Method to preserve liquid industrial waste pond
SUBSTANCE: method consists in removal of water from a drop, giving the specified position to the drop bottom, laying of a water-impermeable geomembrane onto this bottom and covering of a geomembrane and a beach with a protective layer from natural soil. The geomembrane edge is installed above the rated water level in the pond, created in the drop with atmospheric precipitation and put into economic turnover. In plan beyond the geomembrane the protective layer in its base comprises an antifiltration layer coupled with a geomembrane.
EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.
5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be applied to conservation (liquidation) storage of liquid industrial wastes such as tailings, tailings ponds and ponds.
The drive, after filling it to the design elevation, subject to conservation, and in case of impossibility of its further usage for environmental reasons or termination of the enterprise is liquidated in accordance with the project [1, Annex 9; 2].
The final state of the surface of the drive liquid waste does not provide a convenient preservative relief. Therefore, when planning the fall, located in the Central part of the drive, i.e. in the area of the settling pond, drain and fill with waste, taken from the beach area, or imported career ground. Such planning involves higher costs and abnormal flow in the atmosphere of small fractions of waste in the form of dusting, especially abundant on the ash landfill. All this leads to high costs, it reduces the capacity of the drive and significantly increases the environmental impact on nature.
There are two ways of preservation of the drive liquid industrial waste, according to which over filled to the design of the stamp drive from waste reclamation shape body preservation with a given issue is kloy form the outer surface, necessary to eliminate the reduction, organization runoff of precipitation and increase the capacity of the drive. Body preservation in the same way formed by the concentrated release of the pulp slurry pipeline in the Central part of the drive , and the other by recordatorio release of the pulp with the formation of depressions for settling pond in the Central part of the drive and the beach near the enclosing element. Thus the outer surface of the enclosing element is provided within the height of each of alluvial layer giving the body the conservation of a given convex shape of the outer surface .
On the formation of body preservation as in the first method and the second, requires a large amount of waste, alluvium which is usually within 7-10 years, which in the case of liquidation of the drive, for example, for environmental reasons or upon termination of the enterprise, may be unacceptable. This narrows the scope of these known methods.
- in the implementation of conservation must constantly, and over a large area to carry out dust suppression, which is associated with high costs and significant environmental costs;
- area conserved drive has very limited use because of its low p is hodnoty.
The problem to which the invention is directed, is saving money and improving environmental safety in the case of conservation drive, subject to liquidation, and in expanding the field of use of the area conserved drive. Achieve the same technical result is to reduce grading and dust formation at the conservation of the drive and to increase the suitability of the area conserved drive for further use in previously unfamiliar direction.
The problem is solved and the technical result is achieved by a method of conservation of the drive liquid industrial waste, alluvium which was produced with the formation of water-filled depressions in the Central part of the drive and the beach near the tailings dam is to remove water from the lower, giving the bottom of the lower set position, laying on it's bottom waterproof geomembrane and covering the geomembrane and the beach with a protective layer of natural soil. Edge geomembranes have higher than the calculated water level in the reservoir, created in the lowering of atmospheric precipitation and marketed.
for the estimated water level accept the extent to which regular and long standing may be the filled reservoir;
in terms outside of the geomembrane protective layer at its base contains a membrane layer associated with developed;
- in the drive, perform or adapt an existing structure, which provides the abstraction of water from the reservoir;
- impervious layer made of a cohesive soil.
The creation of the reduction, i.e. at the site of the former settling pond, screened bottom of the reservoir, a host in himself precipitation, allows you to conserve memory in a relatively short period of time. At the same time the reduced volume of grading and dust generation, and increased the suitability of the area conserved drive for use in previously unfamiliar areas, namely:
to be a source of technical water supply of the enterprise;
- to be a source of irrigation water for plantations, orchards and gardens;
to be a public place of recreation, swimming and sports.
Figure 1 shows the waste storage after the conservation plan; figure 2 - section a-a in figure 1, where the magnitude of the reduction of the lateral dimensions of approximately three times the decrease vertical size.
Example. In drive 1 placed granular waste 2, alluvium which has been carried out with the formation of water-filled depressions 3 in the Central is part of the drive 1 and 4 near the beach tailings dam 5. From the environmental safety conditions it was decided to terminate the reclamation of waste 2 in drive 1 and the works of its conservation (liquidation).
Work on conservation drive 1 in accordance with the proposed invention is produced in the following sequence.
First of lowering 3 remove the water and its original bottom 6 by developing and travel planning waste 7 attach around the perimeter of the lower steeper specified position 8 pond 9 is created in the lower 3 precipitation. Then this bottom 8 reduction 3 stack developed waterproof 10, which is covered with a protective layer 11, performed mainly of sand-gravel soil. Beach 4 is also covered with a protective layer 11, which, depending on local conditions and purpose of the reservoir 9 may be partially or fully be made of soil the soil.
Outside geomembranes 10 at the base of the protective layer 11 mainly of cohesive soil perform impervious layer 12, which is waterproof match with developed 10, with the edge 13 of the geomembrane 10 at junction 14 have higher estimated water level (PEL) in the reservoir 9. Water 9 supply intake structure, which includes, for example, a floating pump station 15 and the discharge conduit 16. In is the quality of the diversion structure can be adapted previously existing in the drive water intake structure (not shown).
In the steady-state water balance (evaporation - precipitation and condensation) of the total area of the surface of the Earth at stake land accounts for 29%, while the share of the World ocean 71% . About this ratio can be established and preserved memory in the case of drainage of the reservoir 9. However, local conditions such as the zonal features of the natural water balance, the amount of water to be abstracted from the reservoir 9, cause a significant deviation from the above ratios generally in the direction of decreasing surface area of the reservoir 9. At the same time the water level in the reservoir 9, and thus the area of the water surface, during the year varies considerably.
For the estimated water level (PEL) it is advisable to take the level to which may be regularly filled the reservoir 9, and the maximum level (MSY) level preset security. The reservoir 9 at such levels has the water's edge, respectively, 17 and 18.
After preservation drive 1 it is introduced into the economy, mainly as a source of industrial water supply company or as a source of irrigation water for plantations, orchards and gardens. This consumption of water from the reservoir 9 provides his tocnosti. When water flow through the pump station 15 through the tailings dam 2 water outlet vodova the 16 should mostly by gravity.
With proper hygiene and hygienic requirements, primarily to water quality in the reservoir 9, the square conserved drive for the population can be equipped with a place for recreation, swimming and sports.
In the present invention can be made of various modifications and changes without departing from the scope of the invention. For example, the elimination of the drive proposed method can be carried out after the formation of the lower body preservation previously contained in the source  method.
1 - drive
2 - waste
3 - reduction
4 - beach
5 - tailings dam
6, the initial position of the bottom of the lower
7 - planning waste
8 - set the position of the bottom of the reservoir
9 - reservoir
10 - geomembrane
11 - layer protection
12 - impervious layer
13 - the edge of the geomembrane
14 - junction
15 - floating pump station
16 - tailrace
17 - the water's edge when PEL
18 - the water's edge at MSY
1. Gosgortechnadzor Of Russia. The rules of safety of hydraulic structures storage of liquid industrial waste. PB 03-438-02. M: Rossiyskaya Gazeta, No. 103, from 08.06.2002.
2. Recommendations for remediation waste ponds of thermal power plants. RD 34.202-95 / RAO UES Rossi is". - M.: str ORGRES, 1977.
3. USSR author's certificate No. 10526614. The method of wet storage of tailings. / Saratov IE, Remizov B. I., Bondarenko A.I. and others, IPC EV 7/06, 1981.
4. RF patent №2396430. Method of reclamation section of hydraulic mine dump, filled with granular waste industrial enterprises. / Agin VP, Weikum VA, Rudnev V.M., AS 41/32, WV 7/06, publ. 2010.08.10.
5. Davydov L.K., Dmitriev A.A., concina N.G. General hydrology. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1973, p.31.
1. The method of conservation of the drive liquid industrial waste, alluvium which was produced with the formation of water-filled depressions in the Central part of the drive and the beach near the tailings dam is to remove water from the lower, giving the bottom of the lower set position, laying on it's bottom waterproof geomembrane and covering the geomembrane and the beach with a protective layer of natural soil at the edge of the geomembrane have higher than the calculated water level in the reservoir, created in the lowering of atmospheric precipitation and marketed.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the calculated water level accept the extent to which regular and prolonged standing can be filled with water.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the plan outside of the geomembrane protective layer at its base contains protiviti traceonly layer, coupled with developed.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the drive perform or adapt an existing structure, which provides the abstraction of water from a reservoir.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the membrane layer is made of a cohesive soil.
SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.
EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground water with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals with fractions of various size, layer by layer with further compaction of each layer, laying of drainage layer with construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, topographic mapping of the whole pit is performed, and as per its results there made is planning with extraction of sections representing geological natural monument and sections subject to further filling. At that, filling with construction waste is performed while cuts of deposits representing geological natural monument are kept free, and possibility of access to them, monitoring them and arranging the museum of the Earth is provided. The rest sections of the pit according to the planning are broken into zones and filled; at that, overburden rocks are laid on the drainage layer. Hill is formed in one of the zones with its further terracing. Burial places are built on terraces. Columbarium and crematorium rooms are built in the rest zones. Foundation bases of the above buildings are arranged in the following sequence: first, overburden rocks laid on drainage layer are levelled, and piles are driven to the design depth from planning level of the pit. Then, buffer pad from sand of average grain size is made without compaction and binding concrete is provided above buffer pad. Zones are separated from each other by means of artificially created three-dimensional soil shapes, and tracks and access ways are covered with natural or artificial stone.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.
SUBSTANCE: recovery method of mined-out pits involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground waters with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals, laying of drainage layer of construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, first, planning is performed and cuts of deposits of average coal age are determined. Filling with construction waste is performed while those cuts of deposits of average coal age are kept free, and access is provided to them in order to monitor them and to arrange the museum of the Earth. Then, in the centre of the pit, on the drainage layer there laid are overburden rocks; at that, a hill is formed; after that, when the hill height reaches average absolute level, terracing of hill slopes is performed by means of a bulldozer; and section is pre-broken and furrows indicating the boundaries of the future terraces, tracks and access ways are ploughed. Bed of each terrace is formed with reverse cross slope to two gradients; at that, width of terrace bed is not less than seven metres. For each terrace, starting from lower tier of terraces, along the whole perimetre of the pit, there built are embankment plate or stone walls and they are bound with cement mortar. Drainage system is routed and burial places are built on terraces.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work owing to excluding the necessity of extraction of large volumes of soil for creation of fertile layer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selective mining, movement and storage in separate soil wastes; at that, soil groups are laid periodically to the waste height of 2.5 m, at flattening of 25-35° waste boards. At that, lower part of the group which is 15-20 cm thick - low-fertile overburden rocks; middle part of the group which is 10-12 cm thick is laid with natural looser with fraction size of not more than 10 mm and upper part of the group is filled with organic fertiliser.
EFFECT: reduction of bioproductivity of clay soils and improvement of protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, movement and storage of the soil layer and overburden rocks, mining of the open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes close in their composition to natural minerals, laying of the draining layer from construction wastes, with thickness of at least 0.6 m and fraction size of 150-200 mm. After filling of the pit with construction wastes, terracing is carried out using a bulldoser, at the same time at first the site is laid out, and furrows that mark borders of future terraces, paths and access roads are tilled. Then the bed of each terrace is formed serially with the bulldoser with a reverse cross inclination up to two degrees, along the entire perimetre of the pit. Bed width at each terrace is arranged as at least equal to seven metres. Then retaining walls are arranged from plates or stones and are bound with cement mortar. The drainage system is laid, and places are arranged on the terraces for burial of the deceased.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to reclamation of worked-out pits. The method includes backfilling of worked-out space up to the upper underground water level by construction waste close to minerals by composition, and setting drainage layer. After the pit is filled with construction waste, terracing is carried out using a bulldozer. Furthermore, at first the area is divided and ribs are plowed, the ribs indicate the borders of future terraces. The bed of each terrace is formed by a bulldozer with reverse crossfall up to 2 degrees. Support walls are erected along the whole perimeter of the pit and drainage system is installed, while decorative plants, lawns and gardens are organized.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensity of worked-out pits reclamation, soil is protected from wind and water erosion.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: flattening of quarry sides is done bottom-up by means of their filling by application of stronger rocks taken from the bottom of the quarry. Filling may be carried out up to various vertical elevations at the board of the quarry depending on mine technical conditions of deposit bedding.
EFFECT: accelerated process of damaged lands recovery by increasing stability of flattened boards of the quarry to erosion processes, by arrangement of water reservoirs in the mined area with parameters favourable for recovery of their biological productivity.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation above the filled compartment of recultivation body from wastes with external surface of the specified convex shape and necessary for water flow and increase of the compartment capacity, and coating of external surface of recultivation body with layer of earth. At least lower part of recultivation body is formed in tiers, each of which is inwashed under protection of enclosing element installed along the tier perimetre by means of distributed outlet of pulp from pulp line so that sediment pond is formed in central part of tier and beach, which is specified on the basis of safety condition of width near the enclosing element providing the specified shape of external surface of recultivation body within the limits of the tier height. On wastes of beach zone of the compartment or tier of recultivation body there made is at least one water intake chamber in the form of the channel formed with dams and connecting the water intake facility to sediment pond. During tier-by-tier formation of recultivation body the dam crests of channels are maintained above water level in sediment pond, and water is supplied from channel by means of water intake facility to the water conduit of the water supply system of waste hydraulic transport. Length of channel section, which changes at inwash of wastes, from inlet threshold formed with wastes to water receiver of water intake facility 1k is brought into line with the following condition: Lchannel≥(hs-ht)/iunderwater, where hs - the specified water depth before water receiver of water intake facility; ht - water depth at inlet threshold of the channel; iunderwater - average slope of the projection of underwater inwash of wastes.
EFFECT: simplifying the erection of water intake facility, its operation and inwash of sediment pond with wastes at final stage of recultivation, increasing the storage unit volume and improving the quality of water clarification before water intake facility.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves application of stationary sources of mixture dust escape on dust-forming surfaces. Note that the mixture is obtained by mixing of organic residues of natural origin and high-molecular weight compound in the ratio of 125:1 and it is applied with simultaneous natural or artificial watering and hayseed planting, thus creating the foundation for strong grass-covered bio-productive layer forming.
EFFECT: increase of dust escape efficiency of stationary sources of dust-forming surfaces and return of disturbed lands to agricultural fund.
3 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method consists in formation of recultivation body over filled pond from wastes with specified convex shape of external surface required for water drain, increase of pond capacity and improvement of esthetic value of landscape, and in coverage of external surface of recultivation body with a layer of soil. At least lower part of recultivation body is formed in tiers, every of which is washed under protection of barrier element by means of dispersed pulp discharge from pulp line to create a setting pond adjacent to slope and beach, with width specified by safety condition around barrier element, which provides, within the limits of tier height, giving recultivation body specified shape of external surface, afterwards upper part of recultivation body is formed. To obtain all of this, at least one water intake bucket is made on slope in the form of canal, which connects overtile to settling pond, and its sides are formed by means of excavation and/or backfill and exceed water level in settling pond. Upper part of recultivation body is formed by means of settling pond washing by wastes of settling pond with water displacement into canal done through dispersed discharge of pulp from pulp line at the side of slope. Length of canal section that varies in process of wastes washing from inlet threshold formed by wastes to overtile lo by means of canal extension towards settling pond is brought in compliance with the following condition: lo≥(hs-ht)/iunder, where hs - specified depth of water upstream overtile; ht - depth of water at inlet threshold of canal; iunder - average inclination of surface in underwater washing-in of wastes.
EFFECT: simplified erection of new overtile, increased reliability of pond and quality of water clarification.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: construction, road engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in mining and processing industries to hydraulically insulate storages of wastes and to preserve precious components in anthropogenic massifs, and also to insulate waste banks and garbage dumps with antifiltration screens from polymer materials. The device comprises a frame platform with longitudinal beams and wheels, which is hingedly joined to a basic vehicle. Additionally it comprises a hopper with granulated wastes of polyethylene and polypropylene, an auger mechanism for supply of granules into a heating area with a controlled motor, a heater and a lining mechanism of extruder type with a metal hollow cooled roller providing for coating compaction.
EFFECT: increased reliability of a screening layer due to preparation of coating of required thickness directly in place of laying and higher operational reliability as a whole.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: previously a trench is dug along the perimeter of an erected impervious screen. The sealing mixture is injected, for instance, a cement mortar, with the help of high-discharge injection to the rated length along the inner perimeter of the trench, then - along the outer perimetre of the trench. After hardening of the sealing mixture high-discharge injection is carried out in the middle part of the trench along the entire length, and drainage pipes are laid into the trench.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of works performance and reliability of a developed impervious screen.
FIELD: water protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the area of environmental protection, and namely to the protection of open water bodies. The method comprises arrangement of drainage elements of open and closed types, arrangement of a reservoir for waste water collection and drainage of contaminated water. Additionally the planning of the layout of the area surface of stored solid waste is performed through technical means to ensure a gradual increase in the slope of its surface from the top of the area of waste to the bottom towards the water edge of the water body on the one side and from the top to its bottom in the opposite direction on the other side of the water body. Drainage elements of open type are arranged in the form of internal and external rallying ditches and an outlet ditch. The internal rallying ditch is placed along the bottom of the area of waste both on the side of the water body and on the site that is opposite to it. The exterior rallying ditch is placed only along the base of the area of waste which is furthest to the water body behind the rallying ditch. The outlet ditch is placed from the exterior rallying ditch to the water edge of the water body. Reservoirs for collection of contaminated water in the form of individual open tanks are placed outside the exterior rallying ditch along the base of the area of waste which is remote from the water body. Drainage elements of closed type are placed as closed rallying tanks as well as connecting pipes and drainage rallying pipes under the area of assorted waste. And the connecting pipes connect internal rallying ditch with the closed rallying tanks and the drainage prefabricated pipes connect them with the tanks for collection of contaminated water. The area of waste is covered with two layers of thin material: first, the lower one - the drainage material, and the second, the upper one - waterproof material. For the upper, waterproof material rolled material of width b is used. Coverage is carried out on the lower layer of drainage material by unrolling the rolls in strips from the external rallying ditch along the slope of the area of waste towards the top of the area of waste and further to the water edge of the water body. Laying of the strips of the upper waterproof material is carried out in the following sequence: the first, third, second, fifth, fourth, seventh, sixth, ninth, eighth, etc. Distances between the odd stripes stand out to be (0.7-0.8) to provide the strap of the adjacent stripes (odd and even) to each other by the width (0.15-0.10)5. After laying two layers of material they are perpetuated to the area of waste by means of pins which are arranged along the set stripes of material on caps. The lower edge of the drainage material around its perimeter is placed in the internal rallying ditch. The lower edge of the waterproof material is placed from the side of the area of waste which is remote from the water body - in the exterior rallying ditch, and from the side of the base of the area of waste adjacent to the water body - on the ground and into the water body. Pollution agents are prevented from getting into the water body.
EFFECT: water protection.
1 dwg, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: flow (29) of suspension is directed to appointed place via flexible pipeline. Flexible pipeline (12) has a tip (13) in form of a rigid pipe with an outlet nozzle or group of nozzles (15). Nozzles (15) are directed in different sides from axis (16) of tip (13). Length of the tip exceeds depth of basin (7) at appointed place of bottom (9). Shape of tip (13) when imposed with axial pressure facilitates immersion of nozzles (15) into sediments (6) of bottom of basin (9). Tip (13) is connected to flexible pipeline (12) by means of metal insertion (14). Insertion (14) contains valve (17) and pressure gauge (18) with valve (19). Nozzles (15) are protected with element (20) from mechanical damage. Tip (13) is lowered to bottom (8) successively in holes (21) made in ice at specified distance. Also, diametre of each hole (21) ensures lowering of tip (13) into well (21) to two arms (22), if necessary. Axial pressure is imposed to arms (22) and upper end (23) till immersion of nozzles (15) into sediments (6) at specified depth. Further, suspension is supplied under pressure and at specified volume. Screen (25) is made by layer-after-layer sediments (6) piling. Sediments are enriched with suspension from adjacent holes (21) at stirring-up. Average thickness of screen (25) depends on volume of stirred-up sediments (6) and distance between holes (21). Volume of sediments (6) depends on depth of nozzle immersion (15), angle of attack of sediments (6) with suspension jet (24) and radius of gradual cone of washout (26).
EFFECT: accelerated formation of screen, increased uniformity of mud distribution and density of sediments in screen.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of a hydraulic curtain between a disposal area and a rive in the basement. The hydraulic curtain is made as a trench of counterpressure and a water-collection drainage trench approached near the disposal area. The bottom of each trench is arranged in a water permeable layer of mostly loose deposits of the basement, and in the trenches at the specified distance from each other there are wells arranged, accordingly injection (counterpressure) and drainage ones. Each well is deepened for the specified value into a water impermeable layer of cracked rocks of the base and is hydraulically communicated with the trench. The hydraulic curtain is equipped with at least two water supply devices, one of which provides for supply of pure natural water into the counterpressure trench, and the other one - supply of captured drainage water collection trench into a system of water reuse of the enterprise. Then the water level in the counterpressure trench is maintained above the water level in the water-collection drainage trench.
EFFECT: invention prevents penetration of waste waters from the disposal area into the river, and work scope is reduced in development of a hydraulic curtain.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: water-colloidal suspension is prepared of micro-dispersed mud. It is supplied to a specified point through flexible pipeline (12). Further, specified amount of suspension is discharged through long-length tube to bottom (8) of basin (7). Long-length tube in its middle part (13) is conjugated with flexible pipeline (12) by means of inlet branch (14) through collar (37). Long-length tube (13) is equipped with discharge nozzles (15) and with plates (16) bent on ends. Discharge nozzles (15) are arranged along length of long-length tube (13). Plates (16) on ends of long-length tube (13) facilitate its sliding along bottom (8) of basin (7). Pressure level in flexible pipeline (12) ensures generation of specified force actuating transfer of long-length tube (13) in the direction of its motion along bottom (8) of basin (7) as well, as washout and stirring-up sediments (6) with jets of suspension (28). Washed out layer (36) of sediments is mixed with suspension of jets in specified volumes. In the process of settling these volumes form anti-filtration screen (29) on a strip of the basin bottom treated in such way.
EFFECT: reduced time for forming screen, raised uniformity of mud distribution in screen and of density of sediments in screen.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed system of filtrate drain from a landfill of solid domestic waste includes a massif of solid domestic wastes 1, under which there is a drainage interbed 2. Below the drainage interbed 2 there is a polymer mesh 3, under which there are perforated pipes 4 at the angles 6. Holes 5 in the perforated pipes 4 are oriented towards the landfill base. Under the perforated pipes 4 there are hydraulically insulated sections 7 covered with a waterproof screen 8.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase time of efficient operation of the filtrate drain system as a result of prevention of the drainage interbed silting.
SUBSTANCE: method includes digging trenches with depth exceeding crack or filtration path height, filling trenches with a soil mixture from a soil cement with an additive, a layer-wise compaction, arrangement of a protective coating along the upper slope and ridge with the thickness of not less than the freezing depth. The additive used to increase strength and frost resistance is a mixture of ash and siftings in the amount accordingly of 4-6% and 20-35% of the soil mix weight.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic insulation due to elimination of filtration water leakage through dams body, protection of a dam body in most dangerous areas against harmful effect of earth-moving animals, and a better heat insulation effect at lower thickness of a protective coating.
7 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of repair includes filling plastic composition into space between boards and basement through pressurised injection, which is identified from the following dependence: where P - pressure of plastic composition injection into space under boards, kPa; 0.098 - proportion ratio; k - size coefficient, kPa·cm2/g; γrc - volume weight of reinforced concrete boards, g/cm3; δo - thickness of reinforced concrete boards, cm; γpc - volume weight of plastic composition, g/cm3; Δ - average value of gap between reinforced concrete plate and base, cm; m - horizontal equivalent. Five versions are proposed for plastic compositions, including portland cement, quartz sand with fraction of less than 0,14 mm; superplasticiser C-3, water and possibly additive selected from the group; microsilica, condensed with specified surface (15-25)·103 cm2/g, mineral powder for asphalt concrete and organic mineral mixtures, chrysotile asbestos and polishing dust - waste of asbestos products making, brine of leach extraction of bischofite-sulfate type with density of 1.24-1.35 t/m3.
EFFECT: improved manufacturability of method for repair of specified lining, higher impermeability to water and frost resistance of concrete mixture.
5 cl, 6 tbl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: double-layer coating is laid along canal perimetre, and concrete is filled through neck into cavity between its layers. Double-layer coating is made of geotextile material formed of two fabrics joined to each other by means of longitudinal local seams arranged in a staggered order. Besides, concrete is injected through necks arranged at the edge of fabric fixed on canal edge.
EFFECT: provides for operational reliability and durability of antifiltration coatings of irrigation canals and eliminates losses of water for filtration.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly reinforced concrete lining for channels built in seismic areas in earth.
SUBSTANCE: channel lining includes reinforced concrete slope panels and bottom panels divided by longitudinal and transversal construction seams covered with band diaphragms. Longitudinal and transversal seams are covered with two rows of band diaphragms and reinforcing bars made of elastic metal are installed across the seams. The reinforcing bars are anchored into neighboring panels.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability of channel lining in seismic areas and increased air-tightness.