Damping system, working machine with said system and method of machine working tool damping in motion

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises, at least, one hydraulic cylinder to handle cargoes, accumulator and valve to control flows between said cylinder and said accumulator. Note here that said system comprises first control valves arranged on tube connected to hydraulic cylinder piston side, second control valve arranged on tube connected to cylinder rod side, first hydraulic cylinder pressure transducer, second accumulator pressure transducer, and control unit. Note also that control unit receives signals containing data on pressures measured by aforesaid transducers and to generate signals to control damping control functions. Invention covers also method of damping working tool comprising measuring accumulator and hydraulic cylinder pressures, and controlling damping functions in compliance with measured pressures. Note here that pressures between accumulator and cylinder piston are equalised and flow between accumulator and tank are controlled by control valve arranged on tube secured to hydraulic cylinder piston side.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

37 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to a system for the working machine, which is designed to cushion the movement of cargo as it moves. The system contains at least one hydraulic cylinder to perform operations with load, battery, and a valve arranged to control flow between the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator. The invention relates also to a machine containing such a system.

In addition, the invention relates to a method of depreciation guns of the working machine when it is moving.

The invention will be described below on the example of the working machine, which represents a wheel loader. This is the preferred use, however, it in no way limits the scope of the invention. The invention may also be applied to other types of work machines (or self-propelled material handling machines, such as backhoe loader, excavator or agricultural machine such as a tractor.

When mounted work tool (bucket or seizure for pallets), mounted on a wheeled loader, comes in contact with the load and lift it up, it is preferably rigidly connected to the frame of the truck. However, when transporting cargo, especially when moving the machine on an uneven surface and, it would be desirable to implement gun were able to move (swing) relative to the frame. In this case, increasing the convenience of the operator, and reduced spillage of material from the implement during transport. For this purpose, wheel loaders used depreciation cargo boom. When such depreciation lifting cylinder of the working machine connected to the battery. When this cargo boom becomes movable relative to the frame. In the result, there are two moving masses instead of one.

In the cycle of loading and unloading is typically used for automatic switching on and off depreciation cargo boom. For example, you might enable depending on the transmission, which means that depreciation cargo boom on all the time except for mode 1 front transmission. First gear is engaged just before the bucket reaches the material (stones, gravel and the like), and amortization of cargo boom, respectively, is switched off. When wheel loader must move away from the pile of material, rear transmission and amortization cargo boom, respectively, is re-enabled.

In WO 99/16981 describes a suspension system of a cargo boom. The system contains a battery that can be communicated with the side of the piston of the lifting cylinder. System which contains the battery, which can communicate with a party to the piston rods of the lifting cylinders. The system contains several valves to control the behavior of the depreciation. The system, in particular a valve, arranged so that the alignment between the pressure side of the pistons of the lifting cylinders and the battery is carried out automatically before switching (operation) mode depreciation cargo boom. In this case arisen fluctuations of the working tools enabling depreciation cargo boom for the most part suppressed.

In known constructions characteristic damping is usually a constant value, and it will go to empty the bucket full bucket or partially filled bucket, which means that the characteristic damping will not be optimal for the different cases of loading of the bucket.

When lifting heavy pallets using known technical solutions there is a risk that fluctuations caused by damping will lead to shock pallet on the ground. This can occur because there is not enough time for sufficient charging of the battery during the short period of time that is available before switching mode depreciation.

In addition, when the depreciation of cargo boom in accordance with the existing technical what solutions there is a risk of heavy blow machine when you open the valve that controls the flow between the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator.

In addition, when the depreciation of cargo boom in accordance with the existing technical solutions, there is a danger that the battery is charged to too high a pressure, which leads to energy losses when there is a discharge from the battery to the tank. This problem is especially acute when handling with a short cycle when the load and, accordingly, the charging is performed with a high frequency (two or three times per minute).

Disclosure of inventions

The first aim of the invention is the creation of a system that provides cushioning movement of the working tools when moving the machine and creating conditions for comfortable and efficient, from the point of view of energy use. More specifically, the invention creates conditions for solving at least one of the above problems.

This goal is achieved by using the system according to claim 1 of the claims. The proposed system contains a first control valve mounted on the pipe connected to the side of the piston of a hydraulic cylinder, a second control valve mounted on the pipe connected to the rod side of the piston of a hydraulic cylinder, a first pressure sensor for from erenia (registration) load pressure of the hydraulic cylinder, a second pressure sensor for measuring pressure charging of the battery and the control unit is configured to receive signals containing information about the pressure measured by the pressure sensors, and generating control signals corresponding to the measured pressure, to control the function of depreciation.

This characteristic damping can vary, for example depending on the type of work performed. When driving with an empty bucket preferably softer damping (or no damping) compared with moving a heavy load in the bucket, when the desired stricter depreciation. The characteristic damping can vary, for example, by adjusting the opening degree of the valve that controls the flow between the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator, in accordance with the measured pressure levels.

Before turning on the mode of depreciation is necessary to equalize the pressure, so that when the inclusion of depreciation does not have any uncontrolled movement. Therefore, before connecting the battery should be approximately the same pressure as in the lifting cylinder (piston). Due to the fact that the system contains a pressure sensor for measuring the pressure load of the hydraulic cylinder and pressure battery charging mode Amor is Itachi can be included, when the pressure in the accumulator is within the specified range (offset) relative to the pressure in the lifting cylinder. This means that limited uncontrollable movement of the working tools up or down.

Due to the fact that the system contains a pressure sensor for measuring the pressure load of the hydraulic cylinder and pressure battery charging mode depreciation can be enabled (powered) in accordance with a predetermined adaptive algorithms that take into account, above or below the pressure in the accumulator is compared with the pressure in the lifting cylinder.

As for the on and off depreciation in the automatic mode, the invention creates conditions for decreasing the on time. In the known technical solutions mode depreciation cargo boom can be turned off when the pressure in the battery is low (empty bucket) and is enabled when the pressure in the lifting cylinder is high. For this battery, it was necessary to apply a large amount of oil, and on-time depreciation could be quite large. One way to reduce this time is preliminary filling of the accumulator oil to a certain pressure level, when you are lifting.

In addition, with this system, the battery may be the mouth is oflen limit on the maximum pressure. The control unit determines the pressure in the battery with the associated pressure sensors. When this pressure reaches a certain level, the control unit closes the valve, which is connected with the battery. This scheme can be used to increase battery life, or alternatively, can simplify the design and, accordingly, the cost of the battery.

In addition, the use of the first and second control valves creates great opportunities for control mode depreciation in an optimal way. In particular, it is not necessary to simultaneously connect the pump and the tank to perform the function of lifting the implement. The first and second control valves are used together for lifting and lowering, respectively. Accordingly, the lifting function is a function double-acting. The first and second control valves can operate independently from each other.

The hydraulic system preferably is a sensitive load system (controlled hydraulic drive). This means that when the pump pressure is taken into consideration (signal measurement load) involved in hydraulic cylinders. After that the pump sets the pressure for a certain number what about the bar higher than the pressure in the cylinders.

This leads to the inflow of oil into the cylinders, the degree of which depends on the opening degree of the involved valve control.

The second aim of the invention is the representation of a method of providing depreciation movement of the working tools when moving the machine and creating conditions for comfortable and efficient, from the point of view of energy use.

This goal is achieved by a method including the steps of measuring the pressure charging of the battery and the load pressure of the hydraulic cylinder, and control enabling depreciation in accordance with the measured pressure.

The invention also proposes a method comprising the step of damping the movement of the working tools by variable regulation of the degree of opening of the valve intended to control the flow between the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator.

Other preferred embodiments of the invention and their advantages will become apparent from the claims and the following description.

Brief description of drawings

The invention is described below in more detail with reference to variations in its implementation, are presented in the attached drawings on which is shown:

figure 1 is a side view of the wheel loader;

figure 2 - one of the options system is neither for wheel loader in accordance with the invention.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 shows a side view of the wheel loader 101. Wheel loader 101 has a front portion 102 and rear portion 103, each of which contains a frame, and two leading axis 112, 113. In the rear part 103 of the truck is the cab 114 of the operator. Part 102, 103 of the truck are connected with the possibility of rotation relative to each other around a vertical axis by means of two hydraulic cylinders 104, 105, which is attached to the parts 102, 103. Accordingly, the hydraulic cylinders 104, 105 are located on both sides of the Central line in the longitudinal direction of the truck to control the direction of movement or rotation of the loader 101.

Wheel loader 101 is equipped with a mechanism 111 for loading/unloading of objects or material. The mechanism 111 includes a block 106 cargo boom and ancillary tool 107 in the form of a bucket that is mounted on a block of a cargo boom. As shown in figure 1, the bucket 107 is filled with material 116. The first end of the cargo boom 106 is attached to the front portion 102 of the truck can be rotated to ensure the bucket is raised. The bucket 107 is attached to the second end of the block 106 cargo boom can be rotated to change the tilt of the bucket.

Block 106 cargo boom can be raised and lowered relative to the front portion 102 of the truck with two Hydra is vicheskij cylinders 108, 109, each of which is attached one end to the front portion 102 of the truck and the other end to the block 106 cargo boom. The bucket 107 can be tilted relative to the block 106 cargo boom with the help of the third hydraulic cylinder 110, which is attached one end to the front portion 102 of the truck and the other end to the bucket 107 through a system of connecting links and rods.

The first version of the system presented in figure 2. The system 201 includes a pump 205, configured to supply hydraulic fluid under pressure to the hydraulic cylinders by the hydraulic network. The pump 205 is supplied from the engine 206 of the truck, which is a diesel engine. The pump 205 has a variable working volume. Preferably the pump is used 205 with stepless adjustment. The system 201 includes a block 208 valves (indicated by phantom lines)containing hydraulic network with control valves for control of the lifting and tilting of the bucket.

Two of the control valve, in the form of flow regulators 207, 209, located in the hydraulic line between the pump 205 and the hydraulic lifting cylinders 108, 109 to control the lifting and lowering of the bucket. The first valve 207 management provides the connection of the pump 205 side of the cylinder piston and the second valve 209 control about who has a connection to the tank 243 side of the piston rod of the cylinder. In addition, the first valve 207 management provides the connection of the tank 243 side of the piston and, accordingly, the second valve 209 management provides the connection of the pump 205 side of the piston rod. This scheme provides broad management capabilities. In particular, to perform a work function it is not necessary to simultaneously connect the pump and the tank.

System 201 also includes a control block 213 (or computer)that contains the software to control operating functions of the truck. The control unit also called a Central processing unit or electronic control module. The control block 213 preferably includes a microprocessor.

Unit 213 controls functionally connected to the body 211 of the control operator in the form of handlebars rise. Block 213 management ensures the reception of the control signals generated by the arm lifting control, and actuation of the respective valves 207, 209 management (through the block 215 control valves). Unit 213 controls preferably provides a more General management and the block 215 control valves manages the basic functions of block 208 valves. Of course, the blocks 213, 215 management can be combined into one common unit. When you run the pump 205 obespecivaet the inflow of oil into the cylinders 108, 109, the degree of which depends on the opening degree of the involved valves 207, 209.

The body of 219 the management of the operator in the form of a steering wheel is connected hydraulically with the cylinders 104, 105 through valve site in the form of a rotary device 220 for direct control cylinders.

As in the case of a lift function, between the pump 205 and the cylinder 110 of the slope there are two valve 223, 225 to control the movement backward and forward mounted guns in relation to a block of a cargo boom. Unit 213 controls functionally connected to the body 227 control operator in the form of arms control tilt. Block 213 management ensures the reception of the control signals generated by the control handle tilt, and actuation of the respective valves 223, 225 control.

On the output tube 245 pump is valve 220 priority for the automatic provision of priority, namely, that the function of controlling the direction of movement of the truck is provided primarily concerning the function of lifting (and tilt).

The system 201 is sensitive to the load system in which to measure (registration) of the load sensors are used, 229, 231, 233, 235, 237 pressure, measuring the pressure created by the load for each of the above functions. For both the biscuit features lifting bucket the system uses two sensors 229, 231 pressure, one of which is on the tube going to the side of the pistons of the cylinders of the lifting of the bucket, and the other is on the tube going to the side of the piston rods of these cylinders. Similarly, to ensure the tilt of the mounted gun system uses two sensors 235, 237 pressure, one of which is on the tube going to the side of the piston rod of the tilt cylinder, and the other is on the tube going to the side of the piston of this cylinder. To ensure the function of steering the truck the system uses a sensor 233 pressure mounted on the tube going to the cylinders 104, 105 steering. More precisely, the sensor 233 pressure is on the tube pressure measurement, the pressure of which is equal to the pressure on the side of one cylinder, when the rotation is in one direction, and pressure on the other side of the cylinder, when the rotation is in the opposite direction. In the neutral position the tube measuring the load is connected with the tank.

The system also includes a valve 241 with electric control, configured to control the output pressure of the pump using the hydraulic signal. The system 201 includes an additional sensor 239 pressure for pressure measurement, which is a measure of the output pressure of the pump. More precisely, the sensor 239 pressure is the La measure the pressure at the point of the hydraulic system after the valve 241 with electric control. Accordingly, the sensor 239 pressure directly measures the pressure created by the pump when the valve 241 is fully open. In the normal mode, the sensor 239 pressure measures the pressure adjustable valve 241. Accordingly, the control block 213 is designed to receive signal from the sensor 239 pressure pump, containing information about the pressure level.

Accordingly, the control block 213 receives the electric signals from the sensors 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 239 pressure and produces an electrical signal to actuate the valve 241 with electric control.

As already mentioned, the control block 213 is designed to receive signals from the arms 211, 227 management. If the operator needs to raise the bucket, he uses the handle 211 lifting. The control unit receives from the arm 211 of the rise and sets the valves 207, 209 control in such a position, in which the pump is connected with the side of the pistons of the lifting cylinders 108, 109, and the side rods of the pistons of the lifting cylinder is connected with the reservoir 243. In addition, the control unit receives signals from the sensor 229 load pressure side of the piston of the lifting cylinder and from the sensor 239 pressure on the outlet side of the pump. In accordance with the signals to determine the required pump pressure exceeding measured is providing load and activated accordingly the valve 241 with electric control.

Unit 213 controls preferably provides the coordination degree of opening of the valves 207, 209 control and pressure at the pump exit 205 to optimize operation of the system.

The tilt function is the same as lift function. When controlling the direction of movement of the truck sensor 233 pressure in the steering subsystem detects the pressure load of the steering, and produces a signal corresponding to the load. The control block 213 receives the load signal and the signal from the sensor 239 pressure at the outlet of the valve 241 with electric control. In accordance with the signals to determine the required pump pressure exceeding the pressure measured load, and uses appropriate way valve 241 with electric control.

If enabled simultaneously several functions, the measured pressure load are compared, and the pump 205 is fed the control signal corresponding to the highest pressure load.

Accordingly, the valve 241 with electric control is arranged so that it can be infinitely set way adjustable between two extreme positions: a first extreme position corresponds to the minimum pressure pump, vtoroe extreme position corresponds to the maximum pressure.

The tube 251 between the valve 241 is electrically operated and the pump is a hydraulic device 253 in the form of a reversing valve. The reversing valve 253 provides reception hydraulic signals from the steering wheel and from the valve 241 pump control. The reversing valve is designed to control the pump 205 in accordance with the received signal, corresponding to the highest pressure load. Accordingly, the hydraulic device (reversing valve) 253 selects the highest pressure in the output signal composed of the two input signals of the pressure.

The system also includes a sensor 255 for measuring the position of the lifting cylinder. Sensor 255 is functionally connected to the control block 213. In this case, the control block 213 may determine whether lifting or lowering of the load.

System 201 also includes a battery 271 (or more batteries), for the amortization of a cargo boom and, respectively, mounted guns 107 when moving the machine and the valve 273 to control the flow between the lifting cylinders 108, 109 and the battery 271. In addition, the system contains a sensor 275 pressure for measuring pressure battery charging 271. Block 213 control receives signals containing information about the pressure load in the lifting cylinders 108, 109, wired the x with them sensors 229 pressure and the pressure charge in the accumulator 271 from the sensor 275 pressure and generates the control signals, corresponding to the measured pressure, to control the function of depreciation.

More precisely, the valve 273 between the lifting cylinders 108, 109 and the battery 271 is designed to control the flow between the side of the piston of the lifting cylinder and battery. The control valve 273 is performed using the electric signal.

Below describes the different management options in the method of depreciation and, in particular, to control switching of depreciation. Unless otherwise stated, the above instructions "side of the piston and rod side of the piston" refers to the side of the piston to the rod side of the piston, respectively, of the lifting cylinders.

Before turning depreciation aligned pressure, i.e. in the accumulator 271 before connecting should be approximately the same pressure as on the side of the piston. This is necessary to prevent uncontrolled movement when connecting.

In accordance with one variant of the control pressure compensation is carried out in accordance with certain tolerances for the pressure difference between the accumulator 271 and the side of the piston.

If the pressure in the accumulator 271 is within a specified tolerance, or interval (offset)relative to the side of the piston, the mode depreciation cargo boom. This is appoints, that limited uncontrolled movement of the mounted guns up and down. In accordance with the first alternative, the offset pressure equally in both directions. In accordance with the second alternative offset the pressures are different in different directions. For example, you may be allowed more movement in the upward direction. In accordance with a third alternative, the offset pressure is a function of the measured working parameter such as the pressure side of the piston. The higher the pressure, the greater may be the admission pressure, since a large pressure difference is required at high pressure than at low pressure, to obtain from a battery of the same volume of oil. It should also be noted that the result will be the same offset mounted guns for different types of cargo.

In accordance with another alternative mode depreciation cargo boom is enabled only when the lifting function is set in the neutral position.

If the pressure in the accumulator below the pressure side of the piston, in accordance with the first alternative is the following sequence of actions. Block 213, the control checks the lifting and lowering of the hinged equipment (for example, using the lifting arm 11). If you enable lifting and lowering of the hinged instruments, the inclusion of depreciation is deferred until such time as the lifting function is not installed in a neutral position. Then, the control unit checks the pressure side of the piston and stores this value in memory (for example, 100 bar). After that, the control unit via an electrical signal load measurement sets for the pump 205 to the pressure level that is above the level of the pressure side of the piston (for example, 130 bar).

The valve 207 connecting the pump 205 side of the piston is open. In this case, the valve 207 acts as a pressure reducer, i.e. it ensures that the pressure side of the piston is always exceeded by a certain amount of bias pressure, recorded in the memory (for example, 120 bar), which means that the cargo boom will not be able to fall.

The valve 273 is opened, and the oil can flow into the battery. The opening of the valve 273 is preferably carried out during a certain time interval. The degree of opening of the valve 273 depends on the pressure side of the piston. Check that the pressure side of the piston does not fall below a certain level, namely a certain level is higher than the pressure recorded in the memory (for example, 110 bar). If the pressure in the accumulator 271 practically equal to the pressure on with what Auron piston (for example, within a certain shift, as mentioned above), before injection, the valve 207 that controls the pressure supply pump to the side of the piston is closed. Accordingly, the measuring signal of the load entering the pump 205 is interrupted. This opens the second valve 209 control connecting rod side of the piston with the reservoir 243. Valve 273 to control the flow between the side of the piston and accumulator 271, remains open. As a result, mode depreciation cargo boom.

If the pressure in the accumulator below the pressure side of the piston, in accordance with a second alternative is the following sequence of actions. Block 213, the control checks the lifting and lowering of the hinged instruments (for example, by using the handle 211 lifting). If you enable lifting and lowering of the hinged guns, activate depreciation is deferred until such time as the lifting function is not installed in a neutral position. Then the control block 213 by means of an electrical signal load measurement sets for the pump 205 to the pressure level that is above the level of the pressure side of the piston (for example, 130 bar, if the pressure load is 100 bar).

The higher pressure side of the piston also causes an increase in pressure on the rod side of the piston. If the cargo weight bcouse unexpectedly increases (in the process of including depreciation), it can happen involuntary lowering of the cargo boom, however it may be defined to fall to zero pressure on the rod side of the piston. To prevent such a situation, the valve 207 between the pump 205 and the side of the piston continuously adjusts the pressure side of the piston so that the pressure on the rod side of the piston never fell below a certain level. This means that the valve 207 to control the flow between the pump 205 and the side of the piston acts as a pressure reducing valve, that is, it maintains the pressure on the rod side of the piston is always at some specified level (for example, 20 bar), and, thus, on the side of the piston will always be enough pressure, and, accordingly, the cargo boom cannot fall.

After that, the valve 273 connecting side of the piston accumulator 271, opens, and the oil can flow into the battery. The opening of the valve 273 is preferably carried out during a certain time interval. The degree of opening of the valve 273 is determined by the pressure on the rod side of the piston. When this is done to ensure that the level of pressure on the rod side of the piston has fallen below a specified level (for example, 10 bar). When the pressure in the accumulator 271 becomes equal to the pressure side of the piston (or with some offset below it, as indicated above), LAPAN 207, managing the flow of hydraulic fluid from the pump to the side of the piston is closed. Accordingly, the measuring signal of the load entering the pump 205 is interrupted. The valve 209 which connects the rod side of the piston with the reservoir opens. Valve 273 regulating the flow in the battery 271, remains open. As a result, mode depreciation cargo boom.

If the pressure in the accumulator above the pressure side of the piston, in accordance with the first alternative is the following sequence of actions. Block 213, the control checks the lifting and lowering of the hinged instruments. If you enable lifting and lowering of the hinged guns, then activate depreciation is deferred until such time as the function of lifting (lowering) is installed in the neutral position. Unit 213 checks the pressure side of the piston and writes it in the memory. Valve 273 regulating the flow in the battery 271, opens. After this pressure is released through the valve 207 connecting side of the piston with the reservoir 243 and acting as a pressure limiter until it reaches the level recorded in memory (or exceeds it by a certain amount, as mentioned above). The valve 207 connecting side of the piston with the reservoir, is closed. This opens the valve 209, connect the s side of the piston with the reservoir 243. As a result, mode depreciation cargo boom.

If the pressure in the accumulator above the pressure side of the piston, in accordance with a second alternative is the following sequence of actions. Block 213, the control checks the lifting and lowering of the hinged instruments. If you enable lifting and lowering of the hinged guns, activate depreciation is deferred until such time as the function of lifting (lowering) is installed in the neutral position. Valve 273 regulating the flow in the battery 271, opens. Then the pressure on the rod side of the piston will increase as the pressure in the accumulator 271 is higher than the pressure side of the piston. After that, the pressure of the piston is discharged through the valve 207 connecting side of the piston with the reservoir 243 and acting as a pressure limiter until the pressure on the rod side of the piston reaches a specified level (for example, 10 bar). The valve 207 connecting side of the piston with the reservoir, is closed. The valve 209 which connects the rod side of the piston with the reservoir opens. As a result, mode depreciation cargo boom.

In accordance with another alternative mode of depreciation is included when lifting or lowering of the mounted guns. Valve 273 between the party of porn and battery opened within a certain time interval to a certain extent, to depreciation cargo boom was included without any disruption, visible to the operator. The specified time interval and the degree of valve opening can be defined by the following dependencies. In accordance with the first option, they are constant and do not depend on the operating mode. In accordance with a second embodiment of these values depend on the pressure difference between the side of the piston and the battery. In accordance with the third option, they depend on the function's execution speed (the higher the speed, the less will be the outflow of the battery). The above options can also be used in various combinations.

In accordance with another variant, the battery is pre-filled with oil to a level of pressure to activate depreciation to reduce the on time. Block 213, the control verifies that the depreciation of a cargo boom off and that is the rise of the. If the pressure on the side of the piston exceeds the pressure in the battery, then turn on the supply to the battery, namely, to some extent, the valve opens 273, managing the flow into the accumulator 271. The degree of valve opening may be defined by the following dependencies. In accordance with the first variant, the degree of opening is constant and does not depend on the operating mode. In accordance with a second embodiment of the degree of open is dependent on the pressure difference between the side of the piston and accumulator 271. In accordance with a third variation of the degree of opening depends on the speed of execution of the function (the higher the speed, the less will be the outflow of the battery).

Supply battery 271 is carried out until the pressure level, which represents the lowest value of the two quantities: pressure side of the piston or the specified maximum pressure. This maximum pressure may be determined by the following dependencies. In accordance with the first option, the maximum pressure is constant and does not depend on the operating mode. In accordance with a second embodiment of the maximum pressure equal to the pressure that was in the battery during the previous mode depreciation, or the average pressure on several previous inclusions, or slightly offset from this value.

The action of the accumulator 271 may be analogous to the action of the spring, and pre-charged fluid medium corresponds to the displacement of the spring. The damping in the system is determined primarily by the friction in the hinges of a cargo boom and cylinder, and valve 273, the control flow in the battery and from the pressure drop. This means that the characteristic of the shock absorber (the battery) is constant. On the other hand, the damping can be changed by regulating the degree of opening of the valve. This means that the pressure drop is when I change the flow direction is changed.

Can be used following the principles control the degree of opening (damping) of the valve. In accordance with the first variant, the degree of opening is constant and does not depend on the operating mode. In accordance with a second embodiment of the degree of opening depends on the pressure difference between the side of the piston and the battery. More precisely, the larger the pressure difference, the less will be the degree of valve opening. This means that more energy is consumed when increased flows between the side of the piston and the battery. Problems with too small movements of cargo boom occur primarily in the case of an empty bucket, because the friction in the hinges and in the cylinder becomes very large compared with the loads generated by the masses, which means that the damping valve should be kept low (valve must be open).

In accordance with the first variant, the degree of opening depends on the level of pressure in the cylinder. This means that the damping decreases for smaller loads. This is effective particularly for a range of small loads, when the predominant become of the friction force in the cargo boom and cylinder. In accordance with a second embodiment of the degree of opening is a function of the type of work performed or mounted guns. For some of the handling operations required Bo is its rigid system, but for others a more lenient system, i.e. with a greater or lesser degree of damping. As an example, consider the loading of logs onto a truck. When such operation is necessary to prevent bending of the supports of the truck. In this case, more rigid system. In accordance with a third variation of the degree of valve opening is set by the operator. Different operators have different management styles, and in some cases they are accustomed to certain characteristics of the other machines on which they worked. In accordance with the fourth variant of the degree of opening is a function of the position of the mounted guns or hydraulic cylinder. A more stringent system is preferable if the bucket is close to the surface of the earth, to prevent oscillation of the bucket and hit the ground. Softer system is preferred when the bucket is raised high, and it is necessary to reduce the danger of tipping over.

In accordance with an alternative or in addition, the damping characteristic can be adjusted using the valve 209 which connects the rod side of the piston with the reservoir 243, and thus can be used above types of dependencies.

The invention should not be deemed limited to the above variants of its implementation, moreover, within the scope of the invention defined by religeos formula, may also be offered other options and their modifications.

In the present description, the term "valve with electric control" is used to indicate the valve on the hydraulic tube, managed directly by using an electrical signal, so that the valve is driven by an electrical input signal. Of course, there are several options, which are covered by the term "valve with electric control, such as the site of several valves in which the valve is installed on the hydraulic tube and the second valve with electric control is designed to actuate the first valve using a hydraulic signal.

1. The system (201) depreciation for a work machine (101), which provides cushioning movement of cargo when moving and containing at least one hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) for operations with cargo, the accumulator (271), the valve (273), which provides flow control between the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and the battery, the pump (205), which feeds into the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) of hydraulic fluid under pressure through the first valve (207) control and a second valve (209) management, and pump control is carried out using an electrical signal that distinguish the I, the system comprises a first valve (207) control mounted on the pipe connected to the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109), and is arranged to control the flow between the pump (205) and the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder, the second valve (209) control mounted on the pipe connected to the rod side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109), the first sensor (229) pressure to measure the load pressure of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109), a second sensor (275) pressure measurement pressure charging of the battery and the control unit (213)that is configured to receive signals containing information on the pressures measured by the sensors (229, 275) pressure, and generating control signals corresponding to the measured pressure, to control the function of depreciation using the accumulator (271) and the first valve (207) management to ensure equalization of pressure between the accumulator (271) and the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) before enabling depreciation.

2. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a valve (241) with electric control, configured to control the output pressure of the pump using the hydraulic signal, and the block (213) management provides actuation of this valve (241) with electric control is observed in accordance with the pressure of the load of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109).

3. System according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the second valve (209) control is arranged to control the flow between the side of the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder and the reservoir (243).

4. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the first valve (207) control and a second valve (209) control can be powered independently from each other.

5. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the valve (273) between the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and the accumulator (271) is arranged to control the flow between the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator.

6. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the valve (273), which provides flow control between the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and the accumulator (271), has an electric drive.

7. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a device (211, 255) to determine the mode of raising or lowering of the load.

8. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the first sensor (229) pressure is arranged to measure the pressure load on the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109).

9. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that for measuring the pressure load on the rod side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) uses the third sensor (231) pressure unit (213) management provides reception of signals containing information on what the situation is about the pressure measured by the sensor (231) pressure, and the formation of control signals corresponding to the measured pressure to control the function of depreciation.

10. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the block (213) management provides for the formation of control signals and transmit them, in at least one of these valves (207, 209, 273) to control the function of depreciation.

11. The system according to claim 1, characterized in that it is sensitive to the load system.

12. Working machine (101), characterized in that it contains the system (201) according to any one of the preceding paragraphs.

13. Wheel loader (101), characterized in that it contains the system (201) according to any one of claims 1 to 11.

14. The method of providing depreciation tools (107) of the working machine (101) when it is moving, in which at least one hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) is functionally connected to the instrument and communicates with the accumulator (271), including steps, which provide measurements of pressure-charging accumulator (271) and the load pressure of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109), and management enabling depreciation in accordance with the measured pressure, and provide pressure equalization, in accordance with the measured pressure between the battery and the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder before enabling depreciation and control the flow between the accumulator (271) and the tank (243) with a valve (207) management mounted on the tube attached to the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109), to ensure equalization of pressure.

15. The method according to 14, comprising the step on which measure the pressure load on the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109).

16. The method according to 14 or 15, comprising the step on which measure the pressure battery charging (271) and the pressure load of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) using pressure sensors.

17. The method according to 14, including the step, which provides an opening to flow between the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and the accumulator (271) to enable depreciation.

18. The method according to 14, comprising the step that opens the way to flow between the side of the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and the tank (243) to enable depreciation.

19. The method according to 14, comprising a step at which control the flow between the pump (205) and the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) for pressure equalization.

20. The method according to 14, including the step, at which the comparison of measured load pressure with the measured pressure charging and provide enabling depreciation only if the pressure difference is within the given interval.

21. The method according to 14, including the step, on which op is adelene mode of raising or lowering cargo and provide enabling depreciation only in the case if there is no lifting or lowering of the load.

22. The method according to 14, in which, if the pressure battery charging (271) below the load pressure in the hydraulic cylinder, the function of depreciation is activated by pressure on the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder by controlling the pump so that the output level pressure was higher than the measured pressure load.

23. The method according to 14, in which, if the pressure charge in the accumulator (271) is less than the load pressure in the hydraulic cylinder, opens a path for the flow between the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator (271).

24. The method according to item 23, which carry out continuous measurement of the pressure load in the hydraulic cylinder and control the flow between the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator (271) in accordance with the pressure load on the side of the piston.

25. The method according to item 21 and 23, including the step of interrupting the flow between the pump and the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder if the pressure load is a certain level of pressure or load is in some interval relative to this level before discharge side of the piston.

26. The method according A.25, which provide the measurement of the pressure on the rod side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder and the flow control between the ASAS and the side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder so as to the pressure on the rod side of the piston is maintained above a specified level.

27. The method according to p, including the step, at which the flow control between the side of the piston and the accumulator (271) in accordance with the measured pressure on the rod side of the piston.

28. The method according to 14, in which, if the pressure charge in the accumulator (271) exceeds the pressure load in the hydraulic cylinder, the function of depreciation is activated by opening the path for the flow between the accumulator (271) and the tank (243), and carry out the measurement of the pressure load on the side of the piston before opening the path for flow and interrupt the flow, if the pressure load on the side of the piston is equal to a certain level of pressure load on the side of the piston or is in some interval relative to this level before opening the path for the stream.

29. The method according to 14, in which, if the pressure charge in the accumulator (271) exceeds the pressure load in the hydraulic cylinder, the function of depreciation triggered by the steps of measuring the pressure on the rod side of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder, opening the path for the flow between the side of the piston and the tank (243) and interrupts the flow, if the pressure load on the rod side of the piston is decreased to a certain level.

30. The method according to 14, comprising the steps are carried out on the definition of the mode of raising or lowering cargo and enabling depreciation, if you are lifting or lowering the load, by controlling the flow between the side of the piston and the accumulator (271).

31. The method according to 14, including the steps which determine the mode of lifting and, if you are lifting and the pressure load on the side of the piston exceeds the pressure of the charge in the accumulator (271), control the flow between the side of the piston and the accumulator (271), so that the battery is filled.

32. The method of providing depreciation tools (107) of the working machine (101) when it is moving, in which at least one hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) is functionally connected with the working tool, comprising the steps through which provide control damping movement of the working tools by regulating the degree of opening of the valve (273)that controls the flow between the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and the accumulator (271), and the method includes the step of receiving the input signal, which is a measure of the required damping, determine the level of damping in accordance with this input signal controls the function of depreciation working guns by actuation of the valve (273) between the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator (271), respectively, and the step of measuring at least one working parameter, which is an indicator of the type of work and/or type of guns, and the control flux is om in accordance with the measured work parameter.

33. The method according to p, in which the valve between the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and the accumulator (271) is driven by an electric signal.

34. The method according to p or 33, comprising the step on which the determination of the required level of damping and the corresponding actuation of the mentioned valve (273).

35. The method according to p comprising the step on which measure the pressure load of the hydraulic cylinder (108, 109) and/or pressure battery charging (271) and actuate the valve (273) between the hydraulic cylinder and the accumulator (271) in accordance with at least one of the measured pressures.

36. The method according to p, including step, which take the signal from the body control operator and control the flow in accordance with this signal.

37. The method according to p, including a step where the measured parameter, which is the indicator of the position of the implement, and control the flow in accordance with certain thus the position.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: system to control mining machine comprises a hydraulic drive of travel and a drilling rod with a power hydraulic control unit, a hydraulic drive of a loading element and hydraulic cylinders of a drilling rig with a power hydraulic control unit, an electrohydraulic unit of power hydraulic units control with a system of electric interlocks, sources of supply for hydraulic drive and control systems. At the same time power hydraulic units to control a hydraulic drive of travel, a drilling rod, a hydraulic drive of a loading element and hydraulic cylinders of a drilling rig are equipped with additional locking devices installed between sections of the hydraulic control units.

EFFECT: locking of the caterpillar drive and loading element drive during operation of drilling equipment to ensure safety of maintenance personnel.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: test bench for digging-transporting machines of bucket type consists of full-size digging-transport machine of bucket type with hydraulic drive, of loading system, of position sensors and of computer. Each cavity of the hydraulic cylinder of hydraulic drive of working equipment is equipped with the hydraulic system of loading. It includes a regulated throttle with proportional electric control - a back valve and a pressure gauge. The back valve is parallel connected to the regulated throttle with proportional electric control. An inlet cavity of the back valve on a side of the seat is connected to one outlet of a distributor of fluid of hydraulic drive of digging-transporting machine by means of one pipeline; while an outlet cavity of the back valve is connected to the cavity of the hydraulic cylinder of the hydraulic drive of the digging-transporting machine by means of another pipeline. The pressure gauge is connected to the same cavity. The output of the gauge is connected with an inlet of the computer, while an electric input of the control unit of the regulated throttle with proportional electric control is connected with an output of the computer.

EFFECT: simplified design of bench, reduced expenditures for its fabrication and raised reliability of tests.

2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-system consists of tank, of working equipment pump, pressure main of which is connected with rod and piston cavities of hydro-cylinder of working equipment and hydraulic motor by means of hydraulic distributors, and of safety valve. The hydro-system has an accumulator of replenishment, a hydraulic distributor, a control valve and a throttle. Also, the accumulator of replenishment is connected with a drain main, with the tank via the safety valve, with an input of the hydraulic distributor and with a control cavity of the hydraulic distributor through the control valve. Further, via a throttle, it is connected with a suction main of the pump. The suction main is coupled with an output of the hydraulic distributor.

EFFECT: reduced losses of hydraulic energy in hydraulic system.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed preheater comprises hydraulic pump articulated with heat engine and gas heat carrier circulation circuit. Proposed device incorporates heat-isolated chamber and flexible heat-isolated metal hose communicated with inlet branch pipe of heat-isolated chamber mounted for heating interval via special guides outside of hydraulic tank bottom nearby hydraulic pump suction branch pipe. In operation, heat-isolated chamber discharge branch pipe is communicated by similar metal hose with atmosphere. Proposed method of cleaning consists in intermittent feed of preset amount of finely dispersed NaO2 agent into heat-isolated chamber to oxidise (burn out) deposited solid particle after prestarting heater withdrawn from the machine.

EFFECT: simplified design, higher efficiency at negative ambient temperatures.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: power efficient working equipment consists of turning platform, of gantry, of boom, of stick, of bucket, of hydro-cylinders of boom lift. of hydro-cylinders of stick turn and of hydro-cylinder of bucket turn. In vertical plane of symmetry of the boom between hydro-cylinders of stick turn there is installed a pneumatic hydro-cylinder pivotally secured on the turning platform and the boom, a piston cavity of which is connected at least with two gas tanks charged with compressed air at pressure over 10 MPa. Total volume of gas tanks amounts to at least four working volumes of the pneumatic hydro-cylinder. At least one hydraulic damper of working fluid pressure charged with compressed air over 15 MPa is connected to piston cavities of the boom hydro-cylinders.

EFFECT: improved design of working equipment of hydraulic excavator, reduced fluctuations of pressure in hydro-system of working equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: energy-saving operating equipment includes digging arm base, digging arm head, handle, bucket, the main hydraulic cylinders for lifting the digging arm, control hydraulic cylinder of the digging arm length, additional balancing pneumatic cylinder connected to portal and to the digging arm base. Piston cavity of balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to gas bottle charged with pressure of more than 10 MPa and having the volume equal at least to five operating volumes of balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder. At that, to piston cavity at least of one main hydraulic cylinder for lifting the digging arm there connected is hydropneumatic accumulator the gas cavity of which is charged with initial pressure of more than 10 MPa and divided at least into two gas chambers separated with a partition in which an adjustable orifice is installed.

EFFECT: higher operating efficiency of machine, lower energy losses and higher efficiency of operating equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a boom, a bucket, the main hydraulic cylinder of the boom, a balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder, a gas balloon. The main hydraulic cylinder of the boom and the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder are located in a single longitudinal vertical plane of the boom symmetry, so that the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is brought to the boom as close as possible in the lower and upper limit positions of the working equipment. The boom base is arranged in the form of a box, where the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is installed, a piston cavity of which is connected to a gas balloon charged with pressure of more than 10 MPa. At the same time the volume of the gas balloon makes more than five working volumes of the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder.

EFFECT: energy-saving and simplification of design.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: energy-saving working equipment of a single-bucket excavator on a rotary column comprises a top utility tractor, a rotary column, including a base and a head, a boom, a handle, a bucket, main hydraulic cylinders of a boom. The boom is hingedly connected to a head of a rotary column, and the main hydraulic cylinders of the boom are hingedly connected to the base of the rotary column and the boom. A balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to the base of the rotary column and the boom, and a piston cavity of the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to a gas balloon charged with pressure of more than 10 MPa. At the same time the gas balloon volume makes more than five working volumes of the balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder, a hinged joint of which is arranged on the base of the rotary column with displacement relative to the boom hinged joint on the rotary column head, with the possibility to ensure compact arrangement at the upper and lower positions of the working equipment.

EFFECT: increased effectiveness and efficiency factor, improved design of the working equipment.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system of independent flows distribution consists of hydraulic distributors, discharge cavities of which are supplied from according discharge hydraulic lines. At least another hydraulic distributor is supplied from several discharge hydraulic lines with its discharge cavity via check valves. And at least one check valve that supplies to discharge cavity of any distributor is arranged with the possibility of its forced closure in case of necessity.

EFFECT: distribution of several independent flows by minimum number of distributors between various hydraulic engines.

3 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises boom, bucket, hydraulic cylinders of boom, balancing pneumatic hydraulic cylinder, gas balloon, hydraulic pump, main and additional hydraulic distributors of boom control. Piston cavities of boom hydraulic cylinders are arranged with the possibility of connection to hydraulic pump via main hydraulic distributor or additional hydraulic distributor of differential type, providing for the possibility to connect simultaneously piston and stem cavities of boom hydraulic cylinders to hydraulic pump. At the same time piston cavity of balance pneumatic hydraulic cylinder is connected to gas balloon charged to pressure of more than 10 MPa, and ratio of squares of piston diametre and boom hydraulic cylinders stem is within the range of .

EFFECT: energy efficiency, increased capacity, higher efficiency factor of working equipment.

1 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving facilities; hydraulic drives of scraper working members.

SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic drive contains pressure spool installed in parallel with like spaces of two hydraulic cylinders, pressure main line connected between two check valves, free outlet of check valve being connected with inlet of pressure spool and one hydraulic cylinder. Free inlet is connected with outlet of pressure spool and other hydraulic cylinder, drum main line connects opposite spaces of hydraulic cylinders. Hydraulic drive is furnished with two series-connected pressure spools. Inlet of first pressure spool and outlet of second pressure spool are connected with outlet of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool. Their common line is connected with controllable space of second hydraulic cylinder and is separated by check valve from pressure main line. Inlets of first hydraulically controlled reversible spool are connected to outputs of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool and are connected with controllable spaces of first and second hydraulic cylinders. One inlet of second hydraulically controlled reversible spool is connected with inlet of pressure spool and is connected to pressure line through check valve, and second inlet is separated from pressure line by other check valve. Control spaces of two hydraulically controlled reversible spools are united and are connected to pressure main line through two-position spool.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of control of scraper blade system.

4 dwg

FIELD: handling machinery, particularly soil-shifting, mining, agricultural and loading cyclic machines.

SUBSTANCE: device includes implement, main hydraulic cylinders and balancing hydraulic cylinder, at least one gas cylinder and hydropneumatic accumulator, main and additional hydrodistributors, as well as safety valve. Gas cylinder communicates with gas chamber of hydropneumatic accumulator. Device made in the first embodiment has the second additional hydrodistributor connecting working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with pump. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder communicates with rod ends of the main ones. In the second embodiment additional hydraulic cylinder is arranged in main hydrodistributor case and connected to hydrolines of the main hydraulic cylinders through hydrolines. Additional hydrodistributor is installed so that additional hydrodistributor may connect working chambers of the main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with the pump when additional hydrodistributor is installed in the first position. Additional hydrodistributor being installed in the second position may connect working chambers of main hydraulic cylinders with each other and with drain. Rod end of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with rod ends of main hydraulic cylinders.

EFFECT: increased machine productivity due to increased implement hoisting speed.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulically driven dredgers.

SUBSTANCE: drive comprises power plant with controlled power pumps having servo control taps, gear-box, hydraulic motors and hydraulic equipment. Hydraulic equipment has hydraulic distributor with address travel spool and its servo control taps, power hydraulic lines and servo control loop with hydraulic lines. The controlled power pumps may supply predetermined volume of working liquid at zero pressure in servo control lines thereof. Hydraulic lines for servo control of address travel spool have additional circuit including control unit, servo control lines and logical hydraulic OR valve with two inlet and one outlet taps. Hydraulic lines of servo control circuit included in additional loop are connected with inlet taps of hydraulic OR valve having outlet tap communicated with servo control taps of address travel spool.

EFFECT: provision of no-failure gear actuation in standing still dredger.

2 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly hydraulic systems for mobile machines.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system comprises hydraulic reservoir, controllable hydraulic pump with load-sensitive control slide, power hydraulic line protected with safety valve, main hydraulic distributor with three-position slide having one pressure supply means, two discharge lines, two working outlet means and line, which provides connection of each working outlet means with LS line, attached to control slide. The hydraulic system is provided with pressure control valve and with controllable reducing valve installed in LS line. Input and output of reducing valve are connected to hydraulic distributor and control slide correspondingly. Control line of reducing valve is linked to pressure control valve outlet. Inlet and discharge line of the pressure control valve are connected with power hydraulic line and with hydraulic reservoir correspondingly.

EFFECT: increased operational efficiency and reliability.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving, mining, building machines and other wheeled and caterpillar handling periodically acting machines.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises working implement, main and balancing hydraulic cylinders, gas cylinder, main and additional working liquid distribution means. The piston cavity of balancing hydraulic cylinder is connected with gas cylinder. Additional distribution means may connect working cavities of main hydraulic cylinders one with another and with hydraulic pump during implement lifting.

EFFECT: increased working implement lifting speed without pump and system parameter change.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, mechanical engineering, possible use in system for controlling caterpillar drive of mining machine.

SUBSTANCE: hydro-system contains pumps for caterpillar drive and pump, feeding system of working functions of machine, hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive, driving hydro-motors and working mains, two controllable check valves and hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions. Outlet channels of hydro-distributor for controlling system of machine working functions are connected to inlet channels of controllable check valves, which are connected between each other. Outlet channels of these valves are connected to working mains of driving hydro-motors and hydro-distributors for controlling caterpillar drive.

EFFECT: possible movement of mining machine in case of breakdown of driving pumps at the expense of influx of working liquid from pump driving system normally used for working functions of machine.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth moving machinery.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic drives of draw-booster gears of tractor-drawn scrapers. Proposed hydraulic drive contains pump, hydraulic tank, hydraulic cylinder, pressure valve connected in parallel with hydraulic cylinder, and hydraulic distributor. Hydraulic drive contains additionally hydraulic accumulator, time relay, check valve, pressure valve is provided with control line, and hydraulic cylinder has control arm engaging with two-position spool whose input is connected with pump and output, through time relay, with hydraulic accumulator and control line of pressure valve and with input of check valve whose output is connected to input of pressure valve.

EFFECT: provision of automatic continuous increase of adhesion weight of tractor of scraper when digging.

3 dwg

FIELD: earth-moving and transport machines, particularly blade assemblies having changeable width of cut.

SUBSTANCE: blade assembly comprises side sections and central section. The sections are provided with undercutting blades and are directly connected to bucket bottom. The central section is hinged to bucket bottom and is operated by rotation hydraulic cylinders through operation levers. Undercutting blades made as gussets are connected to inner edges of side sections from below. The gussets have supports to cooperate with central section in lower position thereof. Undercutting blades of central section are connected to outer side edges of central section. Undercutting gussets are provided with orifices to arrange fixers installed in lower parts of side sections so that they may cooperate with end switches. Position switches adapted to cooperate with operation levers of central section in central or extreme positions are mounted on bucket side walls. Hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation are linked in pairs to hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. Lifting and lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders are correspondingly communicated with raising and deepening cavities of hydraulic cylinders for central section rotation. Hydraulic drive for blade assembly includes hydraulically operated on-off three-way slide. The first outlet of the slide is united with the third one and is linked to raising cavity of hydraulic cylinder for central section rotation. Operational chamber and the first inlet of the slide are connected to outlet of pressure slide having output connected to lowering cavities of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation. The second and the third inlets of on-off three-way slide are correspondingly connected to lifting cavities of hydraulic cylinders, which operate front bucket gate and lowering cavity of hydraulic cylinders for bucket operation.

EFFECT: decreased load to be applied to blade system during earth cutting as central section is in central and extreme positions, provision of automatic installation of above section in side blade plane and in extreme positions.

9 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: group of invention relates to boom earth-moving, mine, construction and loading lifting-and-transporting machines of cyclic action. Proposed balancing system contains working equipment, boom hydraulic cylinders and balancing cylinder including hydraulic rod space and gas piston space connected with gas bottle, and distributors. According to first design version, hydraulic rod space of balancing cylinder is connected by hydraulic line with drain into hydraulic tank, and distributor of hydraulic liquid is installed for connecting in one position of spool, of boom hydraulic cylinders working spaces to each other with hydraulic pump. According to second design version, distributor is installed in system for connecting working spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump. According to third design version, rod space of balancing cylinder is connected with distributor installed for connecting, in one position of spool, of rod space of balancing cylinder with into hydraulic tank, and in other position, with hydraulic pump. Distributor is installed in hydraulic line of boom hydraulic cylinders for connecting, in one position of spool, of spaces of boom hydraulic cylinders to each other and with hydraulic pump.

EFFECT: increased capacity of machine owing to higher speed of lifting and lowering of working equipment.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly earth-moving and construction equipment to be operated at low temperatures.

SUBSTANCE: device for hydraulic drive heating comprises heat engine and hydraulic pump kinematically connected with each other. Device also has liquid heat carrier circulation loop including heat accumulator. Heat pipe is connected to heat engine exhaust pipe through two-way valve. Heating member is arranged in tank and linked to heat engine generator.

EFFECT: increased simplicity and efficiency of hydraulic drive heating at negative ambient temperatures.

1 dwg

Up!