Method for defatted milk purification

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for purification of defatted milk contaminated with copper, lead and zinc in a concentration from 0.13, 0.23 and 0.34 of MAC respectively. According to the method, one introduces into defatted milk with residual fat content equal to 0.10-0.20% a sorbent preliminarily hydrated with distilled water which sorbent may be represented by alumina oxide powder, broken rice or licorice roots extraction residue, the weight ratio of milk to the sorbents being 25:1. Then one proceeds with maintenance during 20-30 minutes at a temperature of 50-55°C and the sorbent removal by centrifugal method in a milk purifier separator.

EFFECT: invention allows to reduce concentration of copper, lead and zinc and bacterial population in milk and to produce a product of better quality.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the dairy industry, in particular to the purification of raw milk.

Due to anthropogenic pollution is the contamination of food, including milk and dairy products. Hit heavy metals leads in some cases to their accumulation in the organism of animals and humans, which is associated with the emergence of various diseases. The content of heavy metals and unwanted micro-organisms is regulated by a number of regulatory documents, including sanitary rules and regulations.

In the food raw material heavy metals tend to be linked to protein complexes and reduce their content without violating the nutritional value is extremely difficult. The dairy industry is facing certain difficulties in the production of environmentally friendly and safe products, especially for baby products, diet and nutrition in the elderly [1].

When cleaning the milk raw in the early stages of processing (before separation) the achieved results of heavy metals may be insufficient in further processing. In obtained after separation of fat-free milk (skim milk)used for drying, concentration is useful as nutrients and heavy metals.

For example, in a dry overwriting the content of the copper and zinc is 13 and 47 mg/kg, compared to 0.9 and 4.4 mg/kg in the raw material. At the same time, the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) is 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, that is, hence the need for treatment of skimmed milk before drying [2].

At present, methods of purification of raw milk using sorbents of natural origin. The use for the purification of raw milk sorbents of plant origin [3].

A known method of purification of milk as raw material from cadmium using as a sorbent of Boliviana [4].

The technical result is to reduce the concentration of copper, lead, zinc in the non-fatty milk.

The objective of the invention is to develop a method of purification of skim milk using sorbents.

The invention consists in that the sorption treatment is subjected skim milk (skim milk), contaminated with copper, lead, zinc content, respectively 0,13; to 0.23 and 0.34 MPC (MPC copper 1 mg/kg, lead 0.1 mg/kg, zinc 5.0 mg/kg).

As the sorbent using materials of inorganic origin, for example, aluminum oxide, Al2About3or organic material - waste from cereal production - rice chaff, or the solid residue after extraction of licorice root in powdered form.

The method comprises introducing into skim milk with residual fat content is 0.10 to 0.20% of pre-hydrated with distilled water sorbent mass ratio of 25:1 at a temperature of 50-55°C, holding for 20-30 minutes and wipe from the sorbent centrifugal separator-molotovcoketail.

Hydration of the adsorbent is carried out to reduce the delay of liquid fractions of milk in the pores of the sorbent.

The original skim milk (skim milk) and purified skim milk analyze the content of heavy metals on the atomic absorption spectrometer and the total obremenjenosti (on the reductase test).

The nutrient components of milk with virtually no changes.

Aluminum oxide is white powder (TU 6-09-426-75) is used for the dehydration of organic solvents, chromatography.

Rice chaff - waste production of rice, with a particle size of 0.5-1.5 mm, contains fiber not less than 9% and protein-carbohydrate complex, characterized by a nitrogen content on Kjeldal not less than 1.1%.

The solid residue from the extraction of powdered licorice root contains 35% fat and not less than 1% nitrogen by Kjeldahl [5].

Pre-hydration of the sorbents is carried out by soaking them in distilled water with pH 6-8 for 20-30 minutes so that the material was completely covered by it, then the remaining water is removed and the sorbent contribute in hot milk.

The method reduces the content of heavy metals, bacterial colonization, to obtain a product of higher ka is esta and security. The decrease of temperature, length, mass fraction of sorbent leads to reduced efficiency and increased technologically and economically not profitable.

An example of the method.

For cleaning used a sample of skim milk (skim milk)produced in production of milk-raw materials from animals in the grazing period on the Volga malokozyrschyna next quality, wt.%: fat 0,20; protein 4,62; dry non-fat milk solids (SNF) 8,48; lactose br4.61; minerals 0,73; the copper content 0,131 mg/kg (0,13 MAC), lead is 0.023 mg/kg (0,23 MAC), zinc 1,700 mg/kg (0,34 MAC).

In the example described process using sorbents in 3 variants.

4 g of sorbent aluminum oxide in a glass vessel were soaked in distilled water, kept at room temperature for 25 minutes, after separation of the residue water was introduced into the flask with 100 g of skim milk, heated to 50-55°C in a water bath, stirred and kept for 25 minutes, then made a clean sorbent centrifugal separator-molotovcoketail.

Similarly, we also carried out the cleaning process with rice chaff and residue from the extraction of licorice root.

The amount of purified skim milk compared to the original is not changed. Analysis of the raw and purified skim milk was carried out on atomic absorbsion the ohms spectrometer "quantum-AT" on the content of heavy metals and the reductase test for overall seeding. The content of cadmium, mercury and arsenic in the non-fatty milk below the exposure limits 8-10 times and not a cause for concern for the safety of the product.

The results are shown in the table.

Table
Product typeContent, mg/kgGeneral seeding, the number of bacterial cells in 1 cm3
ZnPbC
The original skim milk
1,7000,0230,1315·05
Cleared
skim
milk:
Arbent - alumina
1,5000,0120,120
2. sorbent - rice chaff
1,5000,0070,100
3. sorbent - the residue from the extraction of licorice root0,7000,0150,0803·105

As can be seen from the table, the degree of purification compared to the raw material (%):

on heavy metalsZnPbC
from what xicom aluminum 11,7647,828,40
with rice chaff11,7669,5623,76
- with the residue from the extraction of licorice root58,8234,7838,93
total contamination on40%.

Using the sorbent Politeama purification from Zn, Pb and Cd, respectively 5,9; 30,4 and 36,0%.

The method allows to reduce the concentration of zinc, copper and lead, the total amount of bacteria skim milk, to obtain a product of higher quality and security.

Sources of information

1. Karpluk IA and other Issues of nutrition, 1996, No. 1, s.

2. Norms and diets of farm animals. Reference book /Ed. by A.P. Kalashnikov, etc., M.: AIC, 1985.

3. Kapustin A.A. treatment of milk raw materials sorbents plant origin // Valeology. - 2001. No. 1. - Pp.62-63.

4. RF patent 2327357, A23C 7/04, A23L 1/015, 2007.

5. RF patent 2209114, B01J 20/24, 2003.

The method of purification of skim milk contaminated with copper, lead, zinc con is entrale from 0.13; to 0.23 and 0.34 MPC, respectively, including the introduction of milk with fat content of 0.10 to 0.20% of the sorbent powder of aluminum oxide, or rice chaff, or the residue of extraction of licorice root hydrated with distilled water at a mass ratio of 25:1 at a temperature of 50-55°C, holding for 20-30 min with further purification from the sorbent.



 

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