Underground development method of technogenic deep-lying gravel deposits of permafrost zone

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: development is performed during winter period. First, vertical through wells with diameter of 0.5-0.6 m are drilled from surface above developed mine field, through which ice-water mixture is supplied; ratio of solid phase to liquid phase is 1:3 by volume. Filling mass is erected layer by layer; at that, each layer is frozen with forced blowing using cold atmospheric air from blowdown fan. Thickness of a single layer |Nlayer| is determined from the following ratio: Nlayer=1.5|tamb.|-20, cm, where: 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients; |tamb| - absolute monthly average ambient air temperature of months during winter period, °C.

EFFECT: invention allows reducing the time required for stowing operations and improving the stowing quality.

2 dwg


The invention relates to mining development placers of the permafrost zone by underground methods, in particular pillar and near-marginal reserves left in placer mines (CS) during the initial development of the field.

There is a method of developing man-made globalpoverty alluvial deposits of the North, based on advanced simultaneous flooding of the waste before the CS water in the spring with education after freezing the ice filling the array, under whose protection is practicing previously left pillar and near-marginal reserves [1] (Prototype).

Despite the cheapness and simplicity of implementation, the main disadvantages of this method are:

- extremely slow rate of freezing a large amount of water, with a positive (4-6°C) temperature in the developed space waste CS takes several years (3 to 8);

- inability speedy re-technogenic Sands;

- filled in the old CS water, as an active rascalities, helps to defrost the frozen soils of the sides and roof of the mine workings, pillars, reducing their strength properties;

- it is possible blockages workings and failures of the earth surface when possible deformations restapling pillars and roof rocks of mines;

-freeze filled stope waste before the CS water is only due to conductive heat transfer with the surrounding frozen rocks, temperature -5÷-8°C, and the use of convective heat transfer with cold atmospheric air is excluded;

- the movement of melted rocks of the roof openings and deformation of pillars reduces their height, which complicates the mining operations;

- breaking rocks within the goaf CS contribute to the dilution of man-made sand.

Proposed underground mining anthropogenic globalpoverty alluvial deposits of the permafrost zone, including pre-construction in winter, open mined-out space of the waste before CS ice backfill array formed by dosing water-ice mixture through the through hole, probatively from the surface, wherein filling the array is build in layers, with each layer promarijuana forced blowing cold air blowing fan, and the ratio of solid and liquid phases in the filling mixture is 1:3 by volume, and the thickness of the single layer |NCL.|, is determined from the relation:

NCL.=1,5|tNV|-20, cm

where 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients;

|tNV| is the absolute value of the average outdoor temperature in the winter months.

The implementation of the method will contribute resh is the number of technical and environmental objectives:

- significant reduction in duration (up to 6-7 months) conduct filling operations in the waste CS due to the high speed freezing, the stacked layers of water-ice mixture having a low (near zero) temperature;

- reducing dilution of man-made sand;

- quality and uniform freezing layers filled with water-ice mixture space CS without the formation of Alikovich zones;

- high compression properties of the resulting ice filling mass which prevents dips in the earth's surface.

In addition, rapid freezing layer of water-ice filling mixture with near zero initial temperature due to intensive blowing cold air, preventing thawing of pillars, keeping their compressive properties, thereby ensuring the safety of mining operations.

The required technical result of the invention is expected to receive with regard to climate, permafrost characteristics of the region, as well as maximum use of natural resources of the permafrost zone:

- long winter with extremely low temperatures;

- the presence of permafrost dispersed rocks with high heat capacity and strength in the frozen state;

p> - presence of natural cold as atmospheric (high-grade)and accumulated rocks.

Introduced in the claims such essential features as the use lovedance mixture and layer-by-layer method of laying-out space, provide the opportunity of doing all the work in the winter, thereby eliminating the formation of taliks, providing good compression properties as well as high speed of erection ice backfill array.

The next significant feature is that as a solid filler filling mixture used ice, widespread, easily accessible in the winter and cheap material with high heat capacity, quickly reducing the temperature of the mixture to zero, thus ensuring a high cooling rate and subsequent freezing backfill layer due to the cold, accumulated rocks.

Another significant feature is that each erected layer of backfill array advanced promarijuana atmospheric air (cold) without the use of power plants, significantly speeding up the process of freezing while saving material costs.

The inventive method is illustrated by two drawings (figure 1 and figure 2). Figure 1 is redstapler plan waste CS, technological complex arrangement of all equipment, reflecting all stages of work on improvement of anthropogenic stocks in the practical implementation of the method, and figure 2 - cross section.

Conventions on the drawings:

1 - the surface of the earth;

2 - stope waste CS;

3 - upper limit man-made reservoir Sands;

4 - cross-cutting vertical slits designed for feeding filling mixture (water with crushed ice);

5 - the ventilation hole;

6 - reservoir;

7 - water pump;

8 - water line;

9 - crushed ice;

10 - built backfill (water-ice) layer;

11 - intake fan;

12 - vent sleeve;

13 - tape pillars;

14 - priportovye stocks of man-made sand.

Implementation of the proposed method in practice is as follows. First, in the winter with the earth's surface 1 within the goaf of the waste before CS 2, proburivaya to the upper limit man-made reservoir Sands 3 series through vertical wells 4 (diameter of 500-600 mm), designed to supply water ice filling mixture. In addition, on the borders of waste mine field proburivaya two ventilation hole 5 of the same diameter. In filling the well when d is stijene stable negative daily average atmospheric temperature (t cf.day.≈-10°C) from the reservoir 6 by a pump 7 through the pipe 8 water mixed with crushed ice 9 with the formation of water-ice mixture (ratio of solid and liquid phases of a mixture of 1:3 by volume), which is filled with all stope waste CS layer capacity of 0,3÷0,5 m with the formation of the backfill array 10. Then backfill the hole temporarily closed and are blowing out space CS cold atmospheric air blowing fan 11 on the ventilation sleeve 12 until frozen constructed of a layer of water-ice bookmarks (t≈-10°C).

After performing the above operations is laid a second layer of water-ice filling mixture then promorskoe and so on until the full bookmarks just goaf CS.

In the summer, laid ice CS is conserved, and the next winter, according to the traditional technology restored (or pass re) opening and ventilation generation, and then the preparatory and rifled generation (on ice). After that start working tape of pillars 13 and near-marginal reserves of man-made sand 14. Formed goaf can be also incorporated ice tab on the above technologies. It is not excluded the use as the e backfill tailings Sands, as well as flooding of the mine waste spring waters in the spring.

The main advantages of the proposed method:

security operations;

- low cost of backfill material;

- low complexity of construction backfill arrays;

- high mechanization and low cost of borehole drilling;

low material costs for the purchase of equipment and installation of all types of work;

- a small number of technological operations;

- low cost Primorsko filling arrays through the use of high-grade natural (atmospheric) cold;

- high speed freezing constructed in layers of filling arrays;

- high compression properties erected filling arrays, ensuring the safety of the operations and integrity of the earth's surface;

- stabilization of the temperature regime and ensuring continuity of man-made disturbed the rocks.

Sources of information

1. Badmaev R.S., Gorlov Y.A., Dushkin A.I., Technology of underground mining of placers with minimal losses in the bowels, Kolyma, 1980, No. 2, p.4-7.

Underground mining anthropogenic globalpoverty alluvial deposits of the permafrost zone, including pre-construction in winter, developed open space is TBE waste before the alluvial mine ice backfill array formed by dosed feed Toledano mixture through the through hole, probatively from the surface, wherein filling the array is build in layers, with each layer proparaguay forced blowing cold air blowing fan, and the ratio of solid and liquid phases in the filling mixture is 1:3 by volume, and the thickness of the single layer |NSL| is determined from the ratio:
NSL=1,5|tH.B.|-20, cm
where 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients;
|tNV| is the absolute value of the average monthly outdoor temperature winter months, °C.


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