Biodegradable composition based on polyethylene and natural wood processing products

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a biodegradable thermoplastic composition. The composition contains polyethylene, wood flour and functional additives, such as concrete stone, polyvinyl alcohol, a compatibilising agent and nanoparticles. The compatibilising agent is primarily an ethylene and vinyl acetate copolymer and the nanoparticles are chemically deposited iron hydroxide or calcium sulphate nanoparticles.

EFFECT: use of cheap and readily available wood mechanical processing wastes, with high concentration thereof, as biodegradable material in the disclosed composition allows for normal use of articles in ordinary conditions, as well as the given rate of biodegradation in disposal conditions after use; wherein polyethylene in the composition can be used in form of manufacturing and/or household wastes.

3 cl, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the production of polymer compositions containing as the basis polyethylene or propylene, as a filler, an organic material of plant origin, as well as various functional additives. Compositions intended for the production of biologically decomposable products for various purposes, such as films, termoformovannyh products, using traditional techniques and equipment.

Known biologically erodible thermoplastic composition made from industrial and domestic waste polyethylene as the polymer base, sugar beet pulp as a biodegradable filler and bentonite as a functional additive (application EN 2008138385, IPC C08L 30/00, C08J 3/02, publ. 10.04.2010,). The components in the composition are contained in the following ratio, wt.%: waste polyethylene - 89-60, beet pulp - 10-30, bentonite - 1-10. The bentonite in this composition is used as a dispersant, to facilitate the distribution of components in a polymer matrix.

The disadvantages of the method include the high viscosity of the molten composition in the operating mode of its processing, as well as high flow polymer.

Closest to the technical essence and the purpose of the composition to the composition in the present invention is a composition comprising as a base which you industrial and/or household waste polyethylene, as a biodegradable filler - rice husk, its main components are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, as well as the functional additive is titanium dioxide and the oligomeric dye (RU 2363711, IPC C08L 23/06, C08L 97/02, C08L 3/00, C08J 11/04, publ. 10.08.2009 year). The ratio of the components in the composition, in wt.%: waste polyethylene 67-76 (in Russian), 5, rice husk 20-30, titanium dioxide 0.5 to 1, oligomeric dye 1-2. Titanium dioxide is introduced into the composition to reduce its light fastness and, accordingly, to reduce the period of biodegradation of the material.

The disadvantages of this arrangement should be attributed to its low moisture absorption, low modulus of elasticity derived from it products, and high consumption of polymer.

New positive properties of the proposed compositions are higher water absorption and, consequently, a higher process speed of biodegradation, use as biodegradable material is inexpensive and available waste mechanical treatment of wood, a high concentration of biodegradable filler in the composition and, accordingly, in the products while maintaining acceptable mechanical properties.

The above results are achieved by the fact that in biodegradable compositions based on polyethylene and natural products processing of timber, containing polymer, lignocellulosic m is a material predetermined as a biodegradable filler, functional additives according to the invention as a lignocellulosic material use of wood flour as well as functional additives, bentonite, crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol, compatibilization and nano-sized particles of inorganic material in the following ratio of components in the composition, in parts by weight:

polyethylene100
wood flour70
bentonite6
crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol3
compatibilization12
nanoscale inorganic particles4

As compatibilizer use a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, as well as nanoscale inorganic particles precipitated iron hydroxide or calcium sulfate.

The purpose of the following functional additives. When contact is made from the compositions of the products with water she microscopic defects in the matrix polymer penetrates deep into the material to the surfaces of all particles, resulting in a gradual swelling able to this the components. When bentonite swell the volume of its particles increases 2-3 times, particles of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - 10-12 times. Due during the swelling of the particles local stresses in polymer formation of new defects, contributing to more rapid and deep penetration into the volume of material, water, air, microorganisms. Thus the conditions for biodegradation of wood particles and, accordingly, the mechanical destruction of the material as a whole. Under certain conditions, particles of bentonite play the role of "coupe" water for PVA particles. In addition, the bentonite has good dispersing properties.

Compatibilization, which is used as a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate, are well combined in the melt with polyethylene and has a good adhesion to wood material. Therefore, the additive of this compatibilizer reinforce the polymer composition as a whole.

Nanoscale inorganic particles uniformly distributed in the polymer matrix, also increase its mechanical strength. This gives you the opportunity to add to the composition a greater amount of biodegradable wood flour without reducing the mechanical properties of products below an acceptable level and thereby ensure a more rapid destruction of the product in conditions arising, for example, in the disposal of used products is second on the polygons.

The ratio of mass fractions of components in the proposed composition and, primarily, between the shares of polymeric bases and biodegradable material selected within that create a heterogeneous system with valid values its viscosity at the operating temperature range of the melt and, consequently, the use of conventional technologies and equipment - mixers, extruders, injection molding machines for mixing and receipt of these products.

When determining the upper limit of the proportion of wood flour and the optimal consumption of functional additives considered valid technical specifications of the products to ensure the normal operation in normal conditions and at a given speed birthrate in terms of disposal after use.

At all stages of the process, including the preparation of raw materials and other components of the compositions, the preparation of intermediate products, final products, process control and measuring technical characteristics of the products is done using known techniques and equipment and subject to the requirements of the relevant Standards.

In the manufacture of compositions and products according to the examples use low-density polyethylene (LDPE), a copolymer of ethylene with vinyl acetate, wood throes of the faction 140-200 μm (Example 1) and less than 140 μm (Example 2), bentonite and PVA with a particle size less than 140 μm, calcium sulfate (Example 1), iron hydroxide (Example 2). The mixture of components is prepared in the mixer type "Brabander" within 10 minutes at a temperature of 140°C. the resulting mixture was cooled and crushed in the crushing device. From shredded using a press at a temperature of 140°C and a pressure of 60 kgf/cm2within 4 minutes to get a plate thickness of 1000 μm (Example 1), and the extruder with a slot die at a temperature of 170°C receive a film thickness of 200 microns.

For comparison, in the same conditions, get a plate thickness of 1000 μm of the composition of the prototype. Use fraction crushed in attrition mill rice husk 140-200 μm (Example 3).

The table shows the indicators of technological, mechanical and operational properties of the compositions and products made of them.

Table
Indicators of technological, mechanical and operational properties of the compositions and products made of them
no examplesThe melt flow index (MFR)The modulus of elasticityMoisture absorption on the air 24 hours Microbiological stability
Weight loss for 15 weeksScoring
g/10 minMPa%%
11,6 (140°C)28211124
23,4 (170°C)29110124
3 (prototype)3,9 (140°C)180682

The manufacture of compositions and products on an industrial scale is carried out in the same manner as in the examples, using appropriate equipment performance. As the main raw material, it is preferable to recycle industrial and/or household waste polyethylene.

1. Biodegradable composition based on polyethylene and natural products processing of timber, containing polymer, lignocellulosic mother is l as a biodegradable filler, functional additives, characterized in that as a lignocellulosic material use of wood flour as well as functional additives, bentonite, crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol, compatibilization and nano-sized particles of inorganic material in the following ratio of components in the composition, parts by weight:

polyethylene100
wood flour70
bentonite6
crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol3
compatibilization12
nanoscale inorganic particles4

2. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that as compatibilizer use a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate.

3. The composition according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that as nanoscale inorganic particles used chemically precipitated iron hydroxide or calcium sulfate.



 

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SUBSTANCE: rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based wood-polymer composition contains a complex stabiliser, an impact strength modifier, wood flour and silicon sol as a binding agent, with the following ratio of components, pts.wt: polyvinyl chloride 100, impact strength modifier 4.8-9, complex heat stabiliser 4.5-7, wood flour 10-160, silicon sol 2-4.

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23 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex

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22 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 9 ex

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11 cl, 10 tbl, 31 ex

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20 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

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33 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 3 ex

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26 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

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39 cl, 4 dwg, 4 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: described is a method of obtaining an ethylene and alpha-olefin copolymer, where the method involves: bringing ethylene and at least one alpha-olefin into contact with a metallocene catalyst in at least one gas-phase reactor with pressure in the reactor ranging from 0.7 to 70 bars and at temperature in the reactor ranging from 20°C to 150°C, to obtain an ethylene and alpha-olefin copolymer during polymerisation, where the ethylene and alpha-olefin copolymer satisfies the following conditions: density equal to or greater than 0.927 g/cm3, melt flow index (I2) from 1 dg/min to 200 dg/min, (I21/I2) ratio from 15 to 40, molecular weight distribution Mw/Mn 2-4, ESCR of 500 hours or more if measurement is carried out in accordance with ASTM 1693/B in 10% Igepal solution, T75-T25 equal to or greater than 4, where T25 is temperature at which 25% eluted polymer is obtained, and T75 is temperature at which 75% eluted polymer is obtained, in an experiment with temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) and F80 equal to or greater than 10%, where F80 is a polymer fraction which elutes below 80°C, where the metallocene catalyst is selected from a group consisting of: bis(n-propylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, bis(n-butylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, bis(n-pentylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, (n-propylcyclopentadienyl)(n-butylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, bis[(2-trimethylsilylethyl)cyclopentadienyl]hafnium Xn, bis(trimethylsilylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, dimethylsilylbis (n-propylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, dimethylsilylbis(n-butylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, bis(1-n-propyl-2-methylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn, (n-propylcyclopentadienyl)(1-n-propyl-3-n-butylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium Xn; and where Xn is selected from a group consisting of halogen ions, hydrides, C1-12 alkyls, C2-12 alkenyls, C6-12 aryls, C7-20 alkylaryls, C1-12 alkoxy groups, C6-16 aryloxy groups, C7-18 alkylaryloxy groups, C1-12 fluoroalkyls, C6-12 fluoroaryls, and C1-12 heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons and substituted derivatives thereof. Described also is an ethylene and alpha-olefin copolymer, a composition containing said copolymer and an article obtained via rotational moulding, containing said composition.

EFFECT: obtaining an ethylene and alpha-olefin copolymer, having wide orthogonal distribution and high resistance to environmental stress cracking.

11 cl, 7 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: compositions are meant for making articles with high level of frost resistance and fire resistance - sealants, electric wire holders, cuffs, components of pneumatic, vacuum and hydraulic systems used in different industries. The thermoplastic elastomeric composition contains the following, wt %: fluoropolymer based on vinylidene fluoride - copolymer or mixture of copolymers with fluorine content of 50-70% - 57-70, thermoplastic polyurethane based on ester, 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol - 24-35 and a copolymer of vinylacetate and polyethylene - the rest. The composition can additionally contain target additives - wollastonite, tetrafluoroethylene in amount of 1-5 wt %.

EFFECT: invention improves processing and elastic properties of the composition, fire resistance and frost resistance.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a processing additive for extrusion of polyolefins or thermoplastic resins. The composition contains at least one fluoropolymer (A), at least one inter-phase agent (B) and at least one stabiliser (C). The invention also relates to an extrusion method, which involves: (i) bringing the composition in solid state, as described above in any of claims 1-13, into contact with polyolefin or thermoplastic resin and (ii) extrusion of the mixture obtained at step (i) to obtain a film, pipe, relief or hollow body.

EFFECT: additive reduces or eliminates extrusion defects without reducing the yellowing index of the resin subjected to extrusion.

14 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: composition includes basic resin containing (A) first ethylene homo- or copolymer fraction and (b) second ethylene homo- or copolymer fraction. Also, fraction (A) has flow rate of melt MFR2 within the range from 300 to 600 g/10 min and lower average molecular weight, than fraction (B). Basic resin has density within the range from 0.945 to 0.949 kg/cm3, flow rate of melt MFR5 within the range from 0.2 to 0.4 g/10 min, contents of alpha-olefine co-monomer 2.0-6.0 wt % and index of reduction of viscosity at shear SRV (2.7/210) within the range from 66 to 90.

EFFECT: manufactured pipes and additional items for pipes have good balance of processability, impact resilience, modulus of elasticity, resistance to rapid growth of cracks and values of calculated stress.

15 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical and food industry, particularly to production of biodegradable plastic materials and can be used to make moulded or film articles for various purposes, including food purposes. The polymer composition for moulding biodegradable articles from molten mass contains polyolefins, biodegradable filler - starch and a process additive, which is a protein phosphatide concentrate (or fuzz) - a by-product of production of unrefined sunflower or rapeseed oil.

EFFECT: obtaining a polymer composition which can decompose under the effect of environmental factors and can be digested by microorganisms, having good biodegradation properties, and also capable of reducing the cost of the product and power consumption during production.

2 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

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