Vertical shell-and-tube evaporator with overheater

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: in a vertical shell-and-tube evaporator with an overheater, comprising a bundle of inner heat exchange tubes and external tubes installed coaxially with a circular through gap relatively to each other, installed in a cylindrical vessel, having a lower nozzle of heated coolant inlet and an upper nozzle to discharge the latter, as well as upper and lower grids to connect ends of inner tubes and a grid for fixation of external tubes, a cover and a bottom with nozzles for supply and drain of the cooled coolant, the external tubes with their grid are moved upwards from the lower grid by height sufficient to transfer the heated coolant into gaseous condition on the produced open heating surface of the external tubes.

EFFECT: reduced dimensions and weight of a shell-and-tube evaporator.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of anaerobic energy, and more specifically to vozduhonezavisimymi energy installations (PI) - based heat engines or electrochemical generators that use hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen. It can be used in heat exchangers of these power plants and other facilities, which relates to the transfer of heat flows.

The dimensions and weight of the equipment and, in particular, heat exchangers, designed for airindependent EU underwater objects, quite severely limited.

The proposed solution is caused by the necessity to reduce the size of the evaporator oxygen, which on a submerged object is most compactly contained in a liquid state. Evaporation of oxygen can be performed by using the heat of the exhaust gases, the exhaust PI (patent No. 2352876, 28.04.2009). The resulting gaseous oxygen, performing the function of the intermediate fluid between the exhaust gas and gasified with oxygen, is cooled by the medium in the evaporator. In this way, transfer of oxygen from the liquid to the gaseous state requires its temperature at the outlet of the evaporator to increase to 217 To that of at least 100 degrees above its boiling temperature at the pressure of 0.1÷0.8 MPa.

The most simple in constructive is the compared to effect transfer of heat from the gaseous oxygen is gasified shell and tube diametrally tower heat exchanger, diagram of which is shown, for example, in the Handbook of Industrial heat power engineering and heat engineering", book 4. M. Energoatomizdat. 1991. PP 156. Is. This type of heat exchanger placed on the basis of the design of the evaporator oxygen overheating.

Heat exchanger of this type because of the relatively low velocities of flow of heat exchange tubes is characterized by low intensity of the single-phase heat transfer to the coolant, which moves between the pipes. Therefore, differing constructive simplicity, it has a large surface of the pipe and the measurements in the same conditions of heat transfer than, for example, heat exchangers coil type or of type "pipe in pipe".

The tube space of the shell and tube heat exchangers are often used for heated evaporation and condensation of the cooled fluid, the intensity of the flow which practically does not depend on the velocity of the pipe.

In the case of the annulus for the evaporation of the heated fluid, which is passed to the main part of the heat flux, and for his subsequent overheating the surface area of the pipe section with overheating may significantly exceed that at the evaporator section. The necessary surface of the pipe on the overheating area and dimensions of the heat exchanger is generally reduced in the case of intensification of heat transfer to the translated into a gaseous state fluid, which can be accomplished by reducing the cross-section area and increasing the speed peregretogo fluid.

This possibility is realised if to arrange the heat flow to apply coaxial cylindrical tubes that are installed with the annular gap relative to each other. In the annular gap goes peregrevaetsya coolant.

Known shell and tube heat exchangers with coaxial pipes for gas cooling boiling water. In these heat exchangers of coaxial pipes are installed with the aim to create a velocity pressure of the heated fluid, sufficient for removal and ablation of sludge produced from the boiling water, with local areas of intense deposition on internal surfaces. These are shell and tube heat exchangers in patent No. 3715713, 21.07.1988, Germany, patent No. 2145698, 21.04.1998, Russia.

On the main characteristics, which include the vertical alignment of the heat exchanger, the intermediate partitions with a fixed outer tube, the proposed solution is most closely shell-and-tube heat exchanger according to patent No. 2145698, which is taken as a prototype.

In the known heat exchanger, the heated coolant enters through the lower pipe supply in unheated space between the outer pipe, limit the TES at the height of the lower grille of the heat transfer tubes and baffle for mounting external pipes. He further through the gaps between the ends of the outer pipe and the bottom grille of the heat transfer pipe is directed into the annular ring channels. Leaving the annular ring channel on the upper ends of the outer tubes, the heated coolant enters the space between the heat exchange tubes, which height is limited by their upper grille and the wall of the outer tube and in which in the process of boiling is transmitted to the main heat flow.

The magnitude of the axial and circumferential clearances are chosen according to the authors, the conditions for high-pressure, sufficient for removal and ash slurry with the most heated seats docking heat exchanging tubes and lower grilles.

Analysis of thermal-hydraulic processes in the heat exchanger according to patent No. 2145698 showed the following.

- Adopted by the flow diagram of the motion of fluids due to the need for removing and ash sludge achieved by the local velocity head, with the most heated seats docking heat exchange tubes and lower grilles.

- Height from the bottom of the tube to the walls for fastening the outer pipe should be limited to the length of the heat exchange pipes for heating-up fluid to the boiling point. Otherwise, the appearance of bulk boiling of the heated fluid and distributing it at a considerable height is the annular channels will lead to an increase of the hydraulic resistance at the output of these channels and flow pulsations through a separate annular channels with negative consequences for the operational characteristics the heat exchanger.

- On any significant overheating of the steam generated in the evaporation of the heated heat carrier during its movement between the heat exchange tubes to rely unduly due to the low intensity of heat transfer in the system "cooled gas - peregrevaetsya pairs and, as a consequence, due to the large area of heat-release surface and dimensions of the evaporator - superheater in General, which is unacceptable to the placement of the heat exchanger on underwater objects.

The task of the invention is to reduce the dimensions of the shell and tube evaporator with overheating translated into a gaseous state fluid.

This is achieved by the fact that in a vertical shell and tube evaporator with superheater, containing the internal beam of heat exchange tubes and installed coaxially with the ring through the gap relative to each other of the outer pipe, placed in a cylindrical housing having a lower socket input of the heated fluid and the upper connection of the output of the latter, and the upper and lower grilles for fastening the ends of the inner tubes and bars for fastening the outer pipe, the cover and bottom with connections for inlet and outlet of the cooled fluid, the outer tube together with the lattice moved up from the bottom of the grill on high, DOS is enough to transfer the heated fluid formed open heating the surface of the inner pipe in a gaseous state. Thus the value mentioned annular ring gap Δ=0,5·(DNR-dn) for the passage translated in gaseous state fluid has a value determined from the relationship:

,

where: DnDNR- outer and inner diameters respectively of the outer tube; dn- the outer diameter of the inner pipe; C=1,9÷3,1 - factor defined by the technology of mounting the outer pipe in the lattice; Kω>C is the ratio of the velocity of the fluid in the annular gap at the lower ends of the outer tubes to the velocity of the gaseous coolant in the cross section between the inner pipe.

To ensure evaporation of the heated coolant on the outside surface of heat exchanger tubes in the volume between the tubes of the outer tube together with the lattice is moved upward relative to the lower grille. The distance of the lower ends of the outer tube from the bottom of the lattice heat exchanging tubes, which defines the height of the surface evaporation, should be sufficient to transfer the heated fluid into a gaseous state.

The amount of heating surface tubes for evaporating and superheating sections depends on the temperature and pressure of the heated fluid, its thermophysical properties. For coolant various design shall rsnake boundary surface of the pipes between the said sections, different views of convective heat transfer, not detected.

Possible overheating of the gasified fluid into the volume between the heat exchange tubes is negligible due to the relatively low heat transfer to a gas (steam) at the speed of its movement through the cross-section between the pipes.

Annular ring gap Δ for a given outer diameter of the inner tube dndetermined by the internal diameter of the outer tube DNR. The value of the last to increase the speed of the heated fluid being transferred into the gaseous state, in Kω21time is as follows.

The cross-section passing through the lower ends of the outer pipes, the volume flow of the heated fluid being transferred into the gaseous state, is characterized by the equation:

ω1·f12·f2or f1=f2·Kω.

- the cross-sectional area between the heat exchange tubes of the bundle of N tubes, placed in the cylindrical housing (below the ratio for Dtoand t are contained in the Handbook of Industrial heat power engineering and heat engineering". Book 4. M, Energoatomizdat. 1991. PP 156, 157).

the inner diameter of the heat exchanger.

The step of placing the outer tubes in my tube is ESADE is equal to t=(1,3÷1,6)D nwhen the flare, and t=1,25Dnduring the welding process.

After replacing the value for f1diameter Dtoaccording to its expression through the Dnget:.

- the area of the annular gap annular channel for the passage peregretogo fluid.

After replacing equal to the volumetric flow of the heated coolant squares f1and f2their expressions through the diameters of DnDNRdnand the reduction of both parts of the equality multiplier of 0.25·π·N is the ratio:

or

The resulting value has the technical meaning when Kω>c.

Taking Dn=DNRis determined in a first approximation, the inner diameter of the outer pipe

Given that the outer pipe is unloaded pressure, its outer diameter Dnand the thickness δ are chosen accordingfrom a number of standard pipe sizes. Thus clarifies the annular gap Δ=0,5·(DNR-dnand the magnification rate of the heated fluidwhen changing the volume between the heat exchange tubes in the annular annular channels.

The invention is illustrated by the figure, where performance is established with representation from structural diagram of a vertical shell-and-tube evaporator with superheater.

Vertical shell and tube evaporator with the superheater has a body 1 inside the inner tube 2 and outer tube 3.

The upper ends of the inner pipe is fixed in the upper grating 4, and their lower ends at the lower grate 5. The upper ends of the outer pipe 3 is fixed in its lattice 6 and their lower ends are free. Annular annular channels 7 formed by the outer heating surface of the inner pipe 2 and the inner surface of the outer pipes 3 and connect the space 8 between the heat exchanger tubes 2 with camera collection 9 superheated fluid from the annular gap on the upper ends of the outer pipe 3. Gathering chamber 9 formed by the upper bars 4 of the heat transfer tubes 2, the bars 6 for fastening the outer pipe 3 and a part of the body 1 with the upper socket 10 o superheated fluid. The nozzle 11 is used to enter the heated fluid into the space 8 between the inner pipe 2.

The cover 12 of the heat exchanger with a pipe 13 for supplying a cooling fluid and an upper grating 4 of the heat transfer tubes 2 form a reservoir 14 for the distribution of the sum of coolant through heat exchange tubes 2. The bottom 15 of the heat exchanger with paroubekom 16 for removal of the cooled fluid and lower grille 5 of heat exchanger tubes 2 form a reservoir 17 for collecting the cooled coolant from the exchanger is built of the pipe 2.

Heat exchanger operates as follows.

The heated coolant in the liquid state is injected through the nozzle 11 into the space 8 between the heat exchanger tubes 2, where he doreverse to the boiling temperature and is converted into a gaseous state. Gasified coolant with a temperature close to the boiling point, through the annular gap at the lower ends of the outer pipe 3 enters the annular annular channels 7. In this case a reduction of the cross-section area causes a corresponding increase in the rate of gasified coolant and, consequently, increase the intensity of heat transfer in the process of overheating during its movement on the annular ring channel 7. Of these channels is heated by the coolant in the gaseous state with an achieved temperature of the overheating goes to the gathering chamber 9 and then discharged through the outlet 10 of the heat exchanger.

The cooled coolant is directed through the supply pipe 13 in the cover 12 of the heat exchanger in the collector 14 distribution of heat transfer pipes 2, thereby providing heat transfer in the process of overheating translated into a gaseous state fluid at the maximum possible temperature difference between the cooled and peregretogo single-phase heat transfer fluids.

Transferring heat at the site of evaporation heated by the first fluid, the cooled coolant from the heat exchanger pipe 2 flows into a collecting reservoir 17 and is discharged through pipe 16 on the bottom 15.

The effectiveness of the proposed technical solutions to reduce surface heat exchange tubes was tested by calculating the heat transfer process in the evaporator oxygen overheating up to 217 K at a pressure of 0.8 MPa. Hydraulic transmission parameters of the heat flow from the cooled gaseous oxygen to evaporated and peregrimovma was determined by the operating conditions of the exhaust gases from vozduhonezavisimymi PI (patent No. 2352876, 28.04.2009). In particular consumption peregretogo oxygen 9 times less than the flow rate of the cooled oxygen, the rate of which in accordance with the recommendation given in the book Laakulu and other "Calculation of cryogenic systems", L. "engineering". 1979. str, was limited to the value of 5 m/S.

Heat flow between areas of evaporation and overheating is distributed in the ratio of 7:3. At the same time without the use of external pipe surface area of heat exchange tubes at the site overheating gasified oxygen was 3 times higher than the evaporation section. Install the outer pipe covering of heat exchange tubes at the site with overheating of oxygen will reduce the surface area (or height) of the heat exchange tubes to overheat the positive area 2 times, and the total for both sites in 1.6 times. When this hydraulic resistance to the passage peregretogo oxygen was determined at ΔP=0,005 MPa.

Possible additional funds for the enhancement of heat transfer in the annular channels in does not count.

Vertical shell and tube evaporator with superheater, containing the internal beam of heat exchange tubes and installed coaxially with the ring through a gap relative to each other of the outer pipe, placed in a cylindrical housing having a lower socket input of the heated fluid and the upper connection of the output of the latter, and the upper and lower grilles for fastening the ends of the inner tubes and bars for fastening the outer pipe, the cylindrical housing has a cover and a bottom branch pipes for supplying and discharging cooling fluid, characterized in that the outer tube together with the lattice moved up from the bottom of the lattice to a height sufficient to transfer the heated fluid educated open heating the surface of the inner pipe in a gaseous state, thus the value mentioned annular ring gap Δ=0,5·(DNR-dn) for the passage translated in gaseous state fluid has a value determined from the relation:
,
g is e D nDNR- outer and inner diameters respectively of the outer tube; dn- the outer diameter of the inner pipe; C=1,9-3,1 - factor defined by the technology of mounting the outer pipe in the lattice;ω>is the ratio of the velocity of the fluid in the annular gap at the lower ends of the outer tubes to the velocity of the gaseous coolant in the cross section between the inner pipe.



 

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