Underground development method of technogenic deep-lying gravel deposits of permafrost zone
SUBSTANCE: development is performed during winter period. First, vertical through wells with diameter of 0.5-0.6 m are drilled from surface above developed mine field, through which ice-water mixture is supplied; ratio of solid phase to liquid phase is 1:3 by volume. Filling mass is erected layer by layer; at that, each layer is frozen with forced blowing using cold atmospheric air from blowdown fan. Thickness of a single layer |Nlayer| is determined from the following ratio: Nlayer=1.5|tamb.|-20, cm, where: 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients; |tamb| - absolute monthly average ambient air temperature of months during winter period, °C.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing the time required for stowing operations and improving the stowing quality.
The invention relates to mining development placers of the permafrost zone by underground methods, in particular pillar and near-marginal reserves left in placer mines (CS) during the initial development of the field.
There is a method of developing man-made globalpoverty alluvial deposits of the North, based on advanced simultaneous flooding of the waste before the CS water in the spring with education after freezing the ice filling the array, under whose protection is practicing previously left pillar and near-marginal reserves  (Prototype).
Despite the cheapness and simplicity of implementation, the main disadvantages of this method are:
- extremely slow rate of freezing a large amount of water, with a positive (4-6°C) temperature in the developed space waste CS takes several years (3 to 8);
- inability speedy re-technogenic Sands;
- filled in the old CS water, as an active rascalities, helps to defrost the frozen soils of the sides and roof of the mine workings, pillars, reducing their strength properties;
- it is possible blockages workings and failures of the earth surface when possible deformations restapling pillars and roof rocks of mines;
-freeze filled stope waste before the CS water is only due to conductive heat transfer with the surrounding frozen rocks, temperature -5÷-8°C, and the use of convective heat transfer with cold atmospheric air is excluded;
- the movement of melted rocks of the roof openings and deformation of pillars reduces their height, which complicates the mining operations;
- breaking rocks within the goaf CS contribute to the dilution of man-made sand.
Proposed underground mining anthropogenic globalpoverty alluvial deposits of the permafrost zone, including pre-construction in winter, open mined-out space of the waste before CS ice backfill array formed by dosing water-ice mixture through the through hole, probatively from the surface, wherein filling the array is build in layers, with each layer promarijuana forced blowing cold air blowing fan, and the ratio of solid and liquid phases in the filling mixture is 1:3 by volume, and the thickness of the single layer |NCL.|, is determined from the relation:
where 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients;
|tNV| is the absolute value of the average outdoor temperature in the winter months.
The implementation of the method will contribute resh is the number of technical and environmental objectives:
- significant reduction in duration (up to 6-7 months) conduct filling operations in the waste CS due to the high speed freezing, the stacked layers of water-ice mixture having a low (near zero) temperature;
- reducing dilution of man-made sand;
- quality and uniform freezing layers filled with water-ice mixture space CS without the formation of Alikovich zones;
- high compression properties of the resulting ice filling mass which prevents dips in the earth's surface.
In addition, rapid freezing layer of water-ice filling mixture with near zero initial temperature due to intensive blowing cold air, preventing thawing of pillars, keeping their compressive properties, thereby ensuring the safety of mining operations.
The required technical result of the invention is expected to receive with regard to climate, permafrost characteristics of the region, as well as maximum use of natural resources of the permafrost zone:
- long winter with extremely low temperatures;
- the presence of permafrost dispersed rocks with high heat capacity and strength in the frozen state;p> - presence of natural cold as atmospheric (high-grade)and accumulated rocks.
Introduced in the claims such essential features as the use lovedance mixture and layer-by-layer method of laying-out space, provide the opportunity of doing all the work in the winter, thereby eliminating the formation of taliks, providing good compression properties as well as high speed of erection ice backfill array.
The next significant feature is that as a solid filler filling mixture used ice, widespread, easily accessible in the winter and cheap material with high heat capacity, quickly reducing the temperature of the mixture to zero, thus ensuring a high cooling rate and subsequent freezing backfill layer due to the cold, accumulated rocks.
Another significant feature is that each erected layer of backfill array advanced promarijuana atmospheric air (cold) without the use of power plants, significantly speeding up the process of freezing while saving material costs.
The inventive method is illustrated by two drawings (figure 1 and figure 2). Figure 1 is redstapler plan waste CS, technological complex arrangement of all equipment, reflecting all stages of work on improvement of anthropogenic stocks in the practical implementation of the method, and figure 2 - cross section.
Conventions on the drawings:
1 - the surface of the earth;
2 - stope waste CS;
3 - upper limit man-made reservoir Sands;
4 - cross-cutting vertical slits designed for feeding filling mixture (water with crushed ice);
5 - the ventilation hole;
6 - reservoir;
7 - water pump;
8 - water line;
9 - crushed ice;
10 - built backfill (water-ice) layer;
11 - intake fan;
12 - vent sleeve;
13 - tape pillars;
14 - priportovye stocks of man-made sand.
Implementation of the proposed method in practice is as follows. First, in the winter with the earth's surface 1 within the goaf of the waste before CS 2, proburivaya to the upper limit man-made reservoir Sands 3 series through vertical wells 4 (diameter of 500-600 mm), designed to supply water ice filling mixture. In addition, on the borders of waste mine field proburivaya two ventilation hole 5 of the same diameter. In filling the well when d is stijene stable negative daily average atmospheric temperature (t cf.day.≈-10°C) from the reservoir 6 by a pump 7 through the pipe 8 water mixed with crushed ice 9 with the formation of water-ice mixture (ratio of solid and liquid phases of a mixture of 1:3 by volume), which is filled with all stope waste CS layer capacity of 0,3÷0,5 m with the formation of the backfill array 10. Then backfill the hole temporarily closed and are blowing out space CS cold atmospheric air blowing fan 11 on the ventilation sleeve 12 until frozen constructed of a layer of water-ice bookmarks (t≈-10°C).
After performing the above operations is laid a second layer of water-ice filling mixture then promorskoe and so on until the full bookmarks just goaf CS.
In the summer, laid ice CS is conserved, and the next winter, according to the traditional technology restored (or pass re) opening and ventilation generation, and then the preparatory and rifled generation (on ice). After that start working tape of pillars 13 and near-marginal reserves of man-made sand 14. Formed goaf can be also incorporated ice tab on the above technologies. It is not excluded the use as the e backfill tailings Sands, as well as flooding of the mine waste spring waters in the spring.
The main advantages of the proposed method:
- low cost of backfill material;
- low complexity of construction backfill arrays;
- high mechanization and low cost of borehole drilling;
low material costs for the purchase of equipment and installation of all types of work;
- a small number of technological operations;
- low cost Primorsko filling arrays through the use of high-grade natural (atmospheric) cold;
- high speed freezing constructed in layers of filling arrays;
- high compression properties erected filling arrays, ensuring the safety of the operations and integrity of the earth's surface;
- stabilization of the temperature regime and ensuring continuity of man-made disturbed the rocks.
Sources of information
1. Badmaev R.S., Gorlov Y.A., Dushkin A.I., Technology of underground mining of placers with minimal losses in the bowels, Kolyma, 1980, No. 2, p.4-7.
Underground mining anthropogenic globalpoverty alluvial deposits of the permafrost zone, including pre-construction in winter, developed open space is TBE waste before the alluvial mine ice backfill array
formed by dosed feed Toledano mixture through the through hole, probatively from the surface, wherein filling the array is build in layers, with each layer proparaguay forced blowing cold air blowing fan, and the ratio of solid and liquid phases in the filling mixture is 1:3 by volume, and the thickness of the single layer |NSL| is determined from the ratio:
where 1.5 and 20 - constant coefficients;
|tNV| is the absolute value of the average monthly outdoor temperature winter months, °C.
SUBSTANCE: method includes supplying pulp under excessive pressure via a safety device. The safety device is arranged as a tee, one end of which is connected to a bottomhole pulp line, the second one - to a sealer, and a safety membrane is installed on the third one. At the same time the output of wells in the backfilled chamber is arranged near its roof.
EFFECT: higher extent of chambers filling with a backfilling material with reduction of labour costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes layer filling of a mine with a backfilling material. The backfilling layer in the form of a cylindrical concrete block is previously made on the surface in an autoclave chamber. Concrete blocks are made with a cylindrical groove, at the same time the upper and lower surfaces are arranged as truncated. Installation of cylindrical concrete blocks in the shaft is carried out onto a hydraulic insulation putty. A gap between mine walls and blocks is solidified with a shrinkage-free water-resistant hardening concrete mix.
EFFECT: development of a water-resistant and shrinkage-free backfilling massif in a vertical mine to the moment of its backfilling completion.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to increase stability of a ceiling in downward slicing development of a deposit with backfilling includes serial tunnelling and backfilling of parallel mines - stope entries, leaving ore pillars with width equal to one, two or three spans of mines, backfilling of mines with a concrete mix, and after backfilling hardens, ore pillars left between concrete strips are mined. At the same time the vault of stope entries is arranged as deep, besides, ore pillars are left in the roof between concrete backfilling of adjacent stope entries.
EFFECT: higher stability of a mine ceiling.
SUBSTANCE: stowing mix, containing crushed granulated blast-furnace slag, an inert filler, water and ground limestone, includes the specified acid slag of III grade, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - at least 13%, the specified limestone, containing particles of less than 3 mcm - 45%, the inert filler is represented by rock refuse from wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites and additionally - a superplasticiser SP-1, at the following ratio of components, wt %: specified slag - 12; specified filler - 60; specified limestone - 10; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.5 of slag content; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of binders, higher strength of massif at the age of 28 days, wastes recycling, reduced contamination of environment.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device includes metal pressure shield in the form of rectangular parallelepiped consisting of four triangular prisms attached to each other, the bases of which have the shape of oblique right triangle, drain pipes with filters and sampling pipes with plug, door opening with door made in the shield, soft covers arranged on upper and lateral sides of shield, the height of which exceeds distance between shield and mine working section outline at their complete filling with compressed air. At bottom, on the side of filling mass the shield is equipped with rubber-coated canvas. Soft covers installed to lateral sides of shield are arranged on brackets attached throughout the height of connection strap to its side walls. Width of brackets is accepted equal to 2/3 of width of soft covers, and distance between brackets is determined from the following ratio: hmax>a>hmin, where a - distance between brackets, m; hmax - maximum height of soft covers at supply of compressed air to it, m; hmin - minimum height of soft covers after air discharge from it, m.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity at installation of connection strap, increasing efficiency and improving reliability of control of filling mass.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of reinforcing elements made in the form of mesh in filling chamber at the boundary with rock ore to be developed. Reinforcing elements are arranged at distance of 0.05b from each other, where b - chamber width. After installation of reinforcing elements the worked out space is filled with filling mass of various strength. Lower, central and upper part of chamber is filled at 1/10 of its height with curing mixture, and space between them with hydraulic fluid from fine material without binding agent.
EFFECT: reducing the costs; improving manufacturing capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving of mine workings of the first order at an angle of 5-7° to horizon through pillars with width equal to one bay, their further stowing with stowing mixture and its solidification, driving of entry ways of the second order with their further stowing with stowing mixture. Entry ways of the second order are driven with the height increased in relation to entry ways of the first order by 0.7-1.0 m. Cavities under roof of adjacent entry ways of the first order are filled with stowing mixture of entry ways of the second order, thus providing their stowing and contact of covering mining thickness with stowing mass.
EFFECT: increasing ore development safety.
SUBSTANCE: composition of a filling mixture, containing cement, a surfactant, a filler and water, as a binder it additionally contains a ground blast-furnace granulated acidulous slag, containing particles of less than 1 mcm of at least 4.3%, the surfactant is a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is a mixture of wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferric quartzites with slag crushed stone at the following ratio of components, wt %: cement - 4.85; specified slag - 12.1; specified crushed stone - 10; specified wastes - 55; superplasticiser SP-1 - 1.0% from cement; water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, increased strength of massif, recycling of mining and metallurgical industry wastes and wastes of ferric quartzites dressing, reduced contamination of environment for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound contains the following, wt %: cement - 4.85, ground byproduct of vanadium production - 14.5, washery refuse of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites - 60.2, superplastising agent SP-1 - 1 of cement, and water is the rest.
EFFECT: reducing the consumption of cement at maintaining the accuracy of massif, utilisation of wastes.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound includes ground granulated acid blast-furnace slag containing particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 4.3; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm - 17.2; as inert filler are processing wastes of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites, which contain particles, %: less than 1 mcm - 3.4; less than 3 mcm - 12.6; less than 5 mcm -17.2, water and in addition - composition of lime-gypsum byproduct of vanadium production and SP-1 superplasticising agent at the following component ratio, wt %: the above slag 16.1, the above composition 4.8, the above wastes 57.7, SP-1 superplasticising agent 0.0805 and water is the rest.
EFFECT: avoiding expensive cement, use of slag of lower grade, increasing the strength, enlarging and increasing volumes of utilised technogenic wastes for sufficient improvement of ecological environment of the region.
SUBSTANCE: method includes tunnelling of development and face-entry mines, arrangement of stope drifts along ore body soil, formation of a free process space along the front of stoped excavation, tunnelling of drifts in each even layer of the ore, its excavation in strips, upward cutting by layers in the strip, hole drilling and breaking of another layers of ore from the specified space after breaking, discharge of broken ore and backfilling of developed space with a hardening mix. Drifts in each even layer of ore pass as advance layer slopes transversely to stretching front of stoped excavation. Side loading drives are additionally arranged on soil of ore body. The free process space is formed along the entire width of the strip. Another layers of ore are drilled from previously prepared surface of shrinked ore material (SOM). Restoration of the specified space contour after breaking of another layer is carried out by partial loading and planning of broken ore by mobile equipment with driving via mentioned slopes. Massive discharge of the entire volume of shrinked ore material is carried out after breaking of the last layer of ore via side loading drives and a stope drift of the adjacent strip. Backfilling of the mined space is carried out after its isolation with links in one stage with a full-strength hardening mix for the total height of broken ore layers.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of production due to simplified technology, reduced number of stages in works performance and lower costs for filling of the mined space by reduction of consumption of high-grade filling and reduced duration of preparation and finalisation operations.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: when developing thick steep deposits of unstable ores, at first the ore body is divided into levels. Then level and section mines are driven, the ore body is mined downstream filling the mined space with hardening materials. The level is divided into two sublevels. The upper sublevel is divided into layers. The extraction within the layers is carried out with horizontal or drift stopes with complete filling of the mined space produced in process of stopes driving with hardening materials. Lower sublevel reserves are extracted under the filling mass arranged when mining the upper sublevel. Prior to extraction of lower sublevel resources, a concrete bottom is developed for relief of ore mass that collapsed during mining of the lower sublevel into level transport mines. To extract resources of the lower sublevel, it is divided into blocks. Blocks are mined by uncontrolled caving of ore carried out as a result of base undercutting. Mining of another blocks of the lower sublevel is started after complete filling of the mined space produced during mining of blocks having common boundaries with mined blocks.
EFFECT: improved labour efficiency and safety of mining works.
SUBSTANCE: formation mining method of kimberlite pipe involves mining of ventilation, bottom and sectional gangways, ventilation and filling raises, ore chute, formation mining and stowing operations. At that, each formation is divided in horizontal plane into several sections with equal equivalent roof passage. Sections are mined and stowed subsequently using pneumocylinder support installed in staggered order. Before the stowing material is supplied to the worked-out section of the bed, pneumocylinder support is shifted to one row along the boundary of the next worked-out bed section. Support is isolated from the worked-out section of the bed with installation of the required stowing connection straps. Stowing material is supplied to the worked-out section till complete filling; after that, the next section is worked out using pneumocylinder support in the above sequence.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity of the operations of the method and increasing the resources development speed.
SUBSTANCE: development method of tube-like thick steep and flat dipping ore bodies involves preparatory and first works, second mining with vertical cuttings along the spread or across the spread by means of drilling method for resources with large-diameter wells, ore output and goaf stowing. At that, width of cuttings is accepted equal to diameter of production well and second working is performed in cuttings in three stages. At the first stage the removed cutting is drilled along its length with transverse rows of vertical blasting wells throughout the height of the mining level. In the middle between the drilled transverse rows of blasting wells there drilled by means of known methods are scavenger wells and ore mass broken during drilling is shrunken owing to its partial drawing. At the second stage of the second mining of the cutting there drawn is ore mass shrunken in scavenger wells with further blasting of transverse rows of vertical wells throughout the height of the mining level and output of ore mass broken by blasting operations. At the third stage there filled is the worked-out area of the cutting with hardening stowing mixture.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of the development, crushing quality of the produced ore and creation of safe conditions for mining activities at high level of their mechanisation.
SUBSTANCE: during cutting of a mine section, drilling rooms are tunnelled in direction of the highest value of the ore body shape complexity module: horizontal ones, if this module has the highest value along the line of the ore body length, and ascending ones, if the complexity module has the highest value along the line of the ore body descent. Section resources mining is carried out in sections along the entire length or height of the breakage section. Each section is broken using blast holes in layers to form an ore bank by explosion delivery. Ore bank compactness is ensured in process of its formation by serial cutting of layers of alternate width in each cut section, and their width increases in direction from the line of the cut section face to the depth of the massif. Thus formed ore bank adjacent to the face of the next mined section is displaced following the front of second mining by alternation of ore mass accumulation cycles in the ore bank and its layerwise removal and discharge from the outer side of the ore bank in respect to the face.
EFFECT: expanded area of application of highly mechanised technologies, increased efficiency of labour and safety of production works.
SUBSTANCE: in method realisation, block resources are developed in sections, size of each in direction of maximum variability of ore body shape is established as permanent and is determined according to process conditions. Ore and rock breaking in a breakage block is carried out by sections in two stages. At the first stage due to grinding and explosion delivery of waste rock cut according to the process conditions to the ore body at a hanging or a lying side, a rock bank is formed as adjacent to the line of the cut section face. Its compactness is ensured by serial cutting of rock layers of alternate width in the cut sections, and their width reduces in direction from the line of the cut section face to the depth of the massif. Thus formed rock bank from ground rock thrown off by explosion is left in the mined space of the breakage block. At the second stage the ore body is broken at the area of its bedding with subsequent discharge of only broken ore from the breakage block.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety, higher parameters of complete usage of balance stocks.
1 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes driving of mine preparation excavation, development of craters for discharge of caved ore and area of uncontrolled caving cutting with formation of a dome-shaped ore pile. In an ore body there is a central well drilled, and several additional wells are drilled at the distance of hydraulic radius of cutting. Then via each well, surfaces of ore pile and vault roof are scanned along concentric circumferences with specified pitches along a horizontal and a vertical lines with a light beam from a laser source arranged in a cavity formed by these surfaces and aligned by an azimuth. Using values of measured and specified parameters, coordinates of contact points are determined, and a spatial form is built for a surface of an ore pile and an uncontrolled caving vault. Information signals are treated with the help of a computer in a processing system.
EFFECT: control signals are generated for a process of ore discharge from craters, besides, a cycle of pile and vault surfaces form control is carried out with the specified frequency.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: in process of ore deposits mining at first driving is carried out in a foot wall of a block or a ventilating risers, scraping drifts. In an ore body there are additional scraping drifts, which are knocked together with drilling risers. Then drilling risers are cut into access chambers by means of ore cutting and scraping to ore chutes, cutting of ore chutes into outlet craters and excavation of ore massif above scraping drifts. Afterwards driving of horizontal ore mines is started, which cut drilling risers with access chambers, and a part of ore massif is mined with cutting of a drill riser with an access chamber with blasting delivery of ore into access chambers jointly with extraction of panel reserves. Prior to extraction of ore massif above additional scraping drifts the worked space is filled in an above panel with injection of a binding material of a lower part of a filled massif.
EFFECT: prevention of damage and degradation of earth surface above mining works with preservation of minimum ore losses.
SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of the following at the sublevel - haulage drifts, orts, loading drives, an outpost drift, a ventilation rise entry, and also layer cutting of mine panels by fans of wells in constricted environment, layer discharge of broken rock simultaneously via orts and loading drives under caved rocks, ventilation of mining faces due to mine ventilating pressure. Simultaneously not more than two loading drives are made as actual mining develops. Ore panels of rectangular shape are cut in cross section in layers with thickness proportional to the sublevel height. Ore panels of the lower sublevel are broken layers of ore in them are taken out in staggered order relative to ore panels and layers of broken ore of the upper sublevel. The layerwise discharge of broken ore is carried out in two stages: at first a portion of an ore layer is released until the limit impoverishment is achieved, and the remaining part of the ore layer stock is tied up, then the tied-up part of the ore layer stock is released together with layers of broken rock of the lower sublevel via its orts and loading drives.
EFFECT: increased stability of mines located in the area of abutment pressure effect, reduced scope of preparatory and cutting works, achievement of high indices of ore withdrawal.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ecogeotechnological method of repeated underground development of technogenic gravel deposits of permafrost zone involves performance of stripping and mining operations during winter season. Pre-worked out area of earlier developed gravel borehole is reinforced with chain ice pillars erected parallel to those left during primary development of deposit. After that, development of technogenic pillar sands is performed. At that, in order to prevent caving in the ground surface, recovery of the relief and integrity of rock mass disturbed with mining operations, the whole worked-out area is filled with sand-and-stone material.
EFFECT: providing safety of mining operations, reducing volumes of dumps arranged on ground surface, preventing caving of ground surface within the limits of mine field, and recovery of relief and integrity of mine rock.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes conditional separation of levels on chambers, which are made in form of stretched upwards hexahedron and placed in staggered order, at each lower level with displacement for half of chamber width in comparison to upper one. Preparation of each lower level is performed by driving field drift of main level, from which entries to ore deposit and orts to hanging side of deposit are driven, from orts ascending drifts are made and cut with cutting slits. For extraction of field resources a field sub-level drift is driven, entries and ore sub-level drift near lying side, from where orts are driven, from drift well fans are drilled and main resources of level are exploded through cutting slit. Outlet of ore from each chamber is performed through ends of outlet mines in main and intermediate levels. After removing main resources inter-level block is destroyed and ore from it is removed through entries of main level.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.