Method of tillage
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method involves loosening the soil to a predetermined depth. At that, loosening the soil is carried out by air flows created by the system of perforated pipes laid to a given depth.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of tillage, to reduce energy consumption due to reducing metal consumption and reducing the number of machines for soil treatment.
The present invention relates to agriculture, namely the main treatment of the soil to a predetermined depth.
Widely known method of soil treatment using arable units, including the plough and tractor (khalanski V.M., Gorbachev IV "Agricultural machines". - M.: Colossus, 2005).
The disadvantages of this method are very energy intensive process, considerable intensity, energy intensity, long duration of treatment, and the use of additional tools (harrows, cultivators) for crumbling layers of the soil.
There is also known a method of tillage cutter (khalanski V.M., Gorbachev IV "Agricultural machines". - M.: Colossus, 2005), which prepare the soil for sowing in one pass across the field.
The disadvantage of this method is very energy intensive, the intensity, and hence the cost of tillage.
The objective of the invention is to reduce the number of machines for soil tillage, i.e. to exclude the use of tillage implements, to reduce tillage and ultimately reduce the cost of tillage by reducing the metal and accelerate soil.
This object is achieved in that the soil loosened and mixed air streams (jets), coming out of the pipes with holes laid on the ass is nnow depth all over the field, i.e. compressing the air in the pipe, it is possible to loosen all the field for several minutes or hours depending on the design of the device.
During the growing season, using this method, it is possible to aeration of the soil and subsoil watering and fertilizing the plants with liquid fertilizer.
The invention is illustrated in the drawing.
The drawing schematically shows a device for implementing this method. It consists of the manifold 1 is connected to the compressor 2 or water pump 3. For protection collector 2 is equipped with a safety valve 4. The collector is connected perforated pipe 5 by means of the knee 6, elbows and pipes provided with valves 7 and 8. Holes 9 tubes pointing up and to the side.
On fruit and vegetable station of the Russian state agrarian University - Moscow agricultural Academy named after K.A.Timiryazev., tried this method on crops dining carrot varieties "Nantes". The sowing was carried out on two plots with an area of 100 m2with loamy soil: one prototype, the second control. The control plot was prepared for planting in the traditional way. On the experimental plot at a depth of 30 cm 35 cm increments were stacked perforated pipe with a diameter of 20 mm and was conducted twice tillage before planting and 30 days after sowing. In the results on the experimental plot yield was 20% higher and the roots had a standard form, whereas the control plot received about 30% of the "tail-Enders" roots (roots with 3-5 "tails"), testified to the excessive density of the soil (due to compaction after treatment and the impossibility of loosening the soil under the plants during the growing season), resulting in lower output standard (commodity) roots.
Method of soil treatment, including loosening the soil to a predetermined depth, wherein loosening the soil carried out by the air streams created by a system of perforated pipes laid at a predetermined depth.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a tight tank, a supply pipe with a valve, a pipe with a valve to drain sludge and water remainder from the tank, a water-supply pipe. The water-drain pipe is connected to watering tubes. Watering tubes have water-outlet holes to supply water internally into soil. The tight tank comprises a vacuum and a bleed valves in the upper part and a level indicator on the side wall. Each watering tube is connected by means of a dosing element with an air and water impermeable rod. The lower end of the rod is sharpened. The cylindrical part of the rod is installed in a screen. The dosing element is arranged in the form of a ball with material density of not more than 0.12 t/m3. The ball is installed with the possibility of free displacement in the cylindrical cavity. The cylindrical cavity is pneumatically connected to a source of compressed gas. The source of compressed gas has a check valve, a valve and a pressure gauge.
EFFECT: structure will make it possible to increase crop capacity.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unit of wheel chassis, unit of water supply, control unit, servo drive. On axis of wheel chassis unit there is a disk mounted with inner closed cavity communicated with unit of water supply. Disk is equipped with syringe elements for supply of water inside soil, which are connected to servo drive.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to improve quality of watering due to provision of discrete stepwise supply of water to root system of plants.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, particularly to irrigation of soil and is designed for watering various plants. The method of plant inter-soil pulse discrete watering consists in supply of water inside soil with a syringe element in the process of chassis travelling along surface of soil by means of successive step-by-step in every 0.1-0.15 m embedding a lower end of the syringe element into soil at depth 0.05-0.15 m and pulse sprinkling of 0.1-0.3 sec duration into soil under 0.15-0.2 MPa pressure by discrete portions of 20-100 ml metered according to a watering rate. When a water supply pulse occurs, fissures in soil are locally washed out in the zone of a pulse; fissures are mudded; there is created a discrete moistened zone facilitating successive capillary distribution of moisture in specified volume of soil without gravitation draining.
EFFECT: method of successive step-by-step metered pulse supply of water into soil facilitates discrete soil moistening and uniform and stable development of individual plants with their root system spreading in watered plot area.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural engineering, namely to the soil irrigation systems. The irrigation system comprises at least one irrigation unit containing a shell with perforated holes and connected to the water source and a filler with capillary properties. The irrigation unit is placed unconditionally in respect to the level of the water source; the irrigation unit shell is of a tubular form. Additionally the irrigation system comprises a feeding pipeline connecting the water source with at least one irrigation unit; the feeding pipeline has no perforated holes and is filled by a filler with capillary properties placed so that to contact with the source water.
EFFECT: irrigation system expands the range of water sources used and facilitates its installation in the field.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns agriculture and can be applied in subsoil irrigation in plant cultivation devices. Device includes pipeline with through lengthwise slot with notches distributed irregularly over the slot length. Porous material is inserted by jamming one end into the through slot, and the free end of porous material features lengthwise and/or transverse cuts.
EFFECT: improved subsoil irrigation of plants.
SUBSTANCE: zonal sub-irrigation system comprising main channel or water duct, distribution pipeline, and irrigation pipeline with a plug at the end; zonal moisturisers made of perforated tubes, in the root area, water metering equipment, a fertiliser mixing and dispensing device. The distribution pipeline is equipped with graduated water flow taps. The irrigation pipeline is made of flexible tube pieces successively connecting the moisturisers, and is inclined to the planting row end. Moisturisers are made of open polyethylene tubes with a minimum length of 600 mm, with two branches at a level 200 mm lower than the upper end. Flexible tubes for feeding irrigation water from the water receiver are connected to the branches. The water receiver is installed freely above the planting horizontal and connected to the taps. The moisturisers are perforated at their lower ends, the perforation hole diameter being 2-3 mm.
EFFECT: even irrigation water flow rate and good access to irrigation pipelines for repairs.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, process which may be used in operation of irrigation systems.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding increased amount of water from water source into head part of pipeline to be flushed; providing circulation of water using pump connected through suction branch pipe to end shutter of irrigation pipeline and through discharge branch pipe to its head part; cutting off pump and providing hydraulic shocks within pipeline under flushing process at 3-5 min intervals, with alternating processes of water feeding under pressure and hydraulic shocking lasting during 20-30 min; controlling process effectiveness by state of end water outlets; upon removal of silt therefrom, cutting off irrigation pipeline from head part of pipeline under flushing process and discharging water containing suspended silt particles using pump providing high speed transportation of suspension. Utilizing discharged water for irrigation of lower lands. Method allows deposited slit particles to be removed from water outlets and be further utilized for enrichment of soil with organic substances contained in slit and washed out from water outlets.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation of free-flow irrigation pipelines and avoiding ineffective consumption of water.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, furrow irrigation of root crops.
SUBSTANCE: irrigation pipeline has underground distribution pipeline with branch pipes-water outlets equipped with elastic perforated pipes joined at their entire length with flexible linear spiral member. Connection of perforated pipes with branch pipes-water outlets is made in the form of movable heads provided with spring-loaded two-position valve and projections insertable into spiral slots formed on internal surface of branch pipes-water outlets. Irrigation pipeline of such construction enables free passage of irrigation equipment along furrows during inter-irrigation period.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing complete mechanization of works in supplying of water onto group of furrows and controlling of flow rate along pipeline.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, process used for growing of plants in open ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing moisture-permeable material onto surface around plants, said material being provided with openings for plants and with 0.5-1 cm wide and 10-20 cm long vertical ribbons made from moisture-proof material. During night, water vapors condense on vertical ribbons due to cooling and vaporization. Owing to large condensation surface of soil cover, large amounts of water may be condensed which are necessary for soil moistening.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by using natural water source such as water vapors of atmospheric air for soil moistening, reduced water vaporization from soil surface, and increased yield of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing ferromagnetic markers on field, said markers being preliminarily aligned with part of pipelines of general irrigation pipeline complex; placing pipelines with markers on field in alternation with standard irrigation pipelines at pitch equal to width of agricultural unit; positioning pole pieces of magnetically sensitive detectors rotating in left-hand and right-hand directions at sides of longitudinal vertical plane of tractor between front rotating wheels. Middle pole piece is formed as rod and positioned in horizontal plane transverse to and in symmetry with respect to unit path axis between axles of tractor rear wheels and tillage tools first in the course of advancement of tillage unit.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for driving tractor along tilled crop spacings.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation of damaged soil in conditions of the Far North and may be used when restoring the soil and vegetation layer disturbed by industrial and economic human activities. The method of recultivation of damaged soil is described, including introduction into the ground of bentonite clay, seeds of perennial grasses, fertilisers, humic compounds and binder, and the bentonite clay is inserted as part of the waste mud, followed by stirring the top layer of soil. Then the fertiliser, humic compounds and seeds of perennial grasses are inserted, and then a binder is inserted, which is used as a solution of xanthan gum.
EFFECT: invention provides a more efficient process of recultivation, expansion of the scope of application on the surface of soils with different steepness.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used for sowing cereal crops. The method consists in the fact that sowing of spring and winter crops or perennial grass is carried out with spacing of 12.5 … 20 cm in one band with seeds of one culture, or a mixture of seed crops, by one band or row with seeds of winter crops or perennial grasses, or unsown. Sowing is carried out with width bands of not less than 5 cm and not more than half of the spacing between rows, with a gap between the bands of no mote than 10 cm, or in a row with the spacing between rows of 20…23 cm and with a spacing between bands of 20…30 cm. The device for planting crops contains the capacity for seeding material with two compartments and two shafts with sowing machines, general lead-in devices, openers connected by the seed-pipes. At that on one shaft universal machines for sowing of grain crops and perennial grasses are mounted. The openers are mounted on leashes, pivotally attached to the frame and spring-loaded to the soil. Openers for seeding in the band of width of not more than half of the spacing between rows are set with the spacing of 12.5, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and, respectively, with a bandwidth of 5, 5, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 cm. Openers for sowing in the band can also be set by one through an opener for the row, or narrowband or narrow-row sowing when the spacing between rows 20, 21, 22, 23 cm of bandwidth of at least 10, 12, 13, 14 cm, respectively.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to reduce the debris of fields without herbicides, to accelerate ripening of bread crops, to increase resistance of spikes to drowning, crop yield and grain quality.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used for sowing crops. The method consists in the fact that spring and winter sowing of crops are carried out with spacing of 9…12 cm and 15 … 20 cm respectively with 2 or 3 bands with the seeds of one culture, or a mixture of seed crops, in one or two bands or one or two rigs of seeds of winter crops, or unsown. Sowing is carried out with bands width of no more than half of the aisle, and with an interval of not more than 10 cm between the bands. The device for planting crops contains a box for seeding material with two compartments, and two shafts with sowing machines, general lead-in devices, working bodies connected by the seed-tubes. The working bodies are installed on leashes, pivotally attached to the frame and spring-loaded to the soil. The openers for seeding in the band of width of not more than half of the spacing between rows are set with spacing of 9, 10, 11, 12 with a band of not less than 2 cm, or 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 cm with a band respectively of at least 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 cm. The openers for seeding in the band are grouped respectively for 2 or 3 in 1 or 2 openers for drill seeding.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to reduce the debris of fields without herbicides, to accelerate ripening of bread crops, to increase resistance of spikes to drowning, crop yield and grain quality.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method includes mechanical handling and application of herbicides. In the first half of the steam period pinned and non-pinned mechanical handling is carried out, and in the second period nonselective herbicide such as Roundup are applied, the rate of which increases with the rise of the vegetative mass of weeds. Regulation of nitrogen application is carried out based on the level of applied herbicide dose increase and from its optimal number, where calculated amount for the planned harvest determined by the formula Nf=Ni*C is taken as initial rate of nitrogen where Nf is factual nitrogen application rate, kg / ha, Ni - initial nitrogen application rate, kg / ha B - crop removal of nutrients, kg / ha P - supply of nutrients in the soil, kg / ha, Kn is use of nutrients from the soil, % Cn is current nitrification, %, Np is previous rate of fertiliser, kg / ha, the Kaf - the aftereffect of fertilisers,%; Kf is the use of nutrients from fertiliser,% C - correction factor, units.
EFFECT: way to reduce energy costs for processing steam field, destroy weeds and to optimise nitrogen application for crop.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to crop husbandry and can be used for cultivation of corn. The technical solution is that the herbicide of systemic action shears-turbo in an amount of 50-60 g/ha is dissolved in water, after which the biologic Baykal EM-1 is added into the aqueous solution in the ratio 1:10, and with the corn plantings are treated with the mixture in phase of 5-6 leaves. At that, only aqueous solutions are mixed and sprayed to plantings without delay.
EFFECT: method enables during one agronomic practice to reduce weediness of plantings, to increase yield of corn grain and its quality.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method includes tillage, planting, application of herbicides and their embedding. After herbicide application in the aisle the adsorbing culture of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) is seeded. In the phase of branching the seeding is processed with a mixture of biologics Baykal EM-1 and Baikal EM-5, after which the green mass of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) is buried in the soil as green manure with simultaneous processing the spacings.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the toxicity of soil, increase yields of corn and obtain high-quality, environmentally friendly product.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes presowing treatment of soil, sowing and treatments between rows. At the same time presowing treatment is carried out for the depth of the assumed covering of seeds and is combined with sowing. Seeds are sown into the moist layer of soil onto the compacted bed for depth of 1-2 cm from the field surface level and are filled with loose and warm layer of soil moved from the surface between rows with its simultaneous mixing, forming a soil comb above sown seeds. Besides, height of soil combs is equal to the depth of seed covering specified by agrotechnical requirements reduced by 1-2 cm. Top and sides of the comb are compacted simultaneously with sowing, and soil combs are formed on the field surface in direction from the north to the south. During treatments between rows simultaneously with cutting of weeds and tillage of soil between rows of the cultivated crop, the upper layer of soil is shifted from the surface between rows into protective areas of a row of plants with simultaneous earthing up of crops. Thickness of filled layers of soil makes 2-4 cm and 6-8 cm during the first and second treatments between rows accordingly.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase crop capacity of tilled crops and to improve crop care.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and erosion. The method includes the main treatment of soil and simultaneous formation of strips in the form of links from mixed cut stubble and soil and their laying into furrows across the slope as partially elevated above the soil surface. During the main treatment of soil simultaneously links are arranged equidistantly from each other and serially alternating as blown and non-blown. Non-blown links are formed from mixed cut stubble and soil laid into more than one furrow, depth of which is commensurable with depth of soil treatment, and is arranged with the interval of 200-350 cm from each other. Blown links are represented by stubble strips that are 25-45 cm wide and are cut for the depth of soil treatment and left on the field surface.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase erosion resistance of ploughed field, to increase water reserves in soil and to reduce power inputs of soil treatment process.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agricultural engineering, and in particular to multiple-purpose tillage machines for surface mulching tillage and for elimination of weed seeds. The tool includes a frame, rotary operating elements in the form of knives with the functional surface in the shape of a frustum that are fixed on the rotating hubs with spokes. The frame is made in the form of two pivotally connected lateral sections. Unilateral razors are installed on the front cross arm of the frame in front of the first row of the rotary operating knives along the line of digging. They are designed for the maximum running depth of the working elements. The second section of the frame contains screw spiral seedbed rollers made with right and left spiraling. They are placed in two rows and can be adjusted for height. The diameter of the front seedbed roller is twice larger than of the back one.
EFFECT: improvement of the quality of mulching surface tillage and elimination of the weed seeds.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, grasscropping.
SUBSTANCE: this method includes seeding of legume-grass mixture comprising festulolium, Dutch clover and medick. Seeding is performed in 2 stages. Stage 1: white clover and festulolium are seeded in proportion 1:2 accordingly. Stage 2: Dutch clover is seeded 1.5-2 months before grass vegetation period ends. Dutch clover is seeded in the amount of 20%-30% of white clover and festulolium seeding rate.
EFFECT: increase in productivity of feed mass and useful life of developed grass lands.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.