Fuel (versions)

FIELD: oil-and-gas production.

SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel represents a mix of gaseous flame-resistant ammonium and acetylene, or mix of ammonium, acetylene and ethylene. Invention covers also fuel representing solution of indole in liquid flame-resistant ammonium.

EFFECT: facilitating ignition of flame-resistant gases and fluids at operating temperatures and pressure.

2 cl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to fuels for air-breathing engines (WFD) and for liquid rocket engines (LRE).

There are various types of fuel additives in fuel, smpat. Rossi No. 2205863. However, the known substances have a high heat of combustion, but with difficulty enter into the oxidation reaction, hereinafter "trudnovosplamenjaemy" substances. Some of these are known, as well as open in the future flammable substances can be in the working conditions in the gaseous, liquid and solid state (under working conditions hereinafter refers to the temperature and pressure at which the storage of fuel in an aircraft, its transportation to the engine and the flow in the combustion chamber).

To be able to use the solids as fuel for PWRS and LRE should be dissolved in a suitable combustible matter, which also has good heat dissipation and which is liquid at operating conditions or in a mixture of such substances.

To facilitate the ignition trudnovosplamenjaemy substances in the gaseous state, it is possible additives of one or more gaseous ingredients. That is, the fuel containing gaseous at the operating conditions trudnovosplamenjaemy ingredient further comprises a gaseous one or more flammable in which Reventon.

And to facilitate the ignition trudnovosplamenjaemy substances in the working conditions in the liquid state, it is possible additives of one or more solid (in the form of a solution or suspension) or liquid (solution or emulsion) ingredients. That is, the fuel containing liquid under the operating conditions trudnovosplamenjaemy ingredient, optionally contains in the form of a solution, suspension or emulsion of one or more of flammable ingredients.

Of course, even a combination of additives. For example, trudnovosplamenjaemy liquid fuel may contain both soluble and insoluble liquid and solid additives (ingredients).

Example 1. Ammonia as a fuel is hard to fire it up and the air is not lit. This is due to the equilibrium reaction for the decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, and the reaction is endothermic and the desired balance is achieved at low pressures and high temperatures. To create the right conditions in the gaseous ammonia are dissolved combustible gas (gases), preferably with a high temperature combustion, such as acetylene or acetylene in a mixture with ethylene (for example, 1:1).

Example 2. If the supply of ammonia in the combustion chamber is in liquid state, the liquid ammonia can be added soluble in the liquid or solid combustible ingredient, such as indole. Solubility in the substances in liquid ammonia has been studied insufficiently, but perhaps it will be possible to dissolve liquid hydrocarbons, for example propane, or solid organic substances such as trinitro-m-xylene (e.g., 1%).

In examples 1, 2 flammable ingredients burn in stages: first a flammable ingredient, then begins a self-sustaining reaction of decomposition and combustion of ammonia and then burning the resulting hydrogen.

The value of the inventions is not limited to their use at the present time. The emergence of new substances, synthesized specifically for this purpose, may give to the invention is of particular relevance in the future.

1. Fuel containing gaseous at the operating temperature and pressure trudnovosplamenjaemy ingredient, characterized in that it is a mixture of ammonia and acetylene, or a mixture of ammonia, acetylene and ethylene.

2. Fuel containing liquid at the operating temperature and pressure trudnovosplamenjaemy ingredient, characterized in that it is a solution of indole in liquid ammonia.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: rocket technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the space-rocket machinery, particularly to the carrier-rockets and upper-stages with the liquid rocket engines. The method of liquid fuel components energetics increasing for carrier-rockets with liquid rocket engines is based on the metal additives and metal compounds input to the fuel. The electric valve activates while starting of the propulsion system, then the blowing gas from the balloon ball comes through the abridger to the press tank that contains a compound of the metal aluminum or the component which was chose from the light metal containing hydride group. The compound comes to the fuel manifold ahead of the propulsion system section through the dosing and mixing system. The device for this method realization contains: fuel tanks, propulsion system, additionally a balloon-ball with the pressed blowing gas. This balloon-ball is connected to the press tank through the electric valve and abridger. The press tank contains compound, dosing and mixing system and is connected to the fuel manifold ahead of the propulsion system section.

EFFECT: increasing of liquid fuel components energetics.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in that closed chamber is filled at normal pressure and temperature with metastable fluid made up of homogeneous mix of liquid fuel, oxidiser and ballast, to be subjected to electrolysis between electrodes separated by porous material at temperature controlled conditions in presence of electrically conducting and catalytic additives. Produced higher enthalpy gassy detonating mix saturated by gaseous fuel and oxidiser is throttles in foamed state into slotted nozzle for catalytic combustion of superheated metastable fluid and heating of gaseous propulsive jet. Produced two-phase flow is subjected to mechanical effects to form fine propulsive jet. Rocket closed combustion chamber communicates with the nozzle via sealing element, for example, rubber plug, a wad, fitted in throttling tube inner end, said tube being secured in metal chamber convergent section with slotted nozzle secured therein and made up of conical spring made from elastic metal strip. Rocket start-charge device comprises base with guide device to mount the rocket. Box-like base is made from electrical-insulating material and equipped with metal covers and isolating bush of guide rod with slightly conical base. Rocket chamber throttling tube is fitted on said base and electrically connected via slotted nozzle with one of the poles of electric current source. Another pole is connected via inductor and limiting resistor with guide rod base.

EFFECT: higher specific thrust pulse, simplified design and start-charge process.

8 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: rocket carrier separated part (RCSS) is revolved about lengthwise axis to stabilise its angular position in space. Residual liquid fuel and oxidiser components are gasified to generate braking pulse by combusting them in gas rocket engine chamber and due to high-rate efflux of combustion products into space. Power plant (PP) comprises oxidiser and fuel tanks and tanks pressurisation system. PP additionally incorporates powder rocket engines to spin-up RCSS, at least, gas rocket engine with feed system and residual fuel-and-oxidiser gasification system. Said feed system comprise gas bleed devices incorporating pyro membranes connected to gas rocket engine manifold. Residual fuel-and-oxidiser gasification system comprises compressed gas cylinder, a ball, communicated via electropneumatic valve and reducing valve with fuel and oxidiser expansion tanks, and gas generator fed from said expansion tanks and communicated with devices to force gas into fuel tanks.

EFFECT: reduced contamination of outer space.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during development of liquid-propellant engines (LPI) for carrier rockets (CR). Method consists in the fact that acceleration pulse is created owing to combustion of fuel components in ignition device (ID) and supply of its combustion products to chamber nozzle. Ignition device is tripped after the required pulse is obtained by the mixture in CR tank. At that, combustion products are supplied to the combustion chamber nozzle together with their ballasting, e.g. with fuel which is first passed through the cooling path of the chamber. The proposed method is implemented in LPI containing combustion chamber with ID, nozzle, turbo-pump unit, automation and control units, which, according to the invention, is equipped with an additional line with the valve for ballasting of ID combustion products, which connects the outlet of the cooling path of combustion chamber to its mixing head.

EFFECT: simplifying the design and reducing power consumption.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocketry, particularly to liquid propellant rocket engines operated on three fuel components, i.e. cryogenic oxidiser, hydrocarbon fuel and liquid hydrogen. Proposed rocket comprises first- and second-stage rocket units connected in parallel, oxidiser and fuel tanks coupled by power assemblies and equipped with at least one first-stage engine and one second-stage engine. In compliance with this invention, second-stage unit comprises second fuel tank, every second-stage engine incorporates combustion chamber and fuel feed turbopump unit. Proposed engine comprises at least one combustion chamber with jet nozzle, regenerative cooling system, gas generator, and two turbopump units comprising turbine, oxidiser pump and fuel pumps. In compliance with this invention, outlets of all pumps communicate, via gas duct, with gas generator outlet communicates with every combustion chamber. Method of operation of above described engine comprises feeding fuel and oxidiser into gas generator and combustion chamber, igniting them and exhausting combustion products via jet nozzle. In compliance with this invention, first fuel utilised, second fuel is fed into gas generator and combustion chamber. Prior to feeding second fuel, fuel pipelines and nozzle regenerative cooling systems are blown down to remove first fuel residues.

EFFECT: higher thrust-to-weight ratio, improved operating performances.

12 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocketry, particularly to liquid propellant rocket engines operated on three fuel components, i.e. cryogenic oxidiser, hydrocarbon fuel and liquid hydrogen. Proposed engine comprises at least one combustion chamber with jet nozzle, regenerative cooling system, gas generator, and turbopump unit comprising turbine, oxidiser pump and fuel pumps. It differs from known designs in that said turbopump unit comprises two fuels pumps and two extra fuel pumps designed to operate on first fuel and second fuel. Note here that second fuel pump and additional second fuel pump are arranged below oxidiser pump. Downstream of fuel pumps, first and second fuel valves are arranged connected, via electric line, with synchronisation device. Proposed engine incorporates also control unit connected with aforesaid synchronisation device. Method of operation of above described engine comprises feeding fuel and oxidiser into gas generator and combustion chamber, igniting them and exhausting combustion products via jet nozzle. In compliance with this invention, first fuel utilised, second fuel is fed into gas generator and combustion chamber. Prior to feeding second fuel, fuel pipelines and nozzle regenerative cooling systems are blown down to remove first fuel residues.

EFFECT: improved operating performances of liquid propellant engine in wide range of flight conditions at various altitudes.

5 cl, 3 dwg

Rocket engine unit // 2381378

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocketry and can be used in designing rocker carrier first stages with multi-tank propellant compartments with wrap-around arrangement. Engine unit comprises multi-tank propellant compartment and fluid propellant rocket engines, every engine being communicated, via feed lines, with adjoining tanks. One of the engines communicates, via feed lines and booster pump units, with all tanks.

EFFECT: synchronised utilisation of propellant components from like tanks without introducing disturbing torques to rocket.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: in method for compensation of differences in physical properties of fuel components based on matching of operation modes of universal liquid-propellant rocket engine supply units, according to invention for generator-free engine with separate turbine pump (TP) during its transfer from hydrogen to liquefied natural gas (LNG) (methane), at first fuel (LNG, methane) flow is increased to required value for provision of reliable cooling of chamber, after cooling prior to fuel supply to turbine of TP its total flow is divided into two parts, one of which is supplied to TP turbine, and the other one is discharged, at that after TP passing, fuel fission process is repeated, at that its one part is sent for combustion in combustion chamber, and the other is discharged or sent for further use. Discharged parts of fuel flow may be used as working fluid, for instance, for steering nozzles, for turbine of engine swinging system, for supercharging of tanks, repeatedly as working fluid of chamber fuel and/or propellant pump. Invention provides for operation of engine both on fuel components "oxygen+hydrogen" and also on fuel "oxygen+liquefied natural gas" (methane).

EFFECT: reduced cost of engine and expanded field of its application.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocket-propelled vehicles, particularly, to the gas duct of liquid-propellant rocket engines with after-burning. The aforesaid gas duct comprises the outlet manifold of the main turbo-pump unit, a bent pipeline and a swinging assembly. The aforesaid bent pipeline is coupled with the outlet manifold and the said swinging assembly is linked with the engine chamber. Note here that the aforesaid swinging assembly is furnished with a bi-degree universal joint and the joint of the swinging assembly with the engine chamber and bent pipeline represents a flange coupling incorporating a metal T-shape gasket furnished with a load-bearing ring with two flexible springs provided with mountain-like ledges. Note also that the aforesaid one-piece bent pipeline is made from a heat-resistant nickel-alloy, while the bent pipeline flange represents a load-bearing belt with a developed end face surface for the engine frame support to be attached thereto. The aforesaid T-shape taper gasket springs feature the thickness varying over their length, while their length L-to-mean thickness δ ratio makes L/δ ˜8 to 10 and the angle α of the spring taper surface inclination to the flange coupling axis makes 1.5 to 2.5 degrees. The flexible spring OD including the aforesaid mountain-like ledges exceeds the ID of the flange coupling sealing surfaces by 0.1 to 0.2 mm. All parts of the gas duct are made from the EK-61 heat-resistant nickel alloy. The propose invention allows a higher tightness of the fixed joints and pipelines carrying high-temperature high-pressure oxidising medium.

EFFECT: improved performances due to ease of uncoupling gas duct from engine chamber and bent pipeline.

7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: aircraft industry; rocketry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of liquid-propellant rocket engines. Proposed liquid-propellant rocket engine without afterburning of generator gas contains regenerative cooling chamber 1, turbopump set 2 with gas generator 3 to drive turbine 4, two flow rate controls and two nozzles 9, 10 installed in pressure main lines 11, 12 of pumps of turbopump set 2. Sensing elements of spools 5, 6 of controls communicate through pipelines with inputs of nozzles 9, 10 and their minimum sections. According to invention servo-actuate restrictor 14 of control, playing the part of thrust control, installed in feed main line 12 of one of propellant components into gas generator 3. Restricting element of servo-actuated restrictor 14 communicates through pipeline 21 with pressure main line 12 of pump of said component after nozzle 10, and pipeline 22 delivering second component into gas generator 3 is connected with pressure main line 11 of pump of said component after servo-actuated restrictor 13 of control playing the part of propellant components flow rate ratio control.

EFFECT: improved energy-mass ratios of engine, provision of constant propellant components flow rate through engine and thrust irrespective of ratio of components passing through engine.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to diesel fuel containing additives which increase cetane number. The additive for increasing cetane number of diesel fuel consists of premixed cyclohexyl nitrate or 2-ethylhexyl nitrate and peroxides selected from: ditertbutyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide, cumyl hydroperoxide, with said components in ratio from 3:1 to 1:3. The additive is added to the diesel fuel in amount of 0.1-0.5 wt %.

EFFECT: high cetane number of the diesel fuel and low content of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to diesel fuel containing additives which increase cetane number. The additive for increasing cetane number of diesel fuel consists of premixed cyclohexyl nitrate or 2-ethylhexyl nitrate and peroxides selected from: ditertbutyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide, cumyl hydroperoxide, with said components in ratio from 3:1 to 1:3. The additive is added to the diesel fuel in amount of 0.1-0.5 wt %.

EFFECT: high cetane number of the diesel fuel and low content of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to desulphuration of sulphur-containing fuel and can be used in heat power engineering to reduce content of organic sulphur in liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The method of preparing an additive for desulphuration of fuel involves successive mixing of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), CMC-Na and ground cryolite in water. Bischofite is then added to the obtained mixture in an amount necessary for reaction of 100 wt % NaOH with 10-90 wt % bischofite. Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and sodium chloride NaCl are then formed. The resulting suspension is dispersed. The composition of the obtained additive has the following ratio of components, wt %: bischofite - 4.8-43.2; magnesium hydroxide - 1.9-12.4; sodium chloride - 2.8-24.9; cryolite - 0.1-0.3; CMC-Na - 0.1-0.5; water being the balance.

EFFECT: reduced emission of toxic sulphur dioxide gas into the environment, reduced formation of hard-to-dissolve scale and coke deposits and reduced degree of sulphuric acid corrosion.

2 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to desulphuration of sulphur-containing fuel and can be used in heat power engineering to reduce content of organic sulphur in liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The method of preparing an additive for desulphuration of fuel involves successive mixing of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), CMC-Na and ground cryolite in water. Bischofite is then added to the obtained mixture in an amount necessary for reaction of 100 wt % NaOH with 10-90 wt % bischofite. Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and sodium chloride NaCl are then formed. The resulting suspension is dispersed. The composition of the obtained additive has the following ratio of components, wt %: bischofite - 4.8-43.2; magnesium hydroxide - 1.9-12.4; sodium chloride - 2.8-24.9; cryolite - 0.1-0.3; CMC-Na - 0.1-0.5; water being the balance.

EFFECT: reduced emission of toxic sulphur dioxide gas into the environment, reduced formation of hard-to-dissolve scale and coke deposits and reduced degree of sulphuric acid corrosion.

2 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ethanol based diesel fuel. The fuel contains 60-80% (vol/vol) absolute ethanol, 2.5-20% (vol/vol) linear dialkyl ether with chain length from 10 to 40, as well as mixtures thereof and 15-30% (vol/vol) combustion booster. The combustion booster is FAME according to DIN EN 14214 (2004) and is rapeseed oil methyl ether, soya oil methyl ether or palm oil methyl ether.

EFFECT: obtained fuel burns without aerosol emissions and is suitable for use in ordinary diesel engines.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing polyethylene succinimide involves a step for synthesis of alkenyl amber anhydride, a step for mixing the alkenyl amber anhydride with industrial oil, a step for mixing polyethylene polyamine with industrial oil and a step for synthesis of polyethylene succinimide. The novelty lies in that the step for synthesis of alkenyl amber anhydride, preliminary heating is carried out for 20-50 minutes, and holding at temperature 160-175°C is carried out for 50-60 minutes, the alkenyl amber anhydride is mixed with industrial oil in weight ratio 1:(0.70-0.79), polyethylene polyamine is mixed with industrial oil while heating to 100-106°C in weight ratio 1:(1.94-2.6), wherein preliminary mixing of the obtained solutions of alkenyl amber anhydride and polyethylene polyamine in industrial oil at the step for synthesis of polyethylene succinimide is carried out at temperature 90-110°C.

EFFECT: invention increases output of polyethylene succinimide and reduces power consumption of the process.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition for a hydrocarbon mixture having low sulphur content. Described is a lubricating, anticorrosion and antistatic composition for hydrocarbon fuel and/or lubricant, containing: a) at least one compound A of formula (I) where R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously denote hydrogen, R3 and R4 cannot simultaneously denote an OH group; b) at least one compound B corresponding to a fatty acid with 16-24 carbon atoms, which is saturated or unsaturated, optionally in a mixture with a carboxylic acid containing at least one aromatic and/or olefin ring or a polycyclic ring and/or derivatives thereof in form of esters, amides or a salt with the corresponding amine, used separately or in a mixture. Hydrocarbon fuel and lubricant are also described.

EFFECT: improving lubricant and antistatic and anticorrosion properties of hydrocarbon fuel, reduced corrosion action on metal parts and high electroconductivity.

28 cl, 8 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition for a hydrocarbon mixture having low sulphur content. Described is a lubricating, anticorrosion and antistatic composition for hydrocarbon fuel and/or lubricant, containing: a) at least one compound A of formula (I) where R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously denote hydrogen, R3 and R4 cannot simultaneously denote an OH group; b) at least one compound B corresponding to a fatty acid with 16-24 carbon atoms, which is saturated or unsaturated, optionally in a mixture with a carboxylic acid containing at least one aromatic and/or olefin ring or a polycyclic ring and/or derivatives thereof in form of esters, amides or a salt with the corresponding amine, used separately or in a mixture. Hydrocarbon fuel and lubricant are also described.

EFFECT: improving lubricant and antistatic and anticorrosion properties of hydrocarbon fuel, reduced corrosion action on metal parts and high electroconductivity.

28 cl, 8 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition for a hydrocarbon mixture having low sulphur content. Described is a lubricating, anticorrosion and antistatic composition for hydrocarbon fuel and/or lubricant, containing: a) at least one compound A of formula (I) where R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously denote hydrogen, R3 and R4 cannot simultaneously denote an OH group; b) at least one compound B corresponding to a fatty acid with 16-24 carbon atoms, which is saturated or unsaturated, optionally in a mixture with a carboxylic acid containing at least one aromatic and/or olefin ring or a polycyclic ring and/or derivatives thereof in form of esters, amides or a salt with the corresponding amine, used separately or in a mixture. Hydrocarbon fuel and lubricant are also described.

EFFECT: improving lubricant and antistatic and anticorrosion properties of hydrocarbon fuel, reduced corrosion action on metal parts and high electroconductivity.

28 cl, 8 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to motor gasoline containing an additive for reducing gasoline evaporation losses. The additive contains the following components in wt %: a base - fractionated 50% solution of benzyl dimethylammonium chloride (C12-C16) 9.0-11.0; polyether based on ethylene oxide and propylene Laprol 2501 19.0-21.0; polymethylsiloxane liquid PMS-1000 3.0-5.0; ethylene glycol 8.0-10.0 and butanol-1 - the rest.

EFFECT: wider range of additives which reduce the rate of evaporation of motor gasoline during storage in reservoirs on oil and fuel depots.

1 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: alternative fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-fuel emulsions useful in power engineering, petroleum processing, chemical, and other industries utilizing combustion of liquid fuel in various-structure and various-size furnaces and boilers. Process comprises dispersing liquid fuel with water in flow-type static disperser by forming a multitude of new interfaces between liquid fuel and water flows with their recombination in axial and radial directions with the aid of special dispersing elements, which are, in particular, perforated disk diaphragms secured on a rod at an angle 30о to each other, end surfaces and perforations in the disks being made with narrowing and dilating regions on the sides of inlet and outlet of liquid flows, whereas limiting insertions provided with two flow-twisting plates are mounted between diaphragms.

EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency due to improved structure of flow-type static disperser.

2 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

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