Obtaining computer-tomographic images

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer tomography. Device for collection of data of tomographic projections in multitude of angular positions relative to an object, located in the examination area, contains radiation source, detector, source and transversal centre of detector being transversally displaced relative to the centre of transversal field of view during collection of data of projections and direction of transversal displacement being tangential with respect to transversal field of view. Methods of computer tomography contains stages, at which first irradiation is emitted from position which is transversally displaced from the centre of transversal field of view, detector of irradiation is used for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections, stages of first irradiation emission and application of irradiation detector for collection of data of computer-tomographic projections are repeated and first set of CT data is reconstructed to form first three-dimensional data. Computer-tomographic device contains roentgen source transversally displaced from rotation axis, roentgen detector, also transversally displaced from rotation axis and rotating relative to rotation axis in state of constant mechanical connection with roentgen source. Roentgen source emits irradiation, characterised by transversal angle of fan beam, and complete taking of angular readings of transversal field of view requires collection of data of projections in larger angle range than 180 plus the angle of fan-beam. Device also contains unit of reconstruction of data of projections for formation of three-dimensional data, characterising transversal field of view.

EFFECT: increase of device efficiency.

39 cl, 9 dwg

 

The present invention relates to computed tomography (CT). The present invention finds application in particular in x-ray CT for medical purposes. The present invention finds application in the control of products and security, non-destructive testing, preclinical imaging and in other situations in which CT-data (computed tomography) can provide useful information about the structure or function of the object.

One of the areas in which the CT-system (CT system) imaging has been widely disseminated, is medicine, where CT scanners (CT scanners) are widely used by radiologists and other medical professionals in connection with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Multilayer systems adopted relatively recently, has further expanded the range of clinical application of CT systems.

The geometry of data collection conventional x-ray CT system of the third generation containing a flat detector, presented in figure 1A. Figure 1A shows the transaxial plane of the system, such as the Central plane of the system with a conical beam. The x-ray source 102 and the x-ray detector 104 are located on opposite sides of the field 106 research and radially located from the si 114 rotation. The patient or other object 108, subject to investigation, is based in the area of 106 studies on a suitable support 110. The source 102 emits radiation 112, which crosses the region 106 of the study and is registered by the detector 104 as the source 102 and detector 104 are rotated around the axis 114 of the rotation.

In the shown geometrical scheme with capture the entire beam Central beam or projection 116 of the x-ray beam 112 intersects the axis 114 of rotation and perpendicular to the detector in the transverse center 119. The transverse size of the detector 120 is such that the detector 104 registers the radiation 112, which crossed all transverse FOV (field of view) 118 under each projection angle. Thus, the complete capture of angular samples of the transverse FOV angle of about 180, plus lateral corner of the fan-shaped x-ray beam. Although the geometric pattern shown for flat detector, it should be understood that the geometric scheme to capture the entire beam is also applicable to systems in which the detector 104 has, in General, curved shape.

However, in General, it is desirable to reduce the physical size of the detector is required to achieve a given transverse FOV. For example, detectors relatively larger size are usually more difficult and expensive to manufacture. In addition, the size of the available detector arrays may be limiting what they factor in system design. The above considerations are particularly important in connection with the prevalence of multi-layered systems, and, in particular, when relatively large detectors for multi-layered imagery accounts for a large portion of the total cost of the system.

It was also suggested that the geometry of the capture half of the beam shown in figure 1B. See, for example, Gregor, et al., Cone beam X-ray Computed Tomography with an Offset Detector, IEEE 2003 (2003); Wang, et al., X-ray Micro-CT with a Displaced Detector Array, Med. Phys. 29 (7), July 2002; Lin, et al., Half Field of View Reduced-Size CT Detector, PCT publication WO 00/62647, October 26, 2000

Compared with the geometry of the capture of the whole beam, the detector 104 is shifted in the transverse direction at approximately half of its transverse size of 120. Beam or projection 122 which intersects the axis 114 of rotation perpendicular to the plane of the detector 104. At a given angle projection, the detector 104 registers the radiation that traverses approximately half of the transverse FOV 118 (it should be noted that the blend or transition region 124 collects data projections in the Central region of the transverse FOV 118). Although the geometric scheme with capture half of the beam provides a relatively larger cross-FOV compared to the geometric scheme to capture the entire beam (which is shown for comparison by the dashed lines in figure 1B), the complete capture of angular samples of the transverse FOV is a need for the t of the data collection in the angular range of about 360. In addition, the system requires that the plate or diaphragm anti-scattering grid continued in the transverse direction or in the application of special asymmetric anti-scattering grid.

Therefore, the possibility of improvements still remains. For example, it is advisable to additionally increase the utilization of the detector, while maintaining adequate image quality. It is also useful to simplify the design of the system.

Thus, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a small-size detector to achieve a given transverse field of view.

Aspects of the present invention relate to these and other tasks.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the device collects data from tomographic projections in multiple angular positions relative to the object located in the study area. The device includes a radiation source and a detector sensitive to radiation, which registers the source emits radiation, which crossed the area. Both the source and the transverse center of the detector transversely offset from the center of the transverse field of view during data acquisition projections.

In accordance with another aspect, a method of computer tomography contains the bookmark is different in that, that emit radiation from a position transversely offset from the center of the transverse field of view. Radiation crosses the transverse field of view. The method also includes a step consisting in the fact that they use a radiation detector to collect data computed tomographic projections characterizing the radiation. The detector transversely offset from the center of the transverse field of view. The method also includes the step of repeating the steps of emitting and use a radiation detector to collect data computed tomographic projections characterizing the radiation under each of the many corners of the projections for the collection of the set of CT-data, and the reconstruction stage set CT-data for forming the volume data.

In accordance with another aspect, a computer tomography device has an x-ray source, the x-ray detector and block reconstruction. The x-ray source transversely displaced and rotated relative to the axis of rotation. X-ray detector records the radiation emitted by the x-ray source, and transversely offset from the axis of rotation. X-ray detector is rotated about the rotation axis in a state of permanent mechanical connection with the x-ray source for data collection projections under a variety of corners of the projections. X-ist is CNIC emits radiation, characterized by transverse angle fan beam, the full capture of angular samples of the transverse field of view requires the collection of data projections in a larger angular range than 180 plus the fan angle of the beam. Block reconstruction reconstructs data projections for forming the volume data characterizing the transverse field of view.

Additional aspects of the present invention will become apparent to specialists with an average level of competence in the art after reading and studying the following detailed description.

The invention can be implemented in the form of various components and arrangement of components, and in various steps and arrangement of steps. The drawings are intended only to illustrate preferred embodiments and are not subject to interpretation in the sense of limiting the invention.

Figure 1A is a transaxial view of a known geometric schema collection CT-data to capture the entire beam.

Figure 1B is a transaxial view of a known geometric schema collection CT-data capture half of the beam.

Figure 2 is a transaxial view of a shifted geometric schema collection CT-data.

Figure 3 is a transaxial view of the geometrical scheme of the collection of CT-data with the image source and the detector offset from the visualization pane.

Figure 4 - t is asexually view of the geometrical scheme of the collection of CT-data with the image source and the detector, offset from the visualization pane.

Figure 5 is a transaxial view of the geometrical scheme of the collection of CT-data with the image source and the detector offset from the visualization pane.

Figure 6 is a transaxial view of the geometrical scheme of the collection of CT-data.

Figure 7 is a transaxial view of the geometrical scheme of the collection of CT-data.

Figure 8 - image visualization system.

Figure 9 - image visualization system.

Advanced geometrical layout of the collection of CT-data with double offset, in which both the source and the detector is offset from the isocenter imaging, shown in figure 2. As shown, a table or other suitable support 210 object supports the analyzed object 208 in the field 206 of the study. The x-ray source 202, for example, x-ray tube and x-ray detector 204, for example, a crystal lattice with a flat sensitive surface, continuing in the transverse and axial directions and rotated about the axis 214 of rotation, which also performs the function of the center of the transverse FOV 218. Central traveler beam or projection 216 x-ray beam 212 is perpendicular to the detector in the transverse center 219, but offset from the axis 214 of the rotation.

Anti-scattering grid 290 is located between the detector 204 and area 206 research solarline scattered radiation, taken by the detector 204. The grating 290 contains many plates, focused on the source 202, so that the lattice is symmetric in the transverse direction relative to the transverse center 219 detector. It should be understood that the above symmetry simplifies the system design. It is also possible to implement two-dimensional (2-d) anti-scattering grid, such as grid plates, continuing both in the transverse and longitudinal directions.

As shown, the minimum offset distance between the Central beam 216 and the isocenter 214 is equal to d. Lateral displacement detector 204 choose to minimize the maximum angle at which the detector 204 receives the radiation. When the detector 204 is a flat detector, the corners 240, 242 fall under which extreme rays 250, 252 x-ray beam 212 crossing detector 204 are equal. As shown, this circuit is also provided transition region 224.

Transverse FOV 218 more than in comparable geometric scheme with capture half of the beam, which is shown by the dashed line in figure 2 for explanations. Given transversal dimension 220 of the detector and the radial distance between the source 202 and the axis 214 of rotation, the size of the transverse FOV 218 can be changed by changing the distance d between the Central beam axis 216 and 214 of rotation. The case in which the Central beam 216 intersects the axis 214 of rotation (i.e. when d=0), corresponds to a geometrical diagram to capture the entire beam shown in figure 1A. In the configuration with the maximum FOV, to fully capture the corner of samples necessary rotate approximately 360, whereas in the geometric pattern to capture the entire beam rotate 180 plus the angle of the fan-shaped or conical beam provides full capture of angular samples. The necessary angular interval for the intermediate configurations changes from 180 plus the fan angle of the beam up to 360 and can be easily calculated.

Described geometric scheme of data collection can be easily implemented in various ways. As shown in figure 3, as the source 202 and detector 204 are shifted in the direction 244 parallel to the plane of the detector 204, while maintaining visualization center and axis 214 of rotation without changing relatively comparable geometric scheme of data collection to capture all or half of the beam. For simplicity of illustration, figure 3 is not shown investigated object 208, bearing 210 of the object and the protective grille 290 from scattering.

As shown, the direction of offset 244 is tangential relative to the transverse FOV. The figure 3 shows the source 202 and detector 204, shifted to approximate the first 302 and second 304 and 306 third position. The first position 302 corresponds to a geometric diagram to capture the entire beam shown in figure. This scheme provides a minimal transverse FOV 308, and a full set of data collected in the angular range of 180 plus the angle of the fan-shaped or conical beam. The third position 306 provides maximum transverse FOV 310; complete set of data is collected in the angular range of about 360. The second position 304 reflects an arbitrary intermediate position, which provides an intermediate transverse FOV 312; similarly, data is collected in an intermediate angular range. Although the source 202 and detector 204 is shown in several positions to explain the relative displacement of the source 202 and detector, it should be understood that the source 202 and detector 204 is preferably held in a predetermined position during the taking of samples in the required angular range.

Another method of providing a geometric scheme of data collection bias is shown in figure 4. As shown, as the source 202 and detector 204 are shifted in the direction 402, for which the minimum distance D between the detector 204 and the edge of the transverse FOV remains constant. And again, the source 202 and detector 204 is shown in the first 402 and second 404, and third positions 406, which provide successively increased transverse FOV. It should also be noted, as it is shown that the radial displacement R of the source 202 from the axis 214 of rotation is relatively greater when edenia, shown in figure 2. This arrangement increases the transverse FOV.

Another method of providing the shifted geometric scheme of data collection are shown in figure 5. As shown, the source 202 and detector 204 to move in the tangential direction 550 relative to the transverse FOV, while the visualization center shift in the direction of the 552, which is perpendicular to the transverse FOV of the main plane of the detector 204. And again, the source 202 and detector 204 is shown in the first 502 and second 504 506 and third positions. Also shown is the corresponding first 2141second 2142and third 2143the axis of rotation. It should be understood that the illustrated arrangement provides a geometric scheme of data collection, identical geometric diagram in figure 4.

Another method of providing the shifted geometric scheme of data collection is shown in figure 6. As shown, the detector 204 is rotated about the axis 602 of the rotation angle 604, so that the beam 214 x-ray beam 212, which intersects the transverse center 219 detector 204 perpendicular to the plane of the detector 204. The size of the transverse FOV can be adjusted by changing the angle 604, if desired. The case in which the angle 604 is equal to zero (0)corresponds to the geometric scheme with capture half of the beam shown in figure 1B, which is shown by the dashed line in figure 6 for whom Sania.

Although the above description relates to planar detectors, application of curved detectors. The geometric scheme of data collection for the system containing the detector 704, which is based on the plot of the circular arc, located on the center relative to the transverse position of the x-ray source 202, shown in figure 7. The Central beam or projection 216 x-ray beam 212 passes perpendicular to the tangent to the arc detector 704 in the center of the detector 719, but offset relative to the axis 206 of rotation at a distance d. As shown, the transition region 224 is also provided. As should be obvious to experts in the art, the above description with reference to figures 2-6 applicable to the detector arcuate configuration.

The figure 8 shows the system 802 rendering, suitable for use with geometric scheme of data collection with a double shift. The system 802 includes a system 804 data collection, block 806 reconstruction processor 808 images, the user interface controller 810 and 812.

System 804 data collection system contains 814 collection CT-data, in which the source 202 and detector 204 is installed on the rotatable gantry 816 to rotate around the study area. Through, for example, the longitudinal displacement of the support 210 of the object in concert with the rotation of the rotary gene is ri 816 can be implemented axial, spiral, circular and linear, saddle-shaped, or other desired trajectory scanning in a circular, 360 or other angle range of the taking of samples.

In one implementation, the source 202 and detector 206 fixed relative to the rotatable gantry 816, and therefore the geometrical scheme of data collection is fixed. In another implementation, the source 202 and detector mounted for movement on a rotatable gantry 816, and therefore the geometrical scheme of data collection is controlled, for example, with possibility of relative movement, shown above in figures 3-7. In such an implementation, at least one actuator 818 may provide the necessary driving force.

Alternatively, the source 202 and detector 204 can be moved manually by the user. In each case, the source 202 and detector 204 is preferably mounted on a common frame or in such other way that the physical relationship between the source 202 and detector 204 does not change when moving from one configuration FOV to another, because such a design reduces the need for a separate blank or calibration scans.

Block 806 reconstruction reconstructs the data generated by the system 804 data collection, using well-known methods of reconstruction for forming the volume Yes the data characterizing the investigated object. Suitable methods of reconstruction include analytical methods, for example, the restoration by the method of filtered back projection and iterative methods. One method that is well suited for reconstructing the data with a conical beam, is a well-known algorithm Feldkamp. When the geometric scheme of data collection provides the transition zone 224, to mitigate the effects of redundancy data in the transition zone m you can apply a smoothing function.

The processor 808 image processing volumetric data, as required, for example, to display a desired image on the user interface 810, which may contain at least one output device, for example, a monitor and a printer, and at least one input device, such as a keyboard and mouse.

The user interface 810, which is preferably implemented using software commands universal or other computer, for providing a graphical user interface (GUI)allows the user to control or otherwise interact with the system 802 visualization, for example, by selecting a desired configuration or size of the FOV, start and/or end of the scan, select the desired scan Protocol or reconstruction,manipulation of volumetric data, etc. In one implementation, the configuration of the FOV and the reconstruction Protocol, or both are set automatically by the system 802 based visualization of scan Protocol selected by the user. In another example, the user interface 810 may offer, or otherwise to allow the user to enter the required transverse radius, diameter or other size of the FOV. In such an implementation, the information from the user is used to automatically calculate the desired(s) position(s) source 102 and/or the detector 104.

The controller 812, functionally connected with the user interface 810, controls the operation of the system 704 data collection, for example, to perform the desired scanning Protocol, to operate the actuator(s) 818 for positioning of the source 102 and/or detector 104 and, thereby, to provide the desired FOV, etc.

Below is a description of the system operation 802 visualization with reference to figure 9. In the case of system 802 data collection, which provides custom configuration of the FOV, the position of the source 202 and detector 204 is configured to receive a desired configuration FOV at step 902. In one example, the geometric configuration of the circuit to ensure maximum transverse FOV may be necessary to scan the large chest of the patient, whereas the geometric configuration of the schemes is to configurations capture the entire beam may be sufficient to perform a brain scan.

The scan data is collected at step 904 to collect data projections in each of the multiple angular positions relative to the region 206 of the study. The required angular range of the taking of samples of the transverse FOV 206 also depends on the configuration selected FOV. It should be noted that the position of the source 202 and detector may remain unchanged while taking the necessary angular samples.

Scanned data is reconstructed at step 906 and display it in the required format at step 908.

At step 910, the process can be repeated on demand, for example, for subsequent scanning of patients. It should be noted that before the reconstruction and/or display of data collected during a given scan, you can get additional(s) scan(I).

Although the above description relates to x-ray CT system in which the source 202 is focus x-ray tube and, therefore, essentially a point source, it is assumed the possibility of alternatives. For example, the source 202 can be implemented as a line source. It is also possible geometries with wedge and other beams. Possible sources of gamma and other radiation. Instead of rotating the source 202 and detector 204 around the area 206 of the study, the source 202 and detector 204 can remain who I am in a constant position angle, then the object 208 is moved and/or rotated to provide the necessary taking of angular samples. It is also possible to provide multiple sources 202 and detector 204, and the corresponding sets of sources and detectors can be shifted by angle and/or longitudinally one relative to another. It should be noted that in systems containing multiple offset corner of the sources and detectors, the rotation necessary to ensure the full range of the taking of angular samples, usually reduced as compared to systems containing a single pair of source/detector, and accordingly, it is possible to configure the path.

The invention is described with reference to preferred options for implementation. After reading and studying the above detailed description of the other experts can be created modifications and changes. It is assumed that the invention should be interpreted as covering all such modifications and changes in the extent to which they do not extend beyond the scope of the claims appended claims or equivalent.

1. Device for collecting data of tomographic projections in multiple angular positions relative to the object (208)located in the area (206) studies, where the device includes:
source (202) radiation;
detector (204, 70), sensitive to radiation, which registers emitted by the radiation source (212) after radiation crossed the area of research;
at the same time as the source and the transverse center (219, 719) detector transversely offset from the center (214) transverse field (218) survey during the data collection projections, and the direction of transverse displacement is tangential relative to the transverse field of view.

2. The device according to claim 1 containing block (806) reconstruction, which reconstructs the data projections for forming the volume data characterizing the object.

3. The device according to claim 1, in which the source and detector rotate around the axis of rotation and the axis of rotation is the center of the transverse field of view.

4. The device according to claim 1, in which the data projections data are x-ray computed tomography.

5. The device according to claim 1, in which the source emits a beam (212) radiation has, in General, fan-shaped cross-section, this cross section contains the beam (216), which is perpendicular to the detector, and the beam is transversely offset from the center of the transverse field of view.

6. The device according to claim 5, in which the detector has a transverse center (219, 719) and the ray intersects the transverse center.

7. The device according to claim 5, in which the beam is the Central ray of the radiation beam.

8. The device p is to claim 5, in which the detector is a flat detector.

9. The device according to claim 1, in which the source emits a beam (212) radiation has, in General, fan-shaped cross-section, this cross section contains the first (250) and second (252) extreme rays and extreme rays intersect the detector at equal angles (240, 242) drop.

10. The device according to claim 1, in which the detector contains the transition zone (224), in which the detectors form a redundant data projections.

11. The device according to claim 1, containing a means for changing the position of the source and detector relative to the center of the transverse field of view to provide a geometric diagram to capture the entire beam.

12. The device according to claim 1, containing means to move the source and detector in the transverse direction (244), which is parallel to the main plane of the detector.

13. The device according to item 12, containing the means for shifting the axis of rotation in the direction (552), which is perpendicular to the transverse field of view.

14. The device according to claim 1, containing means to move the source and detector in the transverse direction (402), for which the minimum distance between the detector and the edge of the transverse field of view remains constant.

15. The device according to claim 1, containing a means for rotating the source and detector around the axis of rotation so as to change the size of the transverse field on the ora.

16. The device according to claim 1, which contains the user interface (810), which accepts user input indicating the desired size of the transverse field of view, and where the device uses the desired size to determine the desired position of the detector.

17. The device according to claim 1, where the device collects data from tomographic projections on a spiral trajectory scanning.

18. The device according to claim 1, in which the device collects data from tomographic projections by approximately 360 axial scans.

19. The method of computer tomography, comprising stages, which are:
emit first radiation (212) from a position transversely offset from the center (214) transverse field (218) review, with the first radiation crosses the transverse field of view;
use the detector (204, 704) radiation to collect data computed tomographic projections characterizing the first radiation, the detector transversely offset from the center of the transverse field of view, and the direction of transverse displacement is tangential relative to the transverse field of view;
repeating the steps of emitting the first radiation and the use of the radiation detector to collect data computed tomographic projections characterizing the first radiation, under each of the many corners of the projections for the ora of the first set of CT data;
reconstruct the first set of CT data for forming the first three-dimensional data.

20. The method according to claim 19, further comprising stages, which are:
after the stage of use of the radiation detector to collect data computed tomographic projections characterizing the first radiation, the change in lateral offset and lateral displacement of the detector to change the size of the transverse field of view;
emit second radiation, the second radiation traverses at least the area of the transverse field of view;
use a radiation detector to collect data computed tomographic projections characterizing the second radiation;
repeat the stages of emission of the second radiation and the use of the radiation detector to collect data computed tomographic projections characterizing the second radiation, under each of the many corners of the projections for collecting a second set of CT data;
reconstruct the second data set of projections for forming the second volumetric data.

21. The method according to claim 20, in which the second data projections across all of the transverse field of view.

22. The method according to claim 20, in which the phase variation of transverse displacement includes a step consisting in that move the source and detector in the transverse direction (550), which is tangential otnositelbnogo field of view.

23. The method according to item 22, in which the phase variation of transverse displacement includes a step consisting in the fact that shift the axis of rotation in the direction (552), which is perpendicular to the transverse field of view.

24. The method according to claim 20, in which the phase variation of transverse displacement includes a step consisting in the fact that shift the source and the detector in the direction (402), for which the minimum distance between the detector and the edge of the transverse field of view remains constant.

25. The method according to claim 19, comprising stages, which are:
receive user input that specifies the desired size of the transverse field of view;
use the correct size for determining the desired position of the detector.

26. The method according to claim 19, in which the radiation detector is a flat detector, the step of emitting the first radiation includes a step consisting in the fact that emit a beam (212) radiation has, in General, fan-shaped cross-section, this cross section contains the first (250) and second (252) extreme rays and extreme rays intersect the detector at equal angles (240, 242) drop.

27. The method according to claim 19 in which the step of emitting the first radiation includes a step consisting in the fact that emit a radiation beam having, in General, fan-shaped cross-section, this cross section has a Central beam (216), PR is what the Central beam is transversely offset from the center of the transverse field of view and the Central ray intersects the detector at an angle that is perpendicular to the detector.

28. The method according to item 27, in which the Central ray intersects the transverse center of the detector.

29. The method according to claim 19, containing phase, which consists in the fact that the turn position and the radiation detector around the axis of rotation, with the axis of rotation is the center of the transverse field of view.

30. The method according to claim 19, containing phase, which consists in the fact that they use two-dimensional anti-scattering bars to attenuate scattered radiation received by the detector.

31. The method according to claim 19, containing the stage, namely, that collect data of tomographic projections in a spiral or axial scan trajectories.

32. Computed tomography (CT) device, comprising:
the x-ray source (202), while the x-ray source is transversely offset from the axis (214) rotation and rotated relative;
x-ray detector (204, 704), with the x-ray detector registers the radiation emitted by the x-ray source and x-ray detector transversely offset from the axis of rotation and rotates about the rotation axis in a state of permanent mechanical connection with the x-ray source for data collection projections under a variety of coal is in the projections, moreover, the x-ray source emits radiation (212), characterized by a transverse angle fan beam, and with the complete capture of angular samples of the lateral field (218) review requires the collection of data projections in a larger angular range than 180 plus the fan angle of the beam, the direction of transverse displacement is tangential relative to the transverse field of view;
block (806) reconstruction, which reconstructs the data projections for forming the volume data characterizing the transverse field of view.

33. The device according to p, in which the device comprises a rotatable gantry (816) and the x-ray source and x-ray detector mounted for movement relative to the rotatable gantry.

34. The device according to p, where the full capture of angular samples of the transverse field of view requires the collection of data projections in the angular range of about 360.

35. The device according to p, in which the Central beam (216) radiation emitted by the x-ray source that is offset from the axis of rotation and intersects the transverse center (219, 719) x-ray detector.

36. The device according to p, in which the radiation detector is flat and the Central beam is perpendicular to the plane of the radiation detector.

37. The device according to p containing anti-scattering bars (290), located between children who ktoroy and area studies, and the anti-scattering bars symmetrical about the transverse center of the detector.

38. The device according to p containing means for changing the transverse displacement of the x-ray detector to change the size of the transverse field of view.

39. The device according to p containing means for collecting one of an annular, circular and linear, spiral or saddle-shaped trajectory.



 

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3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device for rotating beam of high-energy heavy ions has a cylindrical resonator cover, end flanges with beam input and output openings, several pairs of deflecting plates mounted on supports, a high-frequency power supply and a focusing system. Each deflection plate has correcting projections lying on the edges parallel to the longitudinal axis. The total volume of the resonator is formed by structurally independent sections which are fastened together, with a pair of deflection plates at the centre of each of the sections. Distance between centres of the plates along the axis of the resonator is equal to D=V/2f, where V is the velocity of deflected ions and f is the working frequency of the resonator. Along the outer edge of each deflecting plates away from the axis there is a projection which shortens the distance between the plates on the periphery of the deflection gap; a deflector may have a different number of sections.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain resultant ion deviation which is proportional to the total number of cells passed, which can reach any necessary value when the sufficient length of the deflecting resonator is chosen.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: anti-scatter device for suppressing scattered radiation comprises a plurality of x-ray absorbing layers and a plurality of spacer layers, such that each spacer layer lies between any two of the plurality of x-ray absorbing layers in order to hold each of the plurality of x-ray absorbing layers in a pre-defined orientation. Furthermore, the spacer layer comprises a plurality of open voids to reduce absorption of x-rays incident on at least part of each spacer layer.

EFFECT: higher image resolution.

9 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of controlling a beam of charged particles in a cyclotron involves focusing the beam in an axial injection system and turning the beam using the electric field of a spiral inflector from the axial direction in the axial injection system to the median plane of the cyclotron. The beam is further focused by the force of the electric field of the spiral inflector, which acts on particles diverging from the central trajectory in the direction across the direction of motion of the central particle on the central trajectory and across the direction of the turning force of the electric field, acting on the central particle moving on the central trajectory. Equipotential lines of the electric field in the inflector in the direction across the beam are concentric arc shaped.

EFFECT: significant reduction of axial dimensions and beam divergence at the output of the inflector, reduced longitudinal dimensions of the beam, best transmission coefficient of the beam in the cyclotron.

2 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.

EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.

28 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to visualisation systems in computed tomography. System includes X-ray source which rotates around examined area and moves along longitudinal axis. X-ray source remains in the first position on longitudinal axis during rotation around examined area, accelerates to the rate of scanning and performs through scanning of the area of interest, in which, at least one hundred and eighty degrees plus angle of fan-beam of data is are achieved. In the second version of system implementation X-ray source simultaneously rotates around examined area and moves along longitudinal axis, when irradiation is emitted during scanning. Motion of X-ray source and emission of X-rays by it are coordinated and controlled by means of character of movement of human body, located within examined area. In the third version of system implementation through scanning is controlled by periodic movement of scanned organ. Method of computed tomography lies in supporting X-ray source in static longitudinal position on z-axis with its rotation around examined area, movement of X-ray source in direction along z-axis with desired character of movement of human body, located within examined area and activation of X-ray source for irradiation.

EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to perform through scanning controlled by periodic movement of scanned organ.

34 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical systems of image formation. System of computed tomography contains first and second roentgen tubes, located in different places on z axis with approximately the same angular position around examined area, which during first axial scanning alternately emit irradiation beams. In realisation of the method the first and second roentgen tubes emit the first and second irradiation beams, whose external projections cross the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis, and determine the width of reconstruction volume. The second external projection of the first beam and the second external projection of the second beam cross the ways, crossing in the centre of the perimetre of the volume of reconstruction on the side of the examined area proximal to roentgen tubes. Common detector detects irradiation and forms data, representing it for device of volume reconstruction. In the second version of system implementation there are at least two detectors, one of the detectors detecting irradiation from the first source, the other detector, detecting irradiation from the second source of irradiation. In the system of stereo-tube computed tomography there are two sources, located in different places on z axis with approximately the same angular position around the examined area. Sources of the first external projection follow the contour of the irradiated object. Method of stereo-tube computed tomography contains stages, at which the first external projection of the first beam of the first roentgen tube is configured, the first external projection of the second beam of the second roentgen tube is configured, the second external projection of the first beam and the second external projection of the second beam cross the ways, crossing approximately in the cetre of the perimetre of the volume on the side of the examined area, proximal to roentgen tubes, and angle of beams are configured with possibility to locate beams in such a way as irradiate length of the area on z axis during axial scanning.

EFFECT: application of the invention makes it possible to improve application of irradiation dose.

23 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to radiodiagnostics and otolaryngology, and can be used for diagnostics of adhesive otitis media. Performed is multi-spiral computed tomography with three-dimensional dynamic scanning with section thickness 0.5 mm and interval 0.25 mm in axial projection. Simultaneously performed is impact with probing audio signal, exceeding perception threshold by 15-20 dB, and with test frequency 1000 Hz on middle ear structures with 1 second interval for 4-5 seconds. Multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions are built. If it is determined that volume of movements of auditory ossicles and ligament apparatus of tympanic cavity is reduced in comparison with norm, adhesive otitis media is diagnosed.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase accuracy of diagnostics of adhesive otitis media.

2 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: X-ray apparatus has an X-ray emitter, a high-voltage power supply, a unit for generating a pyramidal-shaped X-ray beam, an X-ray detector and electronic control unit. The electronic control unit has software maintenance which enables, depending on the set task, to adjust duration of high and low voltage across the X-ray emitter and batch retrieval of information from the detector with given coordinate-time interval. The invention is presented in two versions which differ from each other by the version of assembly and method of moving the X-ray detector.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the device, high quality of X-ray images, reduced radiation dose obtained by a patient during scanning, simple design.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to field of medicine. Method is realised by system of computer tomography. System contains anode, surrounding examined area, source of electronic ray (cathode), detector matrix for detection of X-rays, adder for combining signals corresponding to X-rays, and reconstruction device for formation of three-dimensional image data. Method consists in rotation of electronic ray on anode during multitude of selection intervals. During each selection interval electronic ray is modulated for formation of multiple successive focus spots. Focus spots in specified selection interval include subset of focus spots from previous selection interval. Detector matrix performs selection of X-ray projections, irradiated by each of multiple focus spots, for each selection interval. Reconstruction device reconstructs X-ray projections for creation of three-dimensional image data.

EFFECT: application of claimed group of inventions will make it possible to increase resolution and improve image quality.

32 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely neurology, neurosurgery and X-ray diagnostics, and may be used for the purpose of choosing a therapeutic approach to lumbar spondylarthrosis. It involves X-ray neuroimaging diagnosis by means of helical computed tomography and/or magnetic resonant tomography. Zygapophysial joints (ZJ) are examined in an axial projection on both sides. Plane angles of the ZJ and a long axis of the body and a width of a joint space (W) on affected and intact sides are determined horizontally. In a sagittal projection, intervertebral foramens are examined on both sides, and also their area is measured on affected and intact sides. The angles of the ZJ and a long axis of the body at the level of degenerative-dystrophic affection (Ran) are related by formula: Ran=Ani:Ana, wherein Ani is the angle of the ZJ and a long axis of the body on intact side, Ana is the angle of the ZJ and a long axis of the body on side of degenerative-dystrophic affection. The normal value is Ran=0.9, the Ran value decreasing by every 0.1 is estimated as 1 point. It is followed by calculating a relation of the areas of the intervertebral foramens at the level of degenerative-dystrophic affection (Rar) by formula: Rar=Ara:Arh wherein Ara is the area of the intervertebral foramen on side of degenerative-dystrophic affection, Arh is the area of the intervertebral foramen on intact side. The normal value is Rar=1.0, the Rar value decreasing by every 0.1 is estimated as 1 point. The normal value W=4 mm, the W value on affected side decreasing by every 0.5 mm is estimated as 1 point. Total score is derived. Total score less than 4 requires conventional therapy, the value within 5 to 14 shows puncture treatment option, and if the value 15 and more, a surgical intervention is performed.

EFFECT: method provides higher clinical effectiveness ensured by optimised choice of the therapeutic approach.

3 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to visualization systems, used in surgery. Intervention system, which uses medical data of image as a guide for movement of intervention device in one of the versions contains component of superposition, which renews superposition between system of coordinates of image space and system of coordinates of operation space on the basis of information about position of intervention device inside patient, obtained from the data of intermediate image, pointing to the location of intervention device, and position sensor, which is located on intervention device inside patient. In the second version of system implementation there is first component which superposes system of coordinates of image space and system of coordinates of operation space on the basis of space location of at least three standard marks, identified within image data, and space coordinates of at least three standard marks, spatially identified on patient by means of device of location determination, and second component, which uses information about operation device, obtained from intermediate image, formed from image data, obtained after movement of intervention device into patient, for renewal of location measurement, made by device of location determination. Method of superposition between systems of coordinates in intervention system in accordance with the second version is realised during system operation. The third version of system contains means for superposition of coordinate system of image space with coordinate system of operation system on the basis of information about location of standard marks for multitude of standard marks, and means for renewal of superposition on the basis of information about location of intervention device, obtained from intermediate image, information about position of intervention device, obtained from electromagnetic sensor on intervention device, and spatial location of at least three standard marks.

EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to increase accuracy of superposition between coordinate system of image space and coordinate system of operation space by compensation of inaccuracy resulting from non-stationarity of special interconnection between said coordinate systems.

27 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to systems and methods of correcting dispersion in formation of image with multitude of X-ray tubes. Method lies in the following: radiation is emitted in a parallel manner from, at least, two X-ray sources, rotating around image formation field and by means of detector sets detected are projection data, which include primary radiation and radiation of cross-dispersion, state of input of each of the two X-ray sources is switched within the multitude of corresponding intervals of cross-dispersion discretisation and by means of one of sets of detectors detected is radiation of cross-dispersion emitted by means of another of, at least, two X-ray sources. Intervals of cross-dispersion discretisation are scattered at angle for many frames. Data of dispersion correction for each set of detectors are taken from corresponding selections of cross-dispersion, data of projection are corrected by dispersion and data of projection are reconstructed in order to form, at least, one image. Computer tomographic system contains at least two X-ray sources, each of which is deactivated within corresponding intervals of cross-dispersion, at least, one detector for each of two X-ray sources is interpolator, which creates selections of dispersion correction from detected selections of cross-dispersion, component of correction and system of reconstruction. In the second version of implementation system contains means of selective switching off of each of, at least, two X-ray sources within corresponding intervals of cross-dispersion discretisation in order to provide possibility for, at least, two X-ray sources to emit radiation in a parallel way during, at least, one frame of data collection, means of radiation detection, means of creating signals of dispersion correction, means of correction by dispersion of projection data by means of dispersion correction data and means of reconstruction.

EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of tomographic system due to cross-dispersion correction.

28 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, orthopedics, radiodiagnostics. In patients with defect-pseudoarthroses of diaphysis of long bones at stages of treatment performed are sessions of computer tomography simultaneously of paired segments of patient's extremities at the level of pathologic nidus, storing images in IBM-compatible format. Single-level scans, transferred into gray palette are analysed, calibrated by standard segment and in the image of healthy segment range and maximal value of intensity of soft tissues (Imax) are determined. From all selected for analysis images, pixels with intensity lower than Imax+1 are deleted, replacing them with black. By flooding with red colour image of soft tissue area, non-closed spaces in area of shadows of bone structures are visualised, leaving black bounded by bone walls shadows of bone-marrow cavities, black colour is replaced by blue. Processed images arew segmented, separating all gray pixels - shadows of bone structures into one file, blue shadows of bone-marrow cavities - in another, storing them pixel by pixel in form of tables. Areas of shadows of bone structures (Ab), bone-marrow cavities (Am) and index of organotypicaslness by their ratio -Ab/Am are calculated.

EFFECT: method ensures quantitative estimation of dynamics of changes of bone-marrow cavities and their bone walls ratio in zone of pathologic nidus as index of organotypical change in process of treatment of patients with defect-pseiudoarthroses of diaphysis of long bones.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the field of medicine and can be used for diagnostics of obturative calculous cholecystitis. The patient has the magnetic resonance imaging of bile ducts performed and then the criteria of persistent gall bladder obturation are estimated: increased gall bladder size - 10.0 cm and more in length and/or 4.0 cm and more in width; thickening of gall bladder walls - 4.0 mm and more; presence of concretion in the area of cervical ductal segment; decreased intensity of signal from liquid content of gall bladder compared to the signal from bile in ducts. If two or more criteria are present, the obturative calculous cholecystitis is diagnosed.

EFFECT: method allows precise diagnostics of persisted gall bladder obturation at acute and chronic calculous cholecystitis for timely decision on indications for surgical intervention.

1 dwg, 2 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to visualisation systems in computed tomography. System includes X-ray source which rotates around examined area and moves along longitudinal axis. X-ray source remains in the first position on longitudinal axis during rotation around examined area, accelerates to the rate of scanning and performs through scanning of the area of interest, in which, at least one hundred and eighty degrees plus angle of fan-beam of data is are achieved. In the second version of system implementation X-ray source simultaneously rotates around examined area and moves along longitudinal axis, when irradiation is emitted during scanning. Motion of X-ray source and emission of X-rays by it are coordinated and controlled by means of character of movement of human body, located within examined area. In the third version of system implementation through scanning is controlled by periodic movement of scanned organ. Method of computed tomography lies in supporting X-ray source in static longitudinal position on z-axis with its rotation around examined area, movement of X-ray source in direction along z-axis with desired character of movement of human body, located within examined area and activation of X-ray source for irradiation.

EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to perform through scanning controlled by periodic movement of scanned organ.

34 cl, 7 dwg

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