of klystron - the resonator 5 with a gap 6 and the drift tube 9. An electron gun common to all elements.
To explain the operation of the proposed device, it is necessary to provide some quantitative estimates of the effect of the interaction of the modulated x-ray radiation with nonlinear environment, which to date is missing in the literature, as well as take advantage of some well-known results of theory of passage of the klystron.
Nonlinear properties of living tissue against the effects of electromagnetic radiation are poorly understood, can only be specified on the model in the form of a system of nonlinear equations, which have no direct relation to the problem under consideration . The peculiarity of therapeutic effects on a living organism is the gentle nature of this influence, not more than 10 µw/cm2this question was discussed in the description of the similar . The latter means that the resulting nonlinear processes rather weak and has a slight difference from the linear dependence of the current density J through the parts of the body of the electric field E. in other words, there is a slight difference from Ohm's law for a conducting medium. Figure 2. selected are listed below for theoretical estimation of nonlinear dependencies that are well approximated by the hyperbolic sine and the tangent of the m Sinus applies more sharp dependence of the current on the field strength in comparison with the linear tangent weaker dependence. For a linear dependence of J=σE is the conductivity σ is assumed to be 1 in the SI system, which is in the order of magnitude close to reality, but does not matter for these findings.
Modulation of the electron flow velocity in the gap of the resonator leads to the fact that the density of electron current arriving at the target, is a periodic, depending on time t function with period equal to the period T of the sine signal supplied to input terminal 7 of the resonator. The periodic intensity is obtained and the field strength E(t) x-rays. As a periodic function E(t) represents a set of time harmonics with the same distance between adjacent harmonics in the frequency scale, this function is subjected to nonlinear conversion in the current when exposed to radiation on pathological material.
The following calculation is based on the consideration of the wave properties of x-ray photons having a rest mass of zero. The results obtained in the language of quantum mechanics are related to the statistics of the distribution of photons in time and space, which corresponds to the recognized duality properties of photons.
Below is shown an example of calculating the amplitude of the resonant current harmonics for the case when nonlinear transformation presented in figure 2, is subjected to the signal (field strength), consisting of 5 harmonics with varying amplitudes Cnwhere n is the number of harmonics from the 10th to the 14th.
In this expression, for simplicity, the input frequency of the resonator t is taken equal to 1, which is not principal. You can, for example, to count the frequency equal to 1 GHz at time t in nanoseconds. Division 5 - the total number of harmonics is introduced to account for the area of assignment of the argument of the nonlinear function.
To define the signal of the resonance frequency obtained after the nonlinear transformation of the current should be present in the form of a Fourier series in cosines and sines of the harmonics, the real amplitude of which Rkand Skcan be positive or negative and are determined by the well-known formulas
where k is the number of current harmonics that occur in irradiated pathological material a f=1/T=1. For our case, when calculating the intensity of only the resonant harmonics should be put k=1. The function F(t) is different depending on the type of nonlinearity
In the presented table shows the amplitude of the S1resonant frequency (column 8) for five harmonics is Olya, the amplitudes are consistently shown in columns 3-7 for harmonics from 10 th to 14-th. Cosine amplitude R1for a signal represented by the sum of sinusoids of zero. In every line the amplitude of Cnchosen so that the total relative power field (the sum of the squared amplitudes) was equal to 5. Lines 1 and 2 correspond to equal amplitudes, lines 3-6 is equal only to the module. In lines 7-12, there are two eye-catching intensity amplitude for different values of the others. The case of one large amplitude are shown in lines 13 and 14. Finally, lines 15 and 16 show an obvious lack of current resonant frequency, if there is only one harmonic.
Lines 17 and 18 relate to the modulation of the meander, which is given as an example in the prototype .
|The calculation of the relative intensity of the signal of the difference frequency of neighboring spectral lines for five harmonics|
|No.||Type of nonlinearity||The amplitude of the harmonics||The amplitude of the difference frequency|
On the basis of these calculations it was concluded that the optimal field giving the maximum intensity of the resonant harmonics at a given power irradiation, regardless of the type of nonlinearity is such a field, which appears to be a possibly large number of harmonics with equal amplitudes. The difference in the intensity of the harmonics or their desinfecte reduce the intensity of the current resonant frequency compared to the case with the same intensity and phase amplitudes.
To create equal amplitude harmonics of the irradiating field it is necessary to have an electronic current, acting on the target, as the sum of in-phase harmonics of the same intensity. To obtain such a current is almost ideal resonator span is of listana, mounted in the path of the electron beam in the proposed device. The basis for this conclusion is well-known in theory of span klystron expression for the current grouped electron flow as a sum of harmonics, each of which has the form 
where - Inthe amplitude of the current harmonics n, I0- current unmodulated flow, Jnis the Bessel function of n-th order, X is the so-called grouping parameter:
in which (see figure 1) UIthe voltage in the gap resonator, Up- constant voltage (or potential)supplied to the cathode of the electron gun relative to the resonator, d is the distance between the gap of the resonator and a target. f - frequency signal in the gap resonator, ν0the velocity of the electrons in the demodulated stream.
Figure 3 presents calculations on the equations in the amplitudes of the harmonic current In depending on the grouping parameter X. Visible region of values of the grouping parameter, in which the amplitude of the current harmonics of the closest in intensity and phase. In terms of the above notation this area is approximately described by the relation
To the x-ray tube to create a regime for electron flow, which is matched with the edge mode, the above correlation for klystron, need to enter the conduit connecting the resonator to the target. Then the conditions of motion of electrons modulated in the gap in speed, by inertia, as a floating-klystron. Figure 1 is a conductor 16.
From the above correlation and figure 3 also shows that the amplitude of the harmonics can be changed and thereby choose the best option if to vary either the intensity of the microwave signal in the gap UIor the cathode potential relative to the resonator Up.It is most convenient to do the last control this potential 20 figure 1.
Figure 4 shows an example of calculating the distance d between the gap of the resonator and the target from the cathode potential at given values of parameters, determining a modulation mode of the electron flow. It is seen that the fabrication of the proposed device is possible with reasonable values of geometrical dimensions of the power supplied to the coaxial input of the resonator of the microwave signal and the potential of the cathode. These values correspond to feasible modes as x-ray tube, and passage of the klystron.
Application of the proposed device is realized in the following sequence. First, as for the device prototype, conduct preliminary irradiation of pathological material modulated is about the intensity of the x-ray beam and the detection of the last radiation during scanning, the frequency of the microwave modulating signal. Register resonant frequency of this signal is to reduce the intensity of the transmitted radiation. This frequency is chosen as the modulating frequency for the subsequent basic treatment of pathological material. Unlike the prototype when the main processing is further configured to at least past the radiation by changing the potential applied to the cathode of the electron gun relative to the resonator, with the help of regulator. The impact of the modulated x-ray radiation is compared with the prototype more efficient at the expense of the other resonator type, providing close to optimal modulation, creating in the proposed device the electric field and the choice of the design dimensions that contribute to this modulation, an Additional adjustment is implemented by the controller.
The claimed invention allows more complete to eliminate pathology in irradiated material in comparison with the prototype, which is confirmed by the quantitative assessment. String comparison with 1-2 rows 17-18 table above shows the increase in the efficiency of impact due to the launch of structural elements. Compared to mentioned in the prototype modulation meander a resonant frequency in the pathological material under the same radiation flux increases on the tens of times, and the power of this field, which determines the energy impact of pathological material and useful therapeutic effect, hundreds of times. In the prototype we are talking not only about the meander, and the modulation pulses close to rectangular. The following assessment therefore should be considered as very attainable, but the usefulness of the introduced structural elements should be considered as proved, and the effect of resonance effect is significant.
In the language of temporal dependencies, the resulting effect can be explained by the fact that the form of electronic pulses of current in-flight klystron differs sharply from rectangular and richer harmonics .
For visual presentation on the introduced structural elements in the proposed device in comparison with the prototype in Appendix 1 shows part of a device prototype, giving a modulated x-ray radiation, with a list of structural elements. The item numbers used in the prototype, only applies to this application.
The performance of the proposed device should be considered proven for the following reasons.
- The possibility of the beneficial effects of modulated at the resonant frequency of x-ray radiation on the internal pathological areas of the patient shown in the prototype, including almost (the experiment is correctly).
- The ability to create x-ray tube is well known.
- The optimal ratio of the amplitudes of the harmonics of the electron current is shown theoretically on the basis of known mathematical relationships (adequate mathematical model).
- The ability to create span klystron parameters of the electron flow, which is optimal for effective use in the proposed device is shown in the literature theoretically, experimentally many options commercially available klystrons and confirmed by the example of the calculation (Figure 4). In-phase amplitudes of the harmonics with close intensities are created in the klystron mode frequency multiplication.
Based on the above we can conclude that there are many arguments for the effective use of the proposed device as a device of bioresonance therapy. It is planned to manufacture the claimed device on the premises known company (JSC "Svetlana", Saint-Petersburg). Its use in medicine as a device bioresonance therapy possible after testing an experimental prototype of biologists and physicians on appropriate methodologies.
Used sources of information
1. Physical encyclopedic dictionary, vol. 1, GOS. scientific publishing house "Soviet encyclopedia". M, SCR-193.
Beovizija. The manual for the honey. higher education institutions. /Waslimited, Aigai, Deasupra etc./ - M.: Medicine, 1983
3. Spoonable Methodical recommendations on electromagnetic therapy. - M.: SPE "ALICE" 1998
4. Averagin, Uphotos. Electro-diagnosis and treatment by the method of R. Voll. - M.: "IMEDIS" 1995.
5. RF patent №2185138, CL AN 39/00, 2000.07.06.
6. RF patent №2141304, CL AN 39/00, 1996.09.25.
7. RF patent №2134598, CL A61N 5/00, 1997.09.29.
8. RF patent №2163823. CL A61N 5/02,. 1999.12.14.
9. RF patent №2172189, CL A61N 5/02,. 1998.04.15.
10. The Japan patent No. 2008200091, CL A61N 5/10,. 2007.02.16.
11. RF patent №2070406, CL AN 39/00, 1995.04.17.
12. U.S. patent No. 4726046, CL A61N 5/10, 1985.11.05.
13. RF patent №2201631, CL G21K 1/06, 2000.09,01.
14. RF patent №2282318, CL H05G 2/00, 2005.04.01.
15. RF patent №2091093, CL A61N 5/10, 1991.04.26 (prototype).
16. Roshchupkin DI, Artyukhov VG Basis photobiophysics. Voronezh, edition of the Voronezh state University, 1997.
17. Raven VA radio Transmitting devices. Fundamentals of theory and calculation. Textbook for high schools. - M.: Hot line - Telecom, 2007, str.
18. Lebedev, I.V. devices ultrahigh frequencies. Volume 2, "Energy", M. - L., 1964, s.
1. Device x-ray irradiation of pathological material containing x-ray source with an electron gun and the target and the source electric potential of the cathode of the electron gun, the resonator is installed is along the electron beam and connected to a source of microwave signal,
allowing frequency, means for detecting transmitted through pathological material radiation, the registration tool frequency, characterized in that the conductor connecting the resonator to the target resonator has the shape of a toroid with a gap for passing the electron beam, and the distance between the gap of the resonator and the target is chosen from the condition
where UIthe amplitude of the microwave signal in the gap of the resonator;
f is the frequency of the microwave signal;
d is the distance between the gap and the target;
ν0- speed electrons;
Upthe potential of the cathode of the electron gun relative to the resonator.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the source electric potential of the cathode of the electron gun is the regulator of this potential.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer tomography. Device for collection of data of tomographic projections in multitude of angular positions relative to an object, located in the examination area, contains radiation source, detector, source and transversal centre of detector being transversally displaced relative to the centre of transversal field of view during collection of data of projections and direction of transversal displacement being tangential with respect to transversal field of view. Methods of computer tomography contains stages, at which first irradiation is emitted from position which is transversally displaced from the centre of transversal field of view, detector of irradiation is used for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections, stages of first irradiation emission and application of irradiation detector for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections are repeated and first set of CT data is reconstructed to form first three-dimensional data. Computer-tomographic device contains roentgen source transversally displaced from rotation axis, roentgen detector, also transversally displaced from rotation axis and rotating relative to rotation axis in state of constant mechanical connection with roentgen source. Roentgen source emits irradiation, characterised by transversal angle of fan beam, and complete taking of angular readings of transversal field of view requires collection of data of projections in larger angle range than 180° plus the angle of fan-beam. Device also contains unit of reconstruction of data of projections for formation of three-dimensional data, characterising transversal field of view.
EFFECT: increase of device efficiency.
39 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of generating X-rays involves exposing the diffracting layer of a monochromator crystal with initial X-rays and optical radiation in the visible and/or infrared region with intensity which varies along the diffracting layer of the monochromator crystal, where said monochromator crystal is based on a crystal in which under the effect of optical radiation and depending on the optical radiation, interplanar distance in the diffracting layer changes. The monochromator crystal is exposed to optical radiation with intensity which linearly varies along one of the coordinates of the diffracting layer. Versions of X-ray monochromators for realising the method of generating X-rays are disclosed.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities when used in high-resolution X-ray optical circuits by providing a wide bandwidth for the monochromator crystal.
18 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method relates to medicine, namely to radiology and can be applied in radiotherapy of oncologic patients. Patient is laid under vertical beam of source of electrons. Energy of beam of electrons is selected. Patient is covered with elastic fabric-equivalent material. After that diaphragms are moved apart for bremsstrahlung at the distance determined by formula L=0.9 × A × DES/DSP, where A is desired size of irradiation, cm; DES - distance electron source-diaphragm, cm; DSP is distance from electron source to patient's skin, cm; 0.9 is numerical coefficient. Irradiation is performed in required dose. After that, patient is moved along their vertical axis for distance A and irradiation is repeated.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to carry out total irradiation of patient's body surface and increases uniformity of irradiation with beam of electrons, as well as reduces time for pre-radiological preparation and irradiation due to application during irradiation of diaphragms for bremsstrahlung field formation.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to generate beams of directional coherent radiation in optical range is carried out with the help of pulse sources of nuclear radiation. Inverse occupation of atoms and molecules of active medium is provided. The active medium is placed in an open resonator. The released energy in the form of a directional coherent beam of optical range photons is taken out beyond the resonator limits via a partially transparent output window of the resonator. The active medium is surrounded with a radioactive medium, or the radioactive medium is placed homogeneously or heterogeneously inside the active medium, the pumping energy of the active medium is increased. The active medium is transferred into a super-radiating condition, from which the active medium, using the initiating start radiation, is transferred into the main (or less excited) condition, by release of the superradiation with intensity that is directly proportional to the squared quantity of excited atoms or molecules. The device of quantum beams generation comprises a quantum generator. Films of uranium-235 (235U) are applied onto inner surfaces of the side walls of pipes, as well as a double-zone pulse nuclear reactor that generates a field of nuclear pumping energy of active Ar-Xe gas mixture (medium). The pulse nuclear reactor is replaced with a power plant of non-nuclear design.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of pumping energy transformation into energy of directional radiation and expanded range of quantum components of radiation beams.
7 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.
EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.
8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: first, metal template with curved surface of revolution is made to be fitted into glass tubular blank that is sealed and heated to glass thermoplastic deformation temperature, and said template is withdrawn. After cooling template and glass tubular blank, said glass blank is vertically stretched by mechanical force applied to its bottom end. Heating is performed by moving annular heater along template working surface to its taper section.
EFFECT: preset shape with great difference in cross sections, minor roughness.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, namely to apparatuses for generating therapeutic and diagnostic beams of slow and intermediate neutrons of various geometric configurations, spectral distribution and intensity applied in neutron therapy of malignant tumours in human and animals with one nonreconstructible neutron source. The apparatus comprises a research reactor core with its processing environment being a primary neutron source tangential to the research reactor core of an end-to-end experimental channel with a hydrogenous scatterer being a secondary neutron source and symmetrical to the research reactor core. The active and/or inactive neutron-optical systems (NOS) and filters for generating the spectral distributions of the therapeutic and diagnostic neutron beams are integrated in the channel on both sides of the hydrogenous scatterer.
EFFECT: use of the invention allows higher NT effectiveness and reduced length of treatment.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for rotating beam of high-energy heavy ions has a cylindrical resonator cover, end flanges with beam input and output openings, several pairs of deflecting plates mounted on supports, a high-frequency power supply and a focusing system. Each deflection plate has correcting projections lying on the edges parallel to the longitudinal axis. The total volume of the resonator is formed by structurally independent sections which are fastened together, with a pair of deflection plates at the centre of each of the sections. Distance between centres of the plates along the axis of the resonator is equal to D=V/2f, where V is the velocity of deflected ions and f is the working frequency of the resonator. Along the outer edge of each deflecting plates away from the axis there is a projection which shortens the distance between the plates on the periphery of the deflection gap; a deflector may have a different number of sections.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain resultant ion deviation which is proportional to the total number of cells passed, which can reach any necessary value when the sufficient length of the deflecting resonator is chosen.
SUBSTANCE: anti-scatter device for suppressing scattered radiation comprises a plurality of x-ray absorbing layers and a plurality of spacer layers, such that each spacer layer lies between any two of the plurality of x-ray absorbing layers in order to hold each of the plurality of x-ray absorbing layers in a pre-defined orientation. Furthermore, the spacer layer comprises a plurality of open voids to reduce absorption of x-rays incident on at least part of each spacer layer.
EFFECT: higher image resolution.
9 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling a beam of charged particles in a cyclotron involves focusing the beam in an axial injection system and turning the beam using the electric field of a spiral inflector from the axial direction in the axial injection system to the median plane of the cyclotron. The beam is further focused by the force of the electric field of the spiral inflector, which acts on particles diverging from the central trajectory in the direction across the direction of motion of the central particle on the central trajectory and across the direction of the turning force of the electric field, acting on the central particle moving on the central trajectory. Equipotential lines of the electric field in the inflector in the direction across the beam are concentric arc shaped.
EFFECT: significant reduction of axial dimensions and beam divergence at the output of the inflector, reduced longitudinal dimensions of the beam, best transmission coefficient of the beam in the cyclotron.
2 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely oncology, and is applicable for treating rectal cancer with synchronous remote metastases. That is ensured by radiation therapy together with radio modifiers and combined with chemotherapy followed by radical resection of a primary tumour and remote metastases. The radio modifiers are presented by the intrarectal introduction of metronidazole as a part of a composite mixture containing sodium alginate and 2% dimethylsulphoxide, and also local microwave hyperthermia. The chemotherapy is presented by a two-day intensive course of chemotherapy FOLFOX6 involving high doses of platinum and 5-fluorouracil in the form of the 48-hour infusion.
EFFECT: method allows reducing total length of treatment, enabling a complete course of effective preoperative radiation chemotherapy with minimum toxicity in a relatively short time, performing earlier sphincter-preserving operations with well-timed resection of the primary tumour, regional and remote metastases ensured by implementing mechanisms, chemosensitisation and synergic effect of said radio sensitising agents.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, oncology, particularly, by methods of conservative treatment of the patients suffering early breast cancer. It involves 3D conformal radio therapy (CRT) covering a removed tumour bed including 2 cm of surrounding healthy tissues; single basic dose is 2.5 Gy twice a day at a fraction interval of 6 hours, to total basic dose 40 Gy. The irradiation is performed within 8 days.
EFFECT: method provides an adequate irradiation of the removed tumour bed minimally damaging the surrounding healthy tissues, preventing recurrences, reduced risk of developing radiation injury, excellent/good cosmetic effect.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely oncology, and aims at combination treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. It involves radiation therapy with underlying introduction of capecitabine 825 mg/m2 times a day on the radiation days. The treatment is two-staged: the fist stage involves gamma-ray teletherapy in a standard fractionation mode at single basic dose 2.0 Gy for 5 days a week to total basic dose 40.0 Gy. At the second stage, the interval of 14 days is followed by 5 sessions of intracavitary gamma-ray therapy at single basic dose 3.0 Gy to total basic dose 16 isoGy.
EFFECT: method provides higher clinical effectiveness in locally advanced rectal cancer ensured by higher radiation dose directly covering the tumour and reduced radiation dose on healthy organs and tissues.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, particularly to oncology, and may be applied in treating locally advanced breast cancer with tumour skin ulceration. That is ensured by CMF chemotherapy, 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in the form of Koletex-5-fluor tissue applications and radiation therapy. The Koletex-5-fluor tissues are applied on the ulcer centre daily 2-3 times a day and changed every 2 days. The radiation therapy is performed in a mode of average dose fractionation on an area of a breast base and an area of regional lymph outflow. Herewith, 5-7 days before the radiation therapy, the ulcer area and the whole breast are coated with a thin layer of the 'Hydrogel Coletex-Phyto Tissue' material 3 times a day. Additionally, the ulcer area is coated with the 'Coletex-Phyto' textile tissues above the hydrogel material. The radiation directly covers the tissue and hydrogel. The ulcer borders are treated with the 'Hydrogel Coletex-Phyto Tissue' material 2-3 times a day for the whole period of radiation. After the termination of the radiation therapy, the ulcer centre is coated with the 'Coletex-Phyto' textile tissues, while the ulcer borders are treated with the 'Hydrogel Coletex-Phyto Tissue' material for 1-2 weeks.
EFFECT: implementing the method provides higher clinical effectiveness ensured by faster healing of tumour ulcers, reduced drug load, lower toxicity and enabled continuous radiation therapy.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to medicine. A therapeutic system comprises an imaging device, a therapy planning unit, a therapeutic device. The therapy planning unit comprises a therapy prescription unit which calculated the required therapy to be applied in a patient or any other object. The therapy prescription system uses a pathology model and a history of biological values specific for the patient for purposes of optimising the applied therapy.
EFFECT: use of the given group of inventions enables adapting the therapy plan with taking into consideration the biological variations regarding a specific pathology or a patient.
43 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, oncology, and can be used for combination treatment of the patients suffering eyelid malignancies. A method involves local radiomodification by peritumoral introduction of Methotrexate 10 mg pre-incubated in autoplasma 10 ml at t=37°C for 30 minutes preceded by subbulbar introduction of diprospan 1 ml. One hour later, the radiomodification is followed by neoadjuvant radiation therapy at depth 0.5 cm by basic dose 20 Gy, and no more than 24 hours after the radiation, a surgical operation is performed.
EFFECT: method provides intensified radicality of the tumour exposure, higher surgical ablasticity, lower risk of cancer dissemination, maximally maintained reparation ability and functions of normal ocular tissues, minimised therapeutic complications, reduced length of treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, particularly to oncology, and can be used for the purpose of radiation therapy of locally advanced forms of breast cancer T2-4N1-3M0-1 with unfavourable prognostics. A postoperative cicatrix is exposed to fast neutron 6.3 MeV within 3 sessions from two or three fields of radiation, in single radiation dose - 1.4-1.76 Gy to total isoeffective basic dose - 25-32 Gy.
EFFECT: method provides reducing a number of recurrences and complications.
FIELD: medical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, in particular to the devices for cancer fast neutrons radiation therapy; the device comprises the neutrons generator surrounded from above by the shield protecting from the broad beams of boronized polyethylene; the generator located against the biological shield on the same axle with the built in it neutron channel; the device is also equipped with the functional shield; the biological and functional shields are performed in the shape of adjacently placed stunned cones with a big footing from the side of the outlet aperture of the neutron channel and a smaller one - from the side of the neutrons generator; the shields are executed fungible from the same material or composite consisting of the parts in the shape of blunted cones put one inside the other, at that the parts of the biological shield and/or functional shield are made fungible or have interstratified layers; the biological and functional shields or their parts are made of metal or metal hydrides or metal alike substances or porous materials containing light nucleuses or hydric compositions; herewith the radius of the inlet aperture of the neutron channel and of the thickness of the biological and functional shields is selected on the basis of the conditions of provision of the therapeutic efficiency determined by the formula F=D/L, wherein D is the distance from the back edge of the outlet channel of the neutron channel on the surface of the shield to the point whereat the kerma counts to 20% of the kerma in the beam center, and L is the distance passed by the fast neutron without interacting with the shields materials up to the point whereat the kerma amounts to 20% of the kerma in the beam center.
EFFECT: application of the invention allows to enhance the operation characteristics of the device due to the creation of the optimal shaper of the radioactive fields and the requisite radiation protection of the patient.
9 cl, 4 dwg.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the field of medicine and can be used for treatment of patients with brain glioma. For choice of treatment tactics with gliomas of low malignancy degree there are clinical diagnostic tests, morphologic examination of tumor tissue capillaries in order to detect the endothelium swelling. If there is an endothelium swelling in at least one capillary, then radiotherapy in hypofractionated mode is prescribed. If there is no endothelium swelling of tumor capillaries, the radiotherapy is performed in standard fractioning mode or is not prescribed at all.
EFFECT: method provides for exact determination of possibility of malignization and relapse formation, optimization of treatment tactics for this patient category in every age group and increase of life comfort.
1 dwg, 4 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to oncology, and can be used for treatment of ovarian cancer recurrences. For this purpose combined courses of subtotal body irradiation (STBI) and chemical therapy (CT) are carried out. STBI is performed with field of diaphragm dome to feet in single dose 0.1 Gy to course dose 1 Gy. CT is carried out immediately after STBI. After each combined course of STBI and CT additionally, after 1-1.5 months course of CT is carried out. After that, after 1-1.5 months entire course of treatment (STBI+CT+CT) is repeated until remission is achieved or total STBI dose not higher than 4 Gy. If after achievement of total STBI dose - 4 Gy, there is no remission, only CT is continued with 1-2 month intervals between courses. All CT courses, performed in the process of treatment are performed with medications from group of taxanes and platinum derivatives.
EFFECT: method ensures increase of remission cases and duration of recurrence-free period in patients due to enhance of cytostatic action onto tumour cells as a result of introduction into treatment scheme of additional courses of chemical therapy between combined courses of STBI and CT, as well as due to reduction of intervals between therapy courses.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, particularly to neurology, and is applicable in infant diabetic peripheral neuropathy treatment. Invention involves exposure of lower extremity to luminous flux of visible spectrum for 10 minutes. Treatment involves green and blue spectrum in travelling mode with luminous flux travel rate of 0.5-0.7 mps in affected nerve projection towards peripheral extremity end. Radiation intensity reaches 1-2 mW/cm2. Treatment course comprises 13-15 sessions.
EFFECT: improved microcirculation and trophism of nerve fibres, enhanced nervous impulse transfer rate in peripheral nerves and tissue regeneration, curbed diabetic peripheral neuropathy progress, improved life quality for children with Type 1 diabetes.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex