Equipment system for continuous detection and measurement of motor activity of bivalve molluscs
SUBSTANCE: equipment system includes measuring devices connected to a computer. In the system, consisting of one or more sensors, an amplifier, an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) and a computer, each sensor is a tensoresistor sensor mounted on a horizontal base inside a protective housing and having the end of a flexible elastic sensor plate protruding from the housing, said plate being meant for connection with the top valve of the tested mollusc. The output of each sensor is connected to the input of the amplifier consisting of a zero balancing device, an analogue signal amplifier and a signal shift device connected in series. Each sensor is connected to the bridge circuit of the zero balancing device. The output of the amplifier is connected to the input of a 10 bit ADC whose output is connected to the input of an interfacing device which transmits a digital signal to the input of the computer having special software.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of detection as well as simple design.
2 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the field of physiology, Hydrobiology, ecology and environmental protection, in particular to the means of environmental monitoring of the aquatic environment by using non-invasive monitoring of functional status invertebrates, and can be used for remote registration of motor activity of bivalves in their environment for automated rapid assessment of the quality of the aquatic environment in real time.
Known sensors of physiological activity of invertebrates with a hard outer cover (RF patents for utility models No. 52190 from 03.11.05, No. 61431 on 25.08.06 year). Sensors include optical radiation source, a fiber-Opticheskie splitter, N buildings with elements of the unit on the body under test bespozvonochnykh, N receiving optical fibers and N detectors of optical radiation. The known method and system of biological monitoring of the aquatic environment on the basis of the registration provisions of the valves of the shell double shell-bearing mollusks by RF patent for the invention №2361207 from 20.06.2008, the System comprises a fiber optic position sensors of the valves of the clam shell, amplifiers, analog-to-digital Converter and a computer. Each sensor includes a source of optical radiation, a receiver of optical radiation, the transmission line signal is an optical fiber, the sensor base, which is made with the possibility of installing it on the half-shell and with a fixed sensor element made in the form of a loop of optical fiber. On the other the half shell has an element of influence on the sensor with the possibility of its mechanical interaction with a loop of optical fiber. These units are difficult to manufacture and the placing on the body, unreliable in use and not applicable to the real natural conditions because of a change of the total light beam; therefore, they can only be used in artificial, permanent and controlled conditions. In addition, the optical fiber and the photoelectric cell will grow into a suspension, microalgae and bacteria even in the aquarium, which also changes the intensity of light.
Known biological warning system developed in the Netherlands and manufactured under the trademark Musselmonitor (originally in Dutch Mosselmonitor: De Zwart D., K.J.M.Kramer & H.A.Jenner (1995), Practical experiences with the biological early warning system 'Mosselmonitor', Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual. 10: 237-247), applied in many countries of the world mainly for the management of freshwater and, sometimes, coastal waters, and water supply Budapest, Hungary, for quality control of chlorinated drinking water by monitoring the degree of revelation of the shells of bivalves. Musselmonitor (myus eliminator) is a box-shaped housing, hosts several shellfish (for example, 8 copies of the Zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha)on both leaf of every specimen glued on electromagnetic sensor, strictly towards each other. Technical deficiencies in the system as follows: system mounting (bonding) sensors and wires are bulky and unreliable, heavy for normal operation shellfish that are vulnerable to dynamic action of currents and waves from the speakers, a relatively large sensors and wires; these wires and sensors are easily susceptible to rapid boonratana (filamentous algae, hydroids, juvenile shellfish and other species)that affect the system. After attachment of each sensor calibration for translation from scale voltage in the distance between the leaves (in mm). The offset parts of the sensor relative to each other (magnet relative to the Hall sensor) even at 1 mm significantly distorts registered as 3-4 mm often is a full range of motion of the valves.
The closest is the system operational biological monitoring and indicating on the application for invention No. 2010118938 from 11.05.2010, the System includes measuring devices connected to the computer. As measuring instruments (measuring instruments measuring and recording unit) can be used Hall sensors, plethysmography strain gauges, volconn the optical sensors, a stationary video camera and/or a web camera underwater video observation of the behavior of aquatic organisms. Measuring and recording unit can be placed on a floating or stationary floating, or on the waterworks or water supply stations.
Declare the instrument complex, as is known, contains measuring devices connected to the computer.
Declare complex of instruments aimed at improving used for biological monitoring of measuring instruments.
The technical result is the use of strain gages for registration and measurement of motor activity of bivalves, improving the accuracy and reliability of monitoring the status of the water environment, simplify design, increase autonomy and reducing the cost of systems biological monitoring and bioindication using these complex devices.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the complex, consisting of one or more sensors, amplifier, analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) and a computer, each sensor is a strain sensor mounted on a horizontal base, inside the protective housing and protruding from the housing by the end of the flexible elastic plate of the sensor to its connection with the upper sash those who together with shellfish. The output of each sensor is connected to the input of the amplifier, consisting of a series of interconnected devices balancing zero, the amplifier of the analog signal and the shift signal. Each sensor is connected to a bridge circuit devices balancing zero. The amplifier output is connected to the input 10-bit ADC, the output of which is connected to the input device pairing, transmitting the digitized signal to the input of a computer equipped with specialized software.
Run as a sensor system, a strain gauge mounted on a horizontal base, inside the protective housing and protruding from the housing by the end of the flexible elastic plate of the sensor to its connection with the upper sash test mollusk, ensures the reliability and stability of the Desk in any conditions, simplifying the design of the sensor, increasing their autonomy and reducing the cost of systems biological monitoring their use.
In the present invention for the first time for continuous recording and measurement of motor activity of invertebrates applied strain gauges (load cells).
The execution of the amplifier, consisting of a series of interconnected devices balancing zero, amplifier analogue of the first signal and the shift signal, the entrance of which, namely, bridged device zero balancing is connected to the output of each sensor, and the output of the amplifier is connected to the input 10-bit analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), and connecting the output of the ADC with an input device pairing, transmitting the digitized signal to the input of a computer equipped with specialized software that significantly improves accuracy and facilitates data processing, minimizes distortion and interference. Furthermore, the design of the amplifier allows you to connect one, two or more load cell. Instrument unit can run on a rechargeable battery that ensures its independence.
Thus, for the first time for registration and measurement of motor activity of bivalves used a combination of load cell and sensitive linear signal amplifier with the bridge at the entrance, with further digital conversion signal for providing an interface between a strain sensor that is included in the shoulder bridge device balancing zero, with the software of the personal computer. This together significantly improves accuracy and facilitates data processing, simplifies the design, dimensions and accordingly reduces the cost of monitoring systems using data from the app is the moat.
The analysis revealed when searching for sources of information showed that the proposed set of essential features are unknown in the prior art, which confirms the compliance of the decisions of the criterion of "novelty".
Because the claimed set of essential features allows you to get a new technical result other than the one that provides the known methods, it can be argued that the proposed solution meets the criterion of "inventive step".
The invention is illustrated using diagrams are presented: figure 1 - structural diagram of the system; figure 2 - block diagram of the amplifier figure 3 - connect the dash complex with the test animals.
The instrument set contains (see figure 1, 2) one, two, or more, a strain sensor 1, an amplifier 2, an analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 3, and directly connected to the device 4 with the transmitter 5 and the display device information 6. As evaluator 5 device information display 6 is used, the personal computer 7. Amplifier 2 produces amplification, filtering and adjustment of the analog signal and consists of serially interconnected devices of zero balancing 8, the amplifier of the analog signal 9 and the device shift signal 10. The amplifier 2 is built on t is adicionou diagram of the operational amplifier available (common) chips. High sensitivity and linearity of the amplifier 2 is achieved by using the input of the bridge circuit with manual balancing scratch in the shoulder which is connected to the output of the load cell 1. The output of the balancing zero 7 is connected to the amplifier input analog signal 8, which, in turn, is connected to the input of the shift signal 10 in the positive region, the output of which is connected to the ADC input 3. The ADC 3 quantized analog signal with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz and digitized. The ADC output 3 is connected to the input devices 4, transmitting the digitized signal to the input of the computer 7. As device pairing can be used for a serial interface USB. For connection to the input device zero balancing two or more strain sensors use the contact wire plug connection.
The load cell 1 (see figure 3) is a thin flexible elastic plate 11, along which glued the wire strain gauge (DMS 12. The load cell 1 is placed in a protective casing 13, is made with a cutout for the plate 11, and is mounted on the horizontal base 14 fixed on the vertical post 15. One end of the plate 11 is connected by a flexible (thread) or rigid (rod, for example) coupling 16 with the upper sash test of clam 17. The attachment connection 16 on the plate 11 define the tsya views of clam 17, and may be in one case, on the end plate, the other closer to the middle. Clam 17 can be placed directly in natural conditions or in the aquarium with water supplied from the test horizon. Figure 3 shows a wiring diagram of the load cell 1 with clam 17, the lower sash is glued to the support 18, is placed in the water at a certain depth (mainly from 0.1 to 2 m). Bearing 18 may be rigidly connected to the platform (floating or fixed) or attached to a pier or other shoreline structure that hosts the load cell 1 and the other constituent parts of the complex (not shown). Support 18 may also be rigidly connected to the load cell 1, for example, by installing them on the same bracket.
This instrument can be used in any system of biological monitoring and display.
Load cell, amplifier and ADC and the computer can be placed on the Bank (including the pier, the pier, etc) or on a floating structure (raft, platform, terminal, pontoon or boat) in a waterproof housing. The power system can be supplied from storage batteries or by connecting to shore power.
Instrument unit operates as follows.
The force from moving the test animal 17 (closing of the valves of the clam shell) is transmitted through the CIDP is eenou to the upper sash mollusk flexible or rigid connection 16 on the elastic plate 11 of the load cell, bending which causes a current change in the strain gauge 12. The signal from the strain gauge 12 is supplied to a semiconductor amplifier 2, where it is amplified, filtered and corrected.
Then this balanced analog signal from the load cell 1, amplified to the required amplitude and shifted in the positive voltage is applied to the input 10-bit ADC 3, where it is quantized with a sampling frequency equal to 10 Hz, and digitized. Further information on the serial interface USB is transmitted to the personal computer 7 for processing and visualization of results.
After the registration information is displayed in the form of a graph of hectogramme on the screen of the personal computer 7 and is stored on the hard disk as a file. In addition to the digitized data are written to the file data on the measure of (name, date, time, duration, sample rate quantization, for more information). Data processing begins with a search for characteristic changes on the chart hectogramme and calculate their statistical values. Next is the procedure of discarding false positives, and the position of the found characteristic changes on the chart hectogramme all determined timeframe and amplitude characteristics of the signal.
The data from the computer 7 can be transmitted via the Internet to the operator or the Central information processing.
The advantages of the proposed system: a minimal impact on the body of the mollusk is attached with glue for a few minutes only the tip of a flexible connection (thin filament) or hard links (arm); reliability of the use of flexible or rigid in natural conditions (tested for 5 years); easy snap connection with the clam provides easy replacement of the mollusk in the case of his death; all parts of the complex easy to manufacture, which reduces the cost of the complex; the complex provides improved accuracy and reliability of condition monitoring of the aquatic environment.
The inventive instrument unit has successfully passed the pilot testing in the natural environment.
1. Complex of instruments for continuous recording and measuring behavioral responses of bivalve mollusks, including measuring devices connected to the computer, wherein the complex comprising one or more sensors, amplifier, analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) and a computer, each sensor is a strain sensor mounted on a horizontal base, inside the protective housing and protruding from the housing by the end of the flexible elastic plate of the sensor to its connection with the upper sash test mollusk, the output of each sensor is connected to the input of the amplifier, sostayashego the serially interconnected devices of zero balancing, amplifier analog signal and a shift signal, each detector is connected to a bridge circuit devices balancing zero, the output of the amplifier is connected to the input 10-bit ADC, the output of which is connected to the input device pairing, transmitting the digitized signal to the input of a computer equipped with specialized software.
2. Instrument unit according to claim 1, characterized in that the load cell, amplifier, ADC and the computer placed on shore or on a floating structure, which is used as anchored raft, floating platform, floating buoys, terminal, ship.
SUBSTANCE: isolated during bacteriologic analysis of quality of water for various purposes pathogenic bacteria, additionally potentially pathogenic bacteria with their further identification and normalised indicators of water quality estimation are taken into considereation with further implementation of process of generalisation into a single assessement of microbial risk thresholds, which is performed by calculating first weighted coefficients by formula: An=(P1·V1+P2·V2+…+Pn·Vn). After that, the data obtained are used to calculate integral index by each sanitary and hygienic factor by formula: Estimation of risk by three-level classifier is considered high if values of Rfac are from 0.4 to 1.0 including 0.4 and 1.0, medium if values of Rfac are from 0.2 to 0.4 and low if values of Rfac are from 0 to 0.2, including 0. Estimation of risk by five-level classifier is considered to be very high if values of Rfac are from 0.6 to 1.0, including 0.6 and 1.0, high if values of Rfac are from 0.4 to 0.6, including 0.4, medium if values of Rfac are from 0.2 to 0.4, including 0.2, low or acceptable if values of Rfac are from 0.15 to 0.2, including 0.15 and very low if values of Rfac are from 0 to 0.15. After that the obtained results are used to calculate generalised index of risk of sexually transmitted bacterial intestinal infections CA by formula by three-level classifier it is considered high if values of CA are from 0.4 to 1.0, including 0.4 and 1.0, medium if values of CA are from 0.2 to 0.4, and low if values of CA are from 0 to 0.2, including 0. Estimation of risk by five-level classifier is considered very high if values of CA are from 0.6 to 1.0, high if values of CA are from 0.4 to 0.6, including 0.4, medium if values of CA are from 0.2 to 0.4, including 0.2, low or acceptable if values of CA are from 0.15 to 0.2, including 0.15 and very low if values of CA are from 0 to 0,15.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce or prevent morbidity associated with bacterial semination of water.
1 ex, 8 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bacteriological analysis of water by normalised indicators is performed with determination of pathogenic bacteria, additionally during water analysis determined are potentially pathogenic bacteria and their pathogenic and virulent properties, obtained data are used to estimate probability of infectious process development in people by formula: Hpatogen =(C•(100-Pt)•V•v/r)•T. After that, calculated is integral index of probability of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way with direct release of causative agents isolated and identified during microbiological analysis of water by formula: After that, risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is carried out, it is considered to be acceptable if its value does not exceed 1x10-5, and microbial risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is considered to be low. If its value is from 1x10-5 and lower, microbial risk of development of bacterial intestinal infections transmitted by water way is considered to be high. If its value constitutes more than 1x10-5, risk of water contamination with pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora is estimated at population level by formula: Rp=Rv•100000.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce or prevent development of intestinal diseases and makes it possible to predict probability of BII development with direct release of bacterial causative agents from water for various purposes, taking into account their species composition and biological properties.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves collecting samples directly in the region of functioning of the pond and in the control zone, and then determining content of chemical compounds in the samples and determining main quantitative indicators of components of the aquatic ecosystem based on said content. Quantitative indicators of the biota - number and biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos - are also determined in the samples from the control zone and the region of functioning of the pond. The ratio of the quantitative indicators of the biota in the pond region to those in the control zone is then calculated. A reference table of ranges of the calculated chemical indicators of the ratios of components of the aquatic ecosystem is then created while adding rows with ratios of quantitative indicators of the biota into the table. By comparing the calculated ratios with ranges of identical ratios in the reference table, the effect of the pond on the state of the aquatic ecosystem is then determined.
EFFECT: high reliability of results.
1 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: during realisation of the method the test objects are soaked in tested solutions, parameters of test objects survivability are registered, and using them, threshold concentrations of tested pesticide toxicity are calculated, besides, pathomorphological modifications are registered in test objects, the average percentage of malformations is calculated, and the threshold concentration of teratogenic impact is established as the pesticide concentration with minimum teratogenic impact at test objects, and extent of pesticides toxicity is estimated on the basis of the threshold concentration coefficient, which is calculated using the formula Kn emb - coefficient of threshold concentrations of pesticides toxicity taking into account their teratogenicity, LC16 - limit concentration of pesticides toxicity causing death of 16% embryos, EterC16 - threshold concentration of teratogenic effect of pesticides. At the same time if values of the coefficient Kn emb >10, the class of pesticides hazard is established as I, i.e. extremely hazardous, 5-10 - the class of pesticides hazard is set as II, i.e. highly hazardous, 1-5 - the class of pesticides hazard is established as III, i.e. hazardous, <1 - the class of pesticides hazard is IV, i.e. moderately hazardous. Test objects are embryos of sturgeons.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and validity of assessment.
2 cl, 1 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: enteroviruses are concentrated by introduction into an analysed water sample of a magnetic sorbent microparticles coated with polymeric silicon dioxide with amino poropyl groups in proportions 1:1000-3000 of water sample volume. It is incubated at constant stirring for 1-2 hours. The sorbent is collected with a magnet, a supernatant is removed, and a sorbent-enterovirus complex is produced. Enteroviruses are eluted by 0.5M NaCl and 0.05M Tris (pH-10.5) solution. Enteroviruses are identified by immunochemical, cultural and molecular methods.
EFFECT: high degree of virus concentration in the eluate, decreased amount of the eluating solution.
SUBSTANCE: fixed and mobile monitoring sites equipped with measuring instrumentations are located. Various environmental parameters are registered and subjected to analysis. More specifically, hydrophysical field signals are being registered, chemiluminescence, chromatographic, ion-selective, spectral and radiometric analysis is performed. Besides, bed acoustic impendance is registered, molecular spin interactions of seawater protons are detected, artifacts resulting from the magnetohydrodynamic, bioelectric and concentration effect are detected, synthetic surfactant content in the aquatic environment, chlorophyll concentrations, microorgasnisms, phytoplankton, zooplankton is determined. The collected data is further transferred to the archivers and modeling is performed. In the course of modeling the industrial facility environment and infrastructure is divided into a number of areas and a material balance model and a forecast model are created for each of them. For the purposes of the method implementation a system comprising a water withdrawal line equipped with hydrophysical field sensors, a filtering plant for chlorophyll concentration, a filtering plant with a Seitz funnel for microorganisms sampling, a Nageotte chamber for counting the phytoplankton content, a Bogorov Counting Chamber for enumerating zooplankton, a centrifugal apparatus to determine chlorophyll content, a geophone, spectral sensor of proton spin echo is proposed. Besides, the proposed system comprises devices for chemiluminescence, chromatographic, ion-selective, spectral and radiometric analysis, a radiation spectrometer, an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an X-ray fluorometric analyser, TV sensors, infrared sensors, heat sensors, a metrological module, a sidescan sonar, multiple-beam echo sounder, water quality evaluator by TropoSample parameters and bed deposits characteristics, a lidar (a light radar), a penetrometer, methane and hydrogen detection sensors.
EFFECT: enhanced functional capabilities.
2 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of concentrating salicylic acid from aqueous solution, involving extraction with trioctylamine oxide solution in hexane, deposited on foamed polyurethane tablets in amount of 75-80% of the weight of foamed polyurethane.
EFFECT: invention increases concentration coefficient of salicylic acid.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: system for rapid biological monitoring and indication consists of measurement-detection, analytical and signal units. The measurement-detection unit is n apparatus for measuring reactions of aquatic indicator organisms, where n=2, 3, 4, for two or more aquarium in which there are indicator organisms, into which water enters from a distributing aquarium, said water being pumped by a pump from the tested underwater horizon of the water body or from water pipe. Parameters of functional characteristics of the indicator organisms are calculated from signals of measuring apparatus coming into the analytical unit which comprises a computer with software, containing a data base of parameters of the state of functional characteristics of different indicator organisms under normal conditions, configured for constant population and editing. Values of the measured parameters are continuously processed by the computer in real time, separately for each individual indicator organism. Upon deviation of average values from standard values, the signal unit is automatically switched off and a three-step alarm signal is generated - upon deviation from the standard on one parameter, on three parameters and on all parameters for all indicator organisms.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability of continuous indication of the quality of water.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: processing procedures.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in analytic chemistry for sorption concentration and successive determination of heavy metals in water solutions. The procedure for production of sorption material consists in impregnation of surface of a cellulose filter with an analytic reagent wherein thio-semi-carbazone of picoline aldehyde is used as such. Impregnation is carried out with conditioning cellulose material in solution of the reagent in ethanol containing 2.5 % of cetyl alcohol with successive extraction and drying in air. Produced cellulose material is applied for sorption-roentgen-fluorescent analytic determination of heavy metals in water solutions. Metals are extracted with cellulose material for roentgen-fluorescent determination at pH 7.5-10.5, preferably, at pH 10.0.
EFFECT: simple and safe procedure for production of sorption cellulose material used for efficient concentration of heavy metals with successive determination of each of them separately and in whole.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: in order to realise the method, aromatic amines are extracted from waste water with an emulsion of aqueous solution of an inorganic acid with ionisation constant higher than 10 in an organic solvent.
EFFECT: high degree of extraction of aromatic amines from waste water with minimum consumption of reagents and combining extraction and re-extraction processes at one step.
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises: sampling, acidifying samples with HCl/H2SO4 mixture, adding Ce(SO4)2 as oxidant and removing its excess with reducing agent NH2OH·HCl, adding rhodamine C as organic reagent, extracting resulting complex, separating organic phase from aqueous phase, and measuring optical density. Extraction is performed with carbon tetrachloride/methyl isobutyl ketone mixture at 5:1 volume ratio and extractant-to-sample volume ratio 1:1 under dynamic conditions by way of washing away complex with extractant. Content of antimony is judged of from difference of optical densities of extractant and mixture.
EFFECT: lowered measurement threshold to values comparable with allowable limits, increased reliability, reduced analysis time, and automated analytical procedure.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hygiene and sanitary of freshwater reservoirs and is meant to be used for microbiological testing of condition of water source in an agricultural enterprise effluent zone, in particular in the effluent zone of poultry factories and pig-breeding farms. For this aim, water is sampled at least in two zones: in the effluent zone of agricultural enterprise and in the zone, where influence of agricultural enterprise effluent over different periods is excluded. Then, contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities of urease-carbamidamidohydrolase in samples are measured. Obtained data are processed: contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities in different samples are compared to each other and dynamic of changes in data in samples taken from different zones are compared.
EFFECT: enabled quick testing at high accuracy in estimations and minimized labor and means involved.
FIELD: toxicology, in particular determination of water flea sensibility to toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes detection of water flea death time (min) caused by water-soluble chemicals, wherein concentration (C, mol/l) of chemical under consideration fluctuates according to logarithmic scale with interval of 0.1. Plot of Y versus X is made, wherein Y-axis represents average death time with scale of 1 point = 1 min; X-axis represents reverse concentration (1/C) of chemical under consideration; and scale is proportional to log increasing by 0.1. Water flea sensibility to toxic effect (tgα) is calculated according to equation: tgα = TL(min):1/KL = TL(min)xKl (I), wherein α is inclination of straight line to X-axis; TL(min) is death time (min) being determined according to point of hypothetical crosspoint of straight line with Y-axis; KL is lethality constant (mol/l) defined as chemical concentration wherein water flea death time is equal to 2TL(min).
EFFECT: Method allowing evaluation of toxic effect evolution dynamics and comparison of toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals in equal concentration ranges.
2 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods in industrial sanitation.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages bringing solution to be analyzed into contact with potassium bichromate, sulfuric acid, and mercuric sulfate, ageing resulting mixture and allowing it to cool to ambient temperature, adding ferroin indicator, titration of excess of potassium bichromate with 0.125 n. Moor salt solution, and calculating chemical oxygen demand value from amount of Moor salt consumed in the titration. Method is characterized by that initial solution is preliminarily homogenized until diameter of suspended particles therein become as large as 0.03 mm, after which solution is allowed to stay for 4 min.
EFFECT: reduced determination inaccuracy.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns estimation of environmental pollution using bioassay methods. In particular, method is accomplished through bioindication of controlled area using, as bioindicators, internals (muscles, kidneys, liver) of wild hoofed animals (elk, dear, wild boar). One determines content of heavy metals in these organs placed within an area, compares thus obtained data with maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in foods, and estimates heavy metal pollution level of the area from resulted difference. Existence of long-term pollution of a region is judged of from excess concentration of heavy metals in wild hoofed animal kidneys and existence of single release of mercury and lead from that in muscles and liver.
EFFECT: enabled multiple estimation of considerable areas at reduced effort.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental protection and toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: subject of invention is drinking, natural, and waste water quality monitoring. Toxicity of aqueous medium is determined from variation in activity of animal brain plasma membrane Mg2+-ATPase activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions. In one embodiment of invention, toxicity of aqueous medium is determined by mixing above plasma membranes with test aqueous medium adjusted to physiologic pH with phosphorus-free buffer followed by addition of solution containing Tris-ATP and magnesium ion source as well as chloride and/or bicarbonate ion(s) source, incubation until inorganic phosphorus is formed, and determination of toxicity from concentration of inorganic phosphorus. Brain plasma membranes used as indicator contain Mg2+-ATPase capable of being activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions.
EFFECT: extended functional possibilities of method and use of reagent, increased sensitivity, and enabled determination of toxicity at lower concentration of various-type toxicants.
20 cl, 6 tbl
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns evaluation of pollution of areas with pesticides involving bioassay techniques. To that end, area under control is subjected to bioindication using wild hoofed animals (mainly elks, deer, wild boars) as bioindicators. Within specified period of time, animal internals are sampled, pesticide content therein is determined, and thus obtained results are compared with maximum permissible pesticide levels for food products. Comparison data are used to estimate quality of media.
EFFECT: increased representativeness of monitoring results, enabled evaluation of a vast region or local area or local agrocenosis at lower effort.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: chemistry, water quality control, method for quantitative estimation of organic substance properties in aqueous solutions.
SUBSTANCE: indicator plate is immersed in aqueous solution and according to alteration of aqueous solution composition chemical activity of organic substances in this solution is determined. In clamed method tree vessels are used. Two vessels contain aqueous solution to be tested and the third vessel contains control aqueous solution free from organic contamination. In aqueous solutions containing in the second and third vessels indicator plates are immersed, then aqueous solutions in all vessels are heated up to 95-105°C, held at this temperature for 55-65 min, cooled to 15-25°C, filtered though membrane filter with pore size of 0.46 mum, then iron content is measured in all vessels and chemical activity of organic substances in aqueous solutions is calculated according to equation ka=ΔFe/Fe1, wherein ΔFe = Fe2- Fe1- Fe3; Fe1 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the first vessel; Fe2 is iron content in the tested aqueous solution of the second vessel; and Fe3 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the third vessel.
EFFECT: simplified method with enhanced functionality.
3 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: ecological engineering, particularly river monitoring with taking into consideration river pollution with sewage water within the limits of cities and other inhabited localities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves choosing river observation points relative single pollution source or pollution source array; aligning one observation point with single pollution cross-section or pollution cross-section array; taking water samples; conservation the samples and preparing thereof for following analysis; cultivating test-organism, namely one-celled green algae - Chlorella vulgaris, inside cultivator at temperature of 36±0.5°; measuring optical density thereof in red light; analyzing and estimating the measurement results. The observation points are transversal to river and set in front of single sewage pollution source or sewage pollution source array, in center of each source and behind them. All three observation points are located within the limits of a city or other inhabited locality. The optical density is measured before and after one-celled green algae cultivation in water samples. After measurement termination overall river water pollution index is determined.
EFFECT: possibility to compare overall river water pollution index obtained in particular observation point with that obtained from pollution source on river bank; extended functional capabilities and extended range of application.
5 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with testing biological activity of water, preliminary treatment of water, division into control and tested portions, ionization of tested portion with silver ions, detection of the quantity of sprouted wheat grains per time unit pre-impregnated in both mentioned portions and calculation of relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water according to the following ratio: where d - relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water, %; Ntested - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in tested portion of water, pcs.; Ncontrol - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in control portion of water, pcs. Moreover, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being above 0 means increased biological activity of water, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being below 0 means its decrease, and equation of the mentioned relative alteration to 0 means intact nature of biological activity of water being different by the fact that pre-treatment of water should be carried out due to precipitation for 23-24 h at 23-26 C.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of investigation.