Biologically active food additive production method
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of a biologically active food additive and may be used for preventive alimentation. Milled horseradish root is infused in water during no less than 24 hours at a ratio of S: L = 1: (4.5 -5.0). The water extract is subjected to vacuum sublimation dehydration. Produced sublimated horseradish root powder in an amount of 25-35 g is mixed with 900-1100 g of natural floral honey. One introduces (while thoroughly stirring) magnolia vine oil into the mixture in an amount of 35-45 drops per 1000 g of the mixture.
EFFECT: simple mixing of the initial components, in a strictly specified ratio without modification of their chemical composition allows to enhance efficiency of the biologically active food additive impact on the immune system and to strengthen antiviral activity.
The invention relates to the production of products of high biological activity, used in preventive nutrition, and can be used to obtain funds, contributing to the restoration and stimulation of the immune system, increase the body's resistance to the action of various damaging factors, including the effect of different viruses.
Know the use of drugs (extract) horseradish as a source of peroxidase for the introduction of food and drink for animals with the aim of improving resistance to stress and immunity (U.S. Pat. WO No. 9615682, publ. 1996.05.15, patat No. 400792, publ. 1996.03.25). Known drugs intended for animal use and may not, without additional research and testing to be used for the prevention and improvement of human health.
Known drug to strengthen the human immune system (U.S. Pat. China No. 1593578, publ. 2005.03.16)containing the extract of horseradish in the composition of the oil mixture pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. A disadvantage of the known means are not effective effect on the immune system and enough high antiviral activity.
The known method (U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2085199, publ. 1997.07.27) obtaining funds to restore and stimulate the immune system, improve blood system is ri the treatment of cancer patients, improve sexual activity, increase the body's resistance to various damaging factors, including mechanical mixing honey and other bee products and medicinal plants, mixing the resulting mass, feeding it to the bees in the absence of a bribe and the use of evacuated honey in the form of finished products. The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of its implementation, and the lack of predictable feedback received from its use of the final product due to its complex, reproducible and highly varying chemical composition.
Closest to the claimed is described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2197868, publ. 2003.02.10, the method of obtaining biologically active food supplements to boost immune resistance to adverse environmental factors, useful for lesson, hard physical labor, and active sports when the psycho-emotional overload; at the General breakdown, etc. containing honey flower, bee Royal jelly, drug schisandra chinensis in the form of a 25%tincture or powder, ginseng, pollen (pollen), walnut kernels, 20%tincture of Rhodiola rosea, a 20%tincture of Rhaponticum carthamoides, 10%tincture of Eleutherococcus senticosus. The method receiving the Oia known additive is in the mechanical grinding of the initial components, followed by stirring for 2 hours and is packaged in containers made of dark food glass.
The disadvantage of this method is its complexity due to the complexity and multiplicity of the composition obtained with its use of biologically active food additives, requiring in each case, careful selection and dosages of its ingredients, as well as the lack of effectiveness of the admixture on the immune system and its lack of antiviral activity.
The objective of the invention is to provide a simple method of obtaining biologically active food additives that contribute to the effective strengthening and restoration of the immune system, which has strong antiviral effect.
The technical result of the invention is to simplify the method while increasing the effectiveness of impact it allows for a biologically active food supplements on the immune system and strengthening its antiviral activity.
This technical result is achieved by the method for production of biologically active food additives, including mixing honey flower and Chinese Magnolia vine, which unlike known in the mixture is further added lyophilized powder horseradish root, obtained by freeze-vacuum-dehydration of aqueous extract prepared nastaveni the m in water chopped horseradish root for at least 24 h at a ratio of T:W=1:(4.5 to 5.0), while Chinese Schizandra is injected in the form of oil of lemongrass is based 35-45 drops to 1000 g of a mixture consisting of grams:
|the lyophilized powder horseradish root||25-35|
The method is as follows.
Peeled and washed horseradish root mechanically ground using known means to the size of particles passing through a sieve with the hole diameter 2 mm, Crushed root fill with distilled water at a ratio of T:W=1:(4.5 to 5.0) and incubated at room temperature for at least a day, which ensures the completeness of extraction of useful substances. The resulting aqueous extract is subjected to freeze-dehydration in vacuum (freeze-drying) for at least 48 hours. The resulting white powder is mixed in the claimed correlation with natural flower honey. Then in the mixture with thorough stirring, gradually add oil of lemongrass is based 35-45 drops to 1000 g of the mixture.
The finished product is Packed in dark glass bottles with ground or screw-caps.
The proposed method involves simple mixing of the starting components is strictly a relationship without changing their chemical composition, allowing for the optimal content and the ratio of biologically active substances in the final product, the expected synergistic effect on the body.
Used in the proposed method, freeze drying is based on the ability of ice under certain conditions to evaporate, bypassing the liquid phase. During freeze drying, the product is placed in a vacuum transfer unit, where it passes the freezing process and then removing moisture vapor. Freeze drying retains up to 95% of the vitamins, enzymes and other biologically active substances contained in the raw material.
Freeze drying of aqueous extract of horseradish root not only allows you to save the maximum contained in the feedstock of biologically active substances, it also allows you to remove restrictions in the use of horseradish with gastritis, peptic ulcer, colitis, liver and kidney associated with irritating contained in essential oils.
The claimed ratio of natural flower honey and lyophilized powder horseradish root provides a full binding of free water contained in honey (15-17%), and long shelf-derived biologically active food supplements without oxidation and loss of its beneficial properties.
Despite what the rhizome and roots of horseradish in Russia are not official raw materials, its medicinal properties have long been used in folk medicine and are widely used in herbal medicine.
The root and preparations of horseradish have anti-inflammatory, diuretic, irritants, vitamins, otharkivajushchimi, sokogonnym, phytoncide, antiscorbutic, analgesic, antimicrobial and antifungal properties. There is also evidence of antitumor action of these drugs.
Horseradish contain glycoside sinigrin (C10H16CNS2O9), which under the action of the enzyme complex of Misurina splits into allyl mustard oil, glucose and sulfuric acid-potassium salt; and protein antibiotic substance lysozyme, carbohydrates (glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, sucrose, pentosans, galacturonic acid, polysaccharides), nitrogen and ash substances; fats; saponins; flavonoids. A peculiar taste and smell of horseradish due to the presence of essential oils, which include allegorico oil.
Contained in the horseradish lysozyme, an enzyme of the class of hydrolases, destroys the bacterial cell wall, resulting in their dissolution. Lysozyme inhibits the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, anti-inflammatory and stimulates the nonspecific resistance of the organism.
Other vaginas the m components of horseradish enzyme is peroxidase, belonging to the class of oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as an acceptor of hydrogen into the water during this chemical reaction. Peroxidase acting on the shell is available in the body cells of the virus, destroy it, which leads to the death of these cells. The result is an effective increase nonspecific resistance. The currently cultivated in Russia varieties of horseradish contain up to 15 grams of peroxidase per 1000 kg of initial raw material, which ensures high efficiency with the preparation of biologically active food additives.
Berries of schisandra chinensis contain large amounts of malic, citric, tartaric acids, tonic substances - schizandrin, schizandrol and sugar, tanney, essential oil, vitamin C. found In the seeds fatty oil (33.8 per cent), volatile oil, resin. Therapeutic effect is caused by a complex of these compounds, of which the leading position of schisandrin.
Schisandra chinensis is one of the most effective natural adaptogens. He has a stimulating effect on the Central nervous system, enhances the positive conditioned reflexes, stimulates the reflex excitability increases the light sensitivity of the eyes, tones with techno-vascular system, if hypotension increases blood pressure, stimulates respiration, promotes more rapid recovery for mental and physical fatigue and longer preservation of health.
Natural flower honey is a product of complex structure: it detected about 300 substances and ash elements, including carbohydrates, minerals, trace elements, vitamins, enzymes are protein in nature. The basic substances that make up honey, are carbohydrates (42). Honey of all kinds contains glucose and fructose, in most of them, maltose and sucrose, while the content of individual carbohydrates in honey varies in a rather wide limits.
It is established that natural floral honey exhibits antimicrobial properties against 66 species of microorganisms. He mostly stops the growth of gram-positive, gram-positive and spore-forming bacteria, and in some cases completely stops him and kills protozoa.
Honey has a restorative and tonic action on the human body, with the contained nutrients and biologically active compounds effectively exhibit its effect in combination with adaptogenic plants, in particular with lemongrass, with pronounced adaptogenic properties the AMI.
Thus, the action included in the resulting biologically active food additives components mutually reinforced, providing effective rehabilitation and strengthening of the immune system, increase the body's resistance to the action of various damaging factors.
Examples of specific implementation of the method
It crushed the horseradish root (particle size of not more than 2 mm) add distilled water at room temperature and insist for at least 24 hours at room temperature. The aqueous extract is drained using a sieve with openings of 1 mm, and subjecting the resulting extract freeze-drying in the vacuum freeze-drying chamber of periodic action within 48 hours in the temperature range from -30°C to +30°C. Receive a white powder, which is mixed with natural floral honey in the claimed value.
To 400 g of minced horseradish add 1800 ml of distilled water and infused for 24 hours. The resulting aqueous extract is subjected to freeze-drying.
Mix 900 g natural flower honey and 35 g of the obtained freeze-dried aqueous extract of horseradish root. To the resulting mixture with thorough stirring, add oil of lemongrass is based 35 drops per 1000 g of the mixture. Packed in dark glass dish.
To 40 g chopped horseradish root add 2000 ml of distilled water and insist for 36 hours. The resulting aqueous extract is subjected to freeze-drying.
Mix 1100 g natural flower honey and 25 g of the obtained freeze-dried aqueous extract of horseradish root. To the resulting mixture with thorough stirring, add oil of lemongrass is based 45 drops per 1000 g of the mixture. Packed in dark glass dish.
The method of obtaining biologically active food additives, including mixing honey flower and Chinese Magnolia vine, characterized in that the mixture additionally impose the lyophilized powder horseradish root, obtained by freeze-vacuum-dehydration of aqueous extract prepared by maceration in water, chopped horseradish root for at least 24 h at a ratio of T:W=1:(4.5 to 5.0), schisandra chinensis is injected in the form of oil of lemongrass in the amount of 35-45 drops to 1000 g of a mixture comprising, g:
|the lyophilized powder horseradish root||25-35|
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to oncology. Method includes intramuscular introduction of immunomodulating medication reaferon. Optimal starting dose of reaferon is selected individually for each patient. For this purpose method of electroacupuncture diagnostics by R.Voll is used. Testing of information-wave markers of human body temperature 37.5 and 38.0 degrees Celcius and reaferon doses in 1, 2, 3 and more mln UNITS is carried out. Testing is performed separately on control points of measurement of meridians of lymphatic system, nerve degeneration, blood circulation, epithelial and parenchymatous degeneration, allergy, triple heater. After that selected is such dose of reaferon during combined, simultaneous testing of which with information-wave markers of human body temperature 37.5 and 38.0 degrees Celcius, indices of scale of apparatus for electroacupuncture diagnostics by R.Voll equal 50-60 conventional units of measurement.
EFFECT: method improves treatment efficiency due to reduction of side effects and complications.
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutics. A composition contains nanosized silver powder, nanosized aluminium powder and nanosized diamond powder in the following proportions, wt %: nanosized silver powder - 40, aluminium powder -30, nanosized diamond powder -30.
EFFECT: composition shows a combined immunomodulatory and antibacterial effect, low toxicity.
3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and pharmacy, namely film-coated tablets containing sodium nucleinate. Sodium nucleinate represents sodium salt of nucleic acid and refers to immunoregulatory agents.
EFFECT: prepared agent is storage-stable and complies with the Pharmacopoeia requirements.
3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to azabenzofuranyl compounds of formula I and salts thereof, where: Z1 denotes CR1, Z2 denotes N, Z3 denotes CR3, Z4 denotes CR4, R1, R3 and R4 are independently selected from H, halogen, CN, -(CR14R15)nC(=Y)OR11, - (CR14R15)nOR11, C1-C12 alkyl; W denotes or R5 and R6 are independently selected from H or C1-C12 alkyl; X1 is selected from R11, -OR11 and -S(O)2R11; if X1 denotes R11 or -OR11 from X1 and -R5 optionally taken together with a nitrogen atom with which they are bonded form a 4-6-member saturated or unsaturated ring containing 0-2 additional heteroatoms selected from O, S, where said ring is optionally substituted with one or more groups selected from oxo, -(CR19R20)nNR16R17, -(CR19R20)nOR16, (CR19R20)nS(O)2R16 and R21; X is selected from aryl, where said aryl is optionally substituted with one or more groups selected from halogen, CN, -Si(C1-C6alkyl), -(CR19R20)nOR16, -(CR19R20)nSR16, C1-C12alkyl; R11, R12 and R13 independently denote H, C1-C12alkyl, aryl, azetidine, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl; R14 and R15 are independently selected from H or C1-C12 alkyl; n is independently selected from 0, 1; Y independently denotes O; where each of said alkyl, alkenyl, aryl and heteroaryl from R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, X1, X2, R11, R12, R13, R14 and R15 is independently and optionally substituted with one or more groups independently selected from -(CR19R20)nC(=Y')OR16, -(CR19R20)nNR16R17, -(CR19R20)nOR16, -(CR19R20)nNR16C(=Y')R17, -(CR19R20)nNR16C(=Y')OR17, - (CR19R20)nNR17SO2R16 and R21; each R16, R17 independently denotes H, C1-C12 alkyl, C2-C8alkenyl, aryl, or pyridinyl, where said alkyl, alkenyl or aryl is optionally substituted with one or more groups selected from -OH; R19 and R20 are independently selected from H, C1-C12 alkyl; R21 denotes C1-C12 alkyl, aryl, imidazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrrolidinyl, 2-oxo-pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, or 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolanyl; each Y' independently denotes O. The invention also relates to specific compounds, a pharmaceutical composition based on the disclosed compounds, a method of inhibiting anomalous cell growth or a method of treating hyperproliferative disorders, inflammatory diseases and other diseases.
EFFECT: novel azabenzofuranyl derivatives which can be used in treating cancer and inflammatory diseases are obtained.
23 cl, 3 tbl, 34 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pyridine derivatives of formula
wherein A, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 are presented in the description, preparing and using them as pharmaceutically active compounds as immunomodulatory agents.
EFFECT: preparing the pharmaceutical composition showing agonist activity with respect to S1P1/EDG1 receptor and using it for prevention and treatment diseases or disorders associated with activated immune system.
20 cl, 244 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the use of a metal of group 4 or 5 of the periodic system specified in titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium and tantalum, or its oxide for preparing a drug used for treating or preventing a disease characterised by undesired expression and/or release of interferon-γ inducible protein of weight 10 kDa, IP-10 in a subject. The invention also refers to a method of treating or preventing the disease characterised by undesired expression and/or release of interferon-γ inducible protein of weight 10 kDa, IP-10, which implies the extraction of a biological fluid in a subject suffering said disease, the ex vivo contact of the biological fluid and the metal specified in titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium and tantalum, or its oxide, the fluid return after the contact with the metal to the subject stated above. The invention also provides the use of the method stated above or its oxide for the in vitro removal of interferon-γ inducible protein of weight 10 kDa, and a method for removing said protein. The invention also refers to a device for biological fluid purification which comprises a purification chamber with a fluid inlet and outlet and containing metal particles specified in titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium and tantalum, or its oxide, used for biological fluid purification, and a filter coupled with the fluid inlet and outlet to prevent said particles from escaping from the purification chamber.
EFFECT: invention provides the selective decrease of expression and release of chemokine, namely interferon-γ inducible protein of weight 10 kDa, IP-10.
25 cl, 6 tbl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: The invention relates to pharmacology, in particular, to medication for preventing or treating herpes labialis or herpes genitalis. The homeopathic medication or biologically active additive with anti-viral effect or preventing or treating herpes labialis or herpes genitalis contains: Nisylen, Cepa, Euphrasia, Belladonna and Mericulis Solubilis, furthermore, the components are present with a certain dilution and amount. The combination of the said components is used for production of homeopathic medication or biologically active additive with anti-viral effect or preventing or treating herpes labialis or herpes genitalis.
EFFECT: production of medication which effectively treats herpes labialis or herpes genitalis.
14 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the field of medicine, namely to dermatovenerology and immunology and can be used for treatment of patients with sexually transmitted urogenital infections caused by chlamydiae and/or micoplasma. It includes the infusion of antibiotics of macrolides group or immunotropic drug that is selected individually, for which purpose the sensitivity of patient to immunotropic drugs is determined. That is done by in vitro definition of interferons in the samples of peripheral blood and urogenital scrapings before and after addition of each studies drug. As the result the immunotropic drug selected for treatment is the one that induces the increase of interferon activity in studied material by no less than 4 U/ml compared to the baseline level in the samples of peripheral blood and urogenital scrapings.
EFFECT: method provides for etiologic recovery, prevention of disease relapses, particularly due to effective interferons production on systemic and local level.
1 dwg, 4 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention describes novel compounds of general formula in which is or (values of radicals are given in the claim), a method of producing said compounds, a pharmaceutical composition containing said compounds and therapeutic application thereof.
EFFECT: compounds are cysteine protease inhibitors and can be used in medicine.
25 cl, 1 tbl, 41 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, particularly immunology, namely immunocorrection drugs, and can be used as an inducer of a granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming factor in cells of a mononuclear phagocyte system in vitro and for efferent therapy in pathological conditions accompanied by decrease in cell-mediated immunity. The drug represents oxidised dextrane of average molecular weight 35 - 65 kDa. The drug can be presented in the form of a solution or a nanoliposomal emulsion of the concentration of oxidised dextrane 1-5 wt %. The drug is applied by introduction in a cell culture of the mononuclear phagocyte system in an amount containing oxidised dextrane 125-250 mcg per culture medium 1 ml.
EFFECT: drug under the invention exhibits high biocompatibility.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. According to the proposed method production of a powdered ice-forming biological reagent is performed by way of moisture evaporation (under vacuum) from liquid microbial or protein suspension with initial temperature equal to 26°C in flat-bottomed pans with walls 30-50 mm high containing porcelain balls with a 3 -7 mm diameter in a layer up to 50% of the pans walls height. The suspension poured into the pans in a layer height whereof is twice as little as that of the balls layer is divided by the balls into a multitude of small volumes with the pans subsequently covered with unwoven textile. Then follows the drying process during 9.0 - 12.5 hours with continual adjustable vacuumisation, controllable in terms of residual pressure in the chamber at four temporal stages of drying.
EFFECT: method allows to produce the end product in powdered form convenient for application and ensures high stability of the reagent during storage.
5 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. Milled food product (in a 5-70 mm thick layer) is put into a vacuum chamber. A residual pressure (2-3) kPa is built in the vacuum chamber. The product is heated until a temperature is 70-80°C with thermal capacity 9.0-9.5 kW/m2. Vaporised moisture condensation is performed by the evaporator of a refrigerating machine, temperature on the surface minus 25-30°C.
EFFECT: method allows to produce dry food products having high quality properties and reduced drying time along with reduced energy costs.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry. In accordance with the method proposed evaporation of a liquid hydrophobic working medium is performed. The working medium vapours, moving as a result of differential pressure, are heated and passed through a layer of frozen product being dried. This process is performed one or several times, passing heated working medium vapours through, accordingly, one or several layers of frozen product being dried. The produced mixture of water vapours and working medium vapours is passed through one or more desublimators/absorbers where desublimation/absorption of water vapours from the mixture is performed. One performs condensation of working medium vapours and liquid working medium return to the process beginning. The working medium is represented by a low-boiling liquid or an easily liquefied gas. Proposed is a device for the method implementation.
EFFECT: usage of this group of inventions enables drying time reduction and prevention of contact of the product being dried with atmospheric oxygen.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes pouring the preparation into a vessel, its freezing, sublimation and finish drying on the shelves of sublimation plant. Freezing of the preparation is performed at inclined position of vessel axis relatively to vertical line for angle of 45÷75 degrees, and sublimation process is conducted during heating of shelves at the speed of 10÷15°C per hour up to temperature of 30÷35°C.
EFFECT: claimed method makes it possible to accelerate the process of drying with simultaneous reduction of energy flow.
2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: food-processing, microbiological and chemical industry, in particular, removal of liquid or frozen agent from product, more particular, sublimation concentration and drying of frozen solutions or suspensions, sublimation drying of frozen food products, and also concentration or drying of liquid solutions and suspensions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing reaction of product with absorbing solution in vacuumizer by mass exchange through gaseous phase; providing heating of product to be dried using absorption heat of vapors of agent to be removed, said absorption being provided by means of absorbing solution and said heat being transmitted through heat transmitting device or through heat conducting walls which separate product to be dried from absorbing solution. In order to heat said product, heat of condensation vapors of agent removable from absorbing solution during regeneration thereof may be also utilized. Freezing of product and keeping of temperature mode in drying chamber are provided by means of refrigerating unit. Utilization of absorbing solution for creating hydraulic gates in processing pipelines provides for increased pressurization of vacuumizer and reduced loading of vacuum pump.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for sublimation or evaporation of agent to be removed from product by drying procedure.
13 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, processes for preservation of animal food products.
SUBSTANCE: method involves removing about 60-70% of moisture from product to be dried by stepped reduction of pressure accompanied by freezing of product at each stage to minimum temperature corresponding to pressure at the given stage, and heating product between steps by means of working fluid to -5, -4 C; providing holding of product in frozen state at minimum temperature at each stage. Heating of product between stages is carried out with the use of inert gas, such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. Frozen product holding time at minimum temperatures is increased with decrease of pressure at stages.
EFFECT: improved quality of end product.
FIELD: food-processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming basic product by extruding it immediately into sublimation chamber zone with pressure above triple point; providing evaporative freezing of product with pressure below triple point and sublimation drying thereof in superhigh frequency energy field, with following removal through sluice gate; providing additional extrusion of product through coaxial channel peripheral with respect to central channel; introducing product with increased content of dry substance via peripheral coaxial channel for further forming of slightly dried carcass of product; feeding product with low dry substance content via central channel.
EFFECT: improved quality of product and reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry and may be used for food product production. The method envisages mixing of a raw grain component with a dihydroquercetin carrier. The grain component is represented by wheat germy flakes dried at a temperature of 90-100°C during 10-15 minutes, extracted with water in an amount of 1 part of flakes per 10 parts of water at a temperature of 20-30°C during 5-15 minutes. Then the produced extract is separated from the initial raw component by pressing and filtration. Then one introduces into the extract the dihydroquercetin carrier in an amount of 10 g per 10 kg of wheat germy flakes, then one proceeds with stirring and drying of the produced mixture, the product heating temperature equal to 38-40°C.
EFFECT: invention allows to produce an enriched new food product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, membrane-protective, cardio-protective, immunomodulating, disintoxication and antiallergenic properties.
3 cl, 1 ex